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The penny cyclopaedia 
[ed, by G. Long], 


j diffusion of usc^ 






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Priee Seven Shillingt and Sisjience, hound tn cloih. 

^ ^ ^ ' '^ • '^^ Digitized byGoOgle 


CUinMM-Tho RiKbt Hoo. LORD BROUUIIAM, F.R.Sn Member orthe JKatiooal Ittitituleor Pi 
rtO0-aatnM»-The Right Hoo. EAHL SPBNCBR. 
rreomiwJOUN WOOD. Esq. 

Wttliam Allea,£«q.. P.R. Aod R.A.8. 

Captaio Beaurort, R.N., F.R. aiid R.A.8. 

George Riirroirs, M.D. 

Peter StaATord Carey. P.iiq.. A.M. 

The Right Hoa. Lord CoDgletoo. 

John Coaolly, M.D. 

William CouUon, R»q. 

R. l). CraiK. E»q. 

The Right R^r. the Bi8hopof St David*s, D.D. 

J. P. UaTls, Esq., P.R.S. 

H. T. Deia Beche. EBq., P.R.S. 

The Right Hon. Lord Uenman. 

Samuet Duckirorth, Bsq. 

rhe Rlght ReT. the Bishop ot Durham, O.D. 

Sir Henry Ellls. Prln. Llh. Brlt. Miu. 

T. P. Rlils. Ksq.. A.M., F.R.A.S. 

John Rlllotson,M.D.. K.R.8. 

The Right Uon. George Evaas. 

Thomat Palcoiier, £sq. 

Slr 1. I^ Goldsmid, Bart.. P.R. and R.A.8. 

Prancia Henry Goldsmld, Bsq. 

B. Gomperts, Esq., P.K. and R.A.S. 

J. T. Graves. Esq., A.M.. P.R.S. 

O. B. Greenough. Esq.. F.R. and L.S. 

Sir Edmand Head. Bart,, A.M. 

M. D. Hiit, Esq.. Q.C. 

Rowland Hill, Rsq., P.R.A.S. 

Right Hon. 3ir J. C. Hobhouse, Bart., M.P. 

TliOB. Hodgliin. M.D. 

DsTid Jardlne,.Esq., A.M. 

Henry B. Ker, £sq. 

Thomas Hewett Kej, E8q., A.M. 

Sir Chartes Lemun, Mrt. 

George C. Lewis, Esq., A.M. 

Thomas Heary Lister. Esq. 

James Loch, £aq., M.P., P.G.S. 

George Long, Esq., A.M, 

H. Matden, Bsq., A.M. 

A. T. Malkin, Esq.. A.M. 

Mr. Sergeaut Manning. 

R. I. Murchison, Rsq.. P.R.S.. P.tJ.M. 

Ttie Right Hon. Lord Nugeut. 

W. S. 0*Bnen. Bs^h M.P. 

Rlchard Quain. Esq. 

P. M. Roge^ M.D. Sec. R.S., P.R.A.S. 

R. W. Rothman. Esq.. A.M. 

Sir MarUn Areher Sliee, P.R.A , P.R.S. 

Sir George T. Staunton, Bait., M.P. 

John Taylor. Esq. P.U.S. 

A. T. lliomson. M.D. K.L.S. 

Thomas Yardon. Esq. 

Jas. Waliter. Eso., P.R.S., Pr. liist..Ci^. Kiu 

H. WaTmonth, E«q. 

Thos. Webster. Esq., A.M. 

Right Hon. Lord Wroitesley. A.M., F.R.A..S. 

J. A. Yatea» Esq. 

AUon, Stafvrdthtre^R»T. J. P. Jonee. 
4fnf/M«a— Rev. F.. Wllllama. 

Rev. \V. Johnson. 

— Mtllcr, Ksq. 
Bturtutnple. Benerart, Esq. 

Wllltam Gribble. Esq. 
Bel/att— Jas L. Drummond, M.D. 
0irmiay/ium— Paat Moon James, Eaq., Trso- 

0rMptfrf— James Wllllams, Esq. 
tf ris«o/— J.N.Sanders, Esq., P.O.S. CAatrmon. 

J. Reynolds, Esq., rreaiarer. 

J. B. Esttln, Esq., F.L.S., Seeretarp, 
6*a/eHtfa— James Youog. Esq. 

C, H. Cameroa. Baq. 
CaM6ri(fjre— ReT.Leonard Jenyns, M.A.,F.L.3. 

ReT, John Lodge, M.A. 

ReT. Pror. Sedgwick. M.A., P.R.S. & G.8. 
C'aaf«rfcMry— John Brent. Bsq., Aiderman. 

Wllliam Masters. Esq. 
CttrUtte—ThomB» Barnee, Af.D., P.R.S.B. 
CariMirmm— R. A. Poole, Esq. 

Wllltam Roberts, Esq. 
CAM^er— Henry Potu, Riiq. 
Vhtehetter-^C. C. Dendy. Ksq. 
C^dkcnaoMM— ReT. J. Whitrldge. 
Coi^ii— John Crawrord, Esq. 

Plato Petrtdet 
Coe«n/r]r— C. Bray, Esq. 
Oenbigk^-ThnmM RTans. Esq. 
D«rby— Joeeph Strutt, Esq. 

Edward Striitt, RRq., M.P. 
Devor»port and 5^oneAoiM«— Joha Colc, Emi. 

John Normaii, Kaq. 

Lt.Cot. C. Hamitton Smlth, P.R.S. 
Ourham^Tht VtTj Rot. tbe Dean. 

EdtnbarghS\r C. Belt, F.R.S.L. ar.l R. 
J.8. Tra " 

, Trailt, M.D. 


.E<niria— Joalah Wedgwood, E8q. 
Egeter^J. Tyrrell, Esq. 

John Mltrord, Eso. (Coaoer.) 
0/wnor^aa«/i<r«— Dr. Malkio, Cowbrldge. 

W. Wliilams, Esq., Aberpergwm. 
aiaegow—K. Plniay, Kaq. 

Alesander McGrlgor, £sq 

James Conper, Em. 

A. J. D. D'Orsey. Esq. 
^uenuey^P. C. Lukts, E^q. 
Hitcham, ^k^A— Rot. Piufessur Henslow, 

M.A.. F.L.S. &0.S. 
HtUl-Jta. Bowden, Ks^. 
Leeds—J. Marthall, EBq. 
Lewet^J. W, Wootlgar, Eaq. 

Henry Browne. Bso. 
I.imirpool Loe. At. — J. Mulleneux, EBq, 

RcT. Wm. Shepherd, L.L.D. 
ITatiienAeail— R. Goolden, Esq., F.L.S. 
Jlairictoiw—Clemeot T. Smyth, Esq. 

John Caae, Esq. 
JlfaneA«si«r Loe, At.—G. W. Wood. Esq.. 
M.P.. CA. 

Sir Benjamin Heywood, BL, Treoitirer. 

Sir Georse Philipa, Bart., M.P. 

T. N. Winstanley, Ks^., Hon. See. 
Merthyr TyM— Sir J. J. Guest. Bart., M.P. 
3/t»cAibiAamp<oii— John G. Ball, Esq. 
\'«aiA— Joho Rowiand, Eaq. 
Newetutte — ReT. W. Turner. 

T. Sopwith, E«q., P.G.S. 
Kewport, Itle o/ Wight—Ab. Ctarke, Esq. 

T. Cooke, Jun., Esq. 

R. G. Kirkpatrlck, Esq. 
Newport PagneU—J. Mitlar. Esq. 
iVorwicA^RIchard Bacon. Esq. 

Wm. Porsten Rsq. 
Orteit, Ai«x— Curbett. M.D. 


ReT. Baden Powetl. SaT. Pof. 

RcT. Johu Jordan, B.A. 
P«s/A, Himgary — Count Ssechenyl. 
Plymouth—n. Woollcombe. E»|.. P A.S.. C. 

Wm. Snow Harris. Esq., P.R.S. 

E^Moore, M.l>., F.L.S.,6'«cr0Mry. 

G. Wlgtitwick, £sq. 

Dr. Traili. 
/'r«f<eian— Rt. Hon.Sir H. Brydaes. Uarl. 

A. W. DaTis, M.U. 
Aipon— RcT. H.P.Hamllton,M.A..F.It.».,(:.S 

R«T. P. Kwart. M.A. 
AttMio— RcT. the Warden or 

Humphreys Jones. Ra^. 
ffy<f«, /. ot' fright—S\T Rd. Simeoa . Mi. 
SalittMoy^ Rct. J.. Barfl tt. 
ShefieUi—.i. H. AbrahMm, Ei*q. 
Shcpton Mallet — G. F. Burrouglis, Esq. 
.SAr«MwAicry— R. A. Slaney, KBq. 
South PethertOH—John Nicholetu, Rsq. 
Stoekport — H Marsiand, Rsq., Tk^eruMrcr. 

Henry Coppock, Esq., Seeretnrp. 
Sydney.New S.Wai»t—V9.lA. Manning. V.9i\ 
StMmsea— Matthew Moggrldge. Esq. 
TiieistocA— ReT. W.RTMna 

John Ruodle. Rsq , M.P. 
Truru — Heory Sewell SLokes. Ksq. 
Tunoridge ir«i(a— Yeats, M.U. 
r(/o«e<«r— Robert Blurton. Esq. 
Fir^ia. U. S.— Proliesaor Tueker. 
IForc«4/«r— Chaa. Hastlnge, M.l>. 

C. H. Hebb. E8q. 
IFre«Aam — Thomiui Edgwortli, Ksq. 

Major Sir Wllliam I.ioyd. 
Jarmouth—C. E. Rumbold, Kaij. 

DawBon Turner, Eaq 
For*— ReT. J. Kenrick, M.A. 

Joha PhilllpB, Eaq., F.R.S., P.G.S. 

THOMAS COATES, EBq./ Stcretary, No. 59. Lincoln';) Inu Pields. 

liOBdoat Printed by Wiluam Ciiuwss amt Soirs, Stamrurd S(R«t. 

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S 1 G 

SIGCNIO CA'ROLO waa born at Modena, about the 
jear 1520. He was a pupil of Pranciscus Portus, wlio 
taaght him Greek. He aiterwards sludied medicine and 
philosopliy at Bologna, and he also visited the university of 
Pavia. In 1546 he was invited back to Modena to fill the 
ehair of Greek literature, which had become vacant by the 
departure of Portus. In 1552 he accepted the chair of 
belles-lettres at Yenice, where he became acquainted with 
PanviDio, who, like himself, was a diligent student of anti- 
qaity. His reputation having become widely spread by 
vuious works on classical antiquity, he had invitation8 both 
to Rome and Padua, at which latter place he accepted the 
cbkir of cloquence in 1560. At Padua he aeain met with 
Robortelb, wiih wbom he had already had a dispute on the 
names of the Romans, and the disputes between these two 
leboUrs, bein^ renewed, were carried to such a pitch that the 
seuate of Yenice found it prudent to silence the combatants. 


Sigonio left Padua in the year 1563 for a place in 
tbe umversity of Bologna, where he received a handsome 
sitlary, and was made a citizen. His reputation attracted 
' nameroas students to Bologna* Roman antiquity was his 
speeial subject, and his instruction was characterised both 
by comprehensiveness and accuracy. He also occupied 
htm4e]f with middleage history, and with this object he 
visited tbe great libraries and collections of Italy. It was at 
therequest of Pope Gregory XIII., in 1578, that he com- 
menced the ecclesiastical history, of which his friend Pan- 
Tinio had fonned the plan. Sigonio having discovered some 
fragments of Cicero*s treatise * De Consolatione,' undertook 
to reslore the work, which he completed and published as a 
genuine work of Cicero. The fraud was delected and ex- 
posed by Riccoboni, one of his pupiU; but Sigonio, instead 
of confes8ing the fact, endeavoured to reply to the argu- 
ments of his opponent ; and so well has he succeeded in 
imitating the expression and manner of Cicero, that the work 
*I>e Consolatione' long passed for genuine, notwithstandin^ 
the eriticism of Riccoboni ; and Tiraboschi, who maintained 
this side of the question, was only convinced by seeing some 
unpublished letters of Sigonio, in which he acknowledges 
I himself to be the author. Sigonio retired to the neighbour- 
j hood of Modena, wbere he died in 1584. His numerous 
! xritings were collected by Argellati, Milan, 1732-1737, in 
6 Yols. folio, to which is prefixed a Life by Muratori. All 
his works on matters of antiauity are also contained iq the 
'Thesaurus Antiquitatum (jri-secarum et Roinanarum* of 
6raevius and Gronovius. 

The following, which are among the principal works of 
Sigonio, will indicate the general characler of his labours: 
' R(^um, Consulum, Dictatorum ac Censorum Romano- 
nim Fasti, una cum Aclis Triumphorum 'A Romulo rege 
usque ad Tiberium CeDsarem ; in fastos et acta triumphorum 
esplicationes,' Modena. 1550, fol. : there is also asecond 
edition of this work. Venice, 1550; * De Antiquo Jure 
CiviumRoraanorum Libri Duo ; de Antiquo Jureltaliae Libri 
Tres; de Antiouo Jure Provinciarum Libri Tres,' Yenice, 
P. C, No. 1359. 

S I K 

1560, fol. ; ' De Ropublica AtbenienRlum Libri Quinque ; de 
Atheniensium et LacedeemoniorumTemporibusLiber Unus,' 
Bologna, 1564, 4to. ; ' De Judiciis Romanorum Libri Tres,' 
Bologna, 1574, 4to.; ' De Occidentali Imperio Libri xx., ab 
anno281 ad 575,' Bologna, 1577, fol. ; ' Uistoriae Ecclesias- 
ticae Libri xiv. ;' this work comes down to the year 311, but 
it was the intention of the aulhor to continue it to 1580. 

Sigonio was one of the great scholars lo whom we owe 
much of our knowledge of antiquity, and particularly of 
Roman history. His industry was unwearied, and his 
leaming was sound and comprehensive. He wrote the Latin 
language with ease and correctness, and his style is simple 
and perspicuous. Modern scholars have often been more 
indebted to Sigonio than they have been willing to allow, 
and the results of his labours have been used by one person 
afler auother, and sometimes without making any discri- 
mination between what is right and what is wrong. Hei- 
neccius was largely indebted to him, as will appear from 
examining bis 'Syntagma.' If we consider what was done 
before his time, and what he accomplished towards the il- 
lustration of Roman antiouity, we shall find few scholars 
who have so well deservea a lasting reputation. It would 
require a minute investigation to ascertain how far some of 
the more recent view8 of the Roman polity have been sug- 
gested by the writings of Sigonio. His remarks on the 
Agrarian laws, though far from being marked by sufficient 
clearness and precision, are still worth reading. {De An- 
tiquo Jure Itcdiae.) 

SIGU£NZA, a large town of the province of Guada- 
laxara in Spain, situated on the declivity of a hill near 
the source of the river Henares, in 40* 58' N. lat. and 2" 
57' W. long. It is the see of a bishop, suATragan of Toledo, 
and has a uniYersity, which was founded in the year 1441. 
The town is badly built ; the streets are narrow and crooked, 
but clean. Of the numerous ecclesiastical buildings which 
this town contains, thecathedral is the only one worthy of men- 
tion. It was built at the beginning of the fourteenth century, 
in the pure Gothic style ; it contains one nave aiid three aislcH, 
and measures 330 feet by 112. One of ils chapels, that of 
Santa Catalina, is greatly admired for its large dimensions 
and the beautiful marble tombs which it contains. Siguenza 
is the antient Saguntia, mentioned by Pliny (iii. 4) as one of 
the six towns among the Arevaci in Hispania Tarraconensis. 
Livy (xxxiv., 19) calls it Seguntia; and in the 'Itinerary' 
of Antoninus it is mentioned as Segontia. Inscriptions 
bearing the latter name have been found in the neighbour- 
hood. It was the seat of a contested battle between Pompey 
and Sertorius. In 1106 AIfon8o VI., king of Leon and 
Castile, wrested it from the Moors, who had occupied it 
since the beginning of the eighth century. An antient 
castle which commands the town is the only remain of 
Mohamraedan architecture. The population, according to 
Miiiano {Diccionario Geogrdjico, <J^c.), was about 30,0U0 ia 
1832. The only trade of the place consists in coarse Man- 
nels, blankets, and hats, which are exported to Toledo aud 

Digitized by V3 r^-^ 

S I L 

S I L 

SIKE or SIECKE, HENRY, an Oriental scholar of 
some repute, who lived in the latter half of the seventeenth 
and the beginning of the eighteenth centuries. He was a 
natiye of Bremen, and a profe8Sor of Oriental languages at 
Utrecht, and afterwards at Cambridge. It appears that 
owing to some misdemeanor he was to be subjected to 
puuishment; and in order to escape from this disgrace, he 
put an end to his ]ife by hanging himself in 1 7 1 2. The only 
work of any note which he published is the ' Evangelium 
IniantisB Christi, adscriptum ThomsB/ 1697, 8vo., a very 
curious apocryphal gospel. It is reprinted in Fabricius*s 
*Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti/ tom.i., pp. 127-212. 
Sike also lounded with L. Kiister, at Utrecht, the literary 
periodical called ' Bibliotheca Noyorum Librorum,' to whioh 
he contributed several papers. 

(Saxii Onomcuticon Liierarium, v., 490, &c.)] 

SIKHS. [HlNDUSTAN, p. 233.] 

SILBURY HILL. [Wiltshirk.] 

SILCHESTER, [Hampshire.] 

SILENA'C£iE, a natural order of plants, belonging to 
the syncarpous group of the Polypetalous subclass of Exo- 
gens. This order is a part of the larger order Caryophyllece 
[CARTOPHTLLSiB] of Jussieu, and was originally separated 
by De Candolle. It has since been adopted by Bartling 
and Lindley in their systematic works. It differs from the 
remaining portion of theorder Caryophyllese, which are now 
called Alsinacese, in the possession of a tubular ca]yx, and 
petals with claws. 

SILE'NE, the name of an extensive genus of plants be- 
lonsing to the natural order Caryophyllacesd. It is known 
by its haying a tubular, naked, 5-toothed calyx; 5 bifld 
unguiculate petals, which are usually crowned in the throat 
with 6 biAd seales ; lO stamens ; 3 styles ; capsules 3-celled 
at the base, ending in 6 teeth at the apex. The species are 
in geheral herbaceous, roany of them are annual, very few 
shrubby. Their stems are leafy, jointed, branched, and 
frequently glutinous below each joint. The calyx and 
leaf8talks are also fre(^uently viscous, The leaves are oppo- 
site, simple, and entire. The petals are mostly red and 
white, sometimes greenish or yellowish. Some of them 
give off a delicious perfume, especially at night. The ex- 
tent of this genus is yery great, and constant additions are 
being made to it by the collections of travellers. The 
greatest proportion are inhabitants of the South of Europe 
and North of Africa. Don, in Miller's Dictionary, enume- 
rates 256 species of this genus ; of these we shall give a few 
examples of the more common and interesting forms. 

S. acaulis, stemless CatchHy, or Moss Campion : whole 
plant glabrous, cespitose ; leayes linear, ciliated at the base ; 
pedunclos solitary, l-flowered; petals crowned, slightly 
uotched. It is a native of Europe, and is found abundantly 
on the Alps. It is found on nearly all the Scottish moun- 
tains, and also on Snowdon, and the highest hills of De- 
yonshire. Chamisso also gathered it on the islands of the 
western coast of North America. The Aowers are of a 
beautiful purple colour, and it forms one of tbe greatest 
ornaments of our Alpine llora. Several yarieties of this 
plant have been recorded, varying chieAy in ihe forra and 
existence of parts of the Aower. 

iS^. injiata^ bladder Campion or CatchAy : stemsbranched ; 
lluwers numerous, panicled ; calyx inAated, netted; petals 
deeply cloven, scarcely any crown ; leayes ovato-lanceolate. 

Tbis is a very common plant throughout Europe, and is 
mct with in almost every fleld andwayside in Great Britain. 
Like most plants that are widely and largely diffused, 
mauy varieties of it have been recorded. This plant has 
been recommended to be cultivated in the garden on account 
of its edible properties. The shoots gathered young, when 
about two inches high, and boiled, are a good substitute for 
green peas or asparagus. They are thus caten by the na- 
tiyes of Zante, and in 16S5 the inhabitants of Minorca are 
said to have been saved from famine, oceasioned by a swarm 
of locusts, by using this plant as food. 

S, nociijlora, night-Aiowering CatchAy: panicles forked; 
petals bifld ; calyx with long teeth, oblong in fruit, with ten 
connected ribs; leayĕs lanceolate, lower ones spathulate; 
whole plant clammy, pubescent. It is a natiye of Sweden, 
Germany, and Great Britain ; it resembles yery much the 
common red and white campion {Lychnis dioica), It is 
not a common plant, and is remarkable for opening its 
tlowers at night only, and in warm weather, when they ex- 
hale a powei?ul and delicious scent 

8, quinqumUneratat five- wounded CatchAy . Btems branch- 

ed; leayes lanceolate, lower ones obtuse; calyx very yillous, 
with short teeth ; petals roundish, entire, with toothed ap- 
pendages. The petals of this plant are of a deep crimson 
with pale edges, giying them the appearance of haying 
been stained wit^h blood in the centre ; hence their speciAo 
name. It is a natiye of Spain, France, and Italy, and haa 
been found in the county of Kent in Great Britain. It is 
frequent in gardens, but loses by cultiyation much of the 
colour of its Howers. 

S, muscipula, Spanish or FIy-trap CatchAy : plant 
smoothish, clammy ; stem erect ; branches alternate, long ; 
lower leayes lanceolate, upper ones linear ; ilowers panicled ; 
calyx clayate, netted ; petals bifid. It is a native of Spain, 
with intensely red petals. It is exceedingly clammy, so 
that when tiies alight on it they are caught ; and hence tho 
name CatchAy, which is giyen to the whole genus, though 
few of the species possess the property. 

£f. /ruticosa, shrubby CatchAy : stem shrubby at tbe 
base, muoh branohed, tulted ; Aowering stems simple; 
leayes oboyate, dark-green, permanent, ciliated, particularly 
towards the base; Howers crowded; calyx clayate; petals 
deeply emarginate, obtuse, with 4-parted appendages. This 
plant is a natiye of Sicily and of the island of Cyprus, and 
grows among rocks. It is frequently cultiyated in gardens, 
and makes a handsome ornament. 

S. compacta, close-Aowered CatchAy: plant glabrous, 
glaucous ; stem erect, brancbed ; leayes ovate-cordate, ses- 
sile ; tiowers crowded into dense corymbs ; calyx very long ; 
petals entire, obovate, crowned. It is a native of Russia, 
and yery nearly resembles the fif. armeria, but is distinguished 
by its entire petala. It is one of the most beautiful of the 
genus, and deseryes a place in eyery collection of Aowers. 

In the cultivation oi the species of Silene no great art ia 
required. The hardy kinds may be planted in the open 
border, and the smaller species are well adapted for rock- 
work. The seeds of the hardy annual kinds may be sown 
in the beginning of the spring, where they are to remain. 
The perennial kinds are best increased by diyiding them at 
the roots in the spring. The greenhouse kinds tbriye best 
in a rich light soil ; the cuttings of shrubby species should 
be placed under a hand-glass. 

SILE'NUS (2€£Xijvoc), a Greek deity. The traditiona of 
his birth are yarious: he is said to be soh of Pan, of a 
nymph, of the earth, and to haye sprung from the blood of 
Uranus. He was the instructor of Bacchus, a lawgiyer and 
prophet, sometimes confounded with Bacchus himself, of 
the family of Satyrs, whom he resembled yery much iu 
appearance and habits. He is represented as an old man, 
bald, with a beard, and depressed nose, sometimes with 
a tail, at times holding the infant Bacchus in his arms, 
or with a wine-skin on his shoulders. He has a conspi- 
cuous place in the Bacchic chorus, and occurs in yarious 
combination with fauns and nymphs. Though endowed 
with supernatural wisdom, he is of a comic disposition ; 
his whole character is a roixture of jest and earnest; 
he is harmless, sportiye, fond of children, addicted to 
wine; sometimes he rides on his ass reeling and sup- 
ported by a satyr; is said to have couducted Bacchus 
from Thrace to rhrygia; and to haye been ensnared by 
Midas in a garden, and compelled to exert his maryelloua 
power of speech. His discourse was of the second world, 
of the land of Meropia, and of its strange men, beasts, and 
plants, of the origin of things and birth of the gods, and he 
showed the miserable condition of this present life. In all 
that he uttered was an irony consistent with his motley cha- 
racter. The ass by which ne is accompanied has giyen rise 
to many conjectures; the Bacchic myths and those of 
Apollo speak of this animal as sacred to both deities. It 
may thererore be considered as the link uniting the two 
worships, and we find accordingly Apollo called the son of 
Silenus. (Porphyry, Ft/. Pyika^^ p. 10, ed. Rome, 1630.) 
Attempts have been made by Bochart and others to cou- 
nect Silenus with the name Shiloh in Scripture, and his 
ass with that of Balaam. Other imaginary resemblances are 
notic«d by Creuzer {Symbolik\ founded on the theory that 
the ass is the symbol of prophecy in the East. The myth 
of Silenus has been further thought by Creuser to haye 
reference to cosmogony. He quotes Porphyry (Euseb., iV. 
Evu iii., p. 110, Cologne, 1687) in support of tliis opinion, 
and considers Silenus as ' the ha]f-embodied soul of tne uni- 
yerse, the struggle of the shapeless into shape, or, to speak 
I^hysically, the moist breath which, according to the Sgyp^ 
tian and old lonian philosophiea» nourishes tha itarat' 

Digitized by 





This theory is tnade stiH farther to interpret the eonneotion 
hetwcen Silenus and Bacchus, and the Tarious tnodes in 
which be is represented on antient nionunients| l^e ai^gu- 
ments on whtch it rests are however too numerous and in- 
tricate to be here entered upon. 

The distinction between Sileni and Satyrs does not appear 
very clearly niade out. According to authorities auoted hy 
Creuser, the Sileni are t^e older of the two. Tne terms 
were certainly not co-extensive ; that of Satyr may he con- 
sidered as the genus. They were mostly represented in the 
same manner, with beards, tails, and pricked ears like 
beasts. In the proression of Ptolemy Philadelphus(il/^., 
V. 197) they were dressed differently from each other, and 
the Sileni have sometimes a more human ft>rm. See Creu- 
zer*s ' Syml)olik,' and Gruber'8 ' Worterbuch der Mythologie,' 
for representations of Silenus; Millin's ' Galĕrie Mytholo- 
gique/ and the various works on gems, sculpture, vases, and 
other monuments of classictd antiquity. 

SILESIA. This country, which is now divided between 
Prussia and Austria, was once inhabited by the Lygii and 
Quadi, who, in the Bixth century, were Ibrced to yield to the 
pressure of a Slavonian tribe Arom Poland, by which event 
Silesia became subject to that country. Under the do- 
minion of Poland, the Polish language and manners, which 
still remain in the eastern parts of the province, and the 
Christiau religion, were introduced. To promote the latter 
a bishopric was founded in 906, at Schmogor, which was 
aAerwards trans^erred to Breslau. The country being in 
course of time divided and 8ubdivided among the descen- 
dants of Boleslaus III., king of Poland, numerous small 
principalities arose. Being weakened by these divisions, 
and by the dissensions between the princes, it was subdued 
by the king of Bohemia in tbe fourteenth century. Under 
tbe dominion of Bohemia the doctrlnes of Huss, Luther, 
and Calvin gained grbund, and their adherents obtained 
t)ie partial exercise of their religion. With the Polish 
princes Polish manners and customs disappeared ; every- 
thing was placed on the same footing as in Germany; 
trade^ manufactures, arts, and sciences ilourished. Tbe 
prosperity of the country would have been greater in 
fbrmer timea, had not the Protestants been so much op- 
pressed under tha Austrian government. Austria, which oo- 
tained possession of Silesia, together wlth Bohemia, in the 
early part of the 8ixteenth century, retained it undisturbed 
till the death of the emperor Charlea VI. in 1740, on which 
¥rederio II. of Prussia revived a dormant claim to the 
western part of Silesia, which he immediately invaded ; and 
the ^reater part was ceded to him in 1742, and conArmed to 
him by the treaties of Dresden, in 1 745, and of Hubertsburg, 
in 1763. Austria retained the smaller portion. 

SILESIA (iu German, Schiesien), the Prussian Province 
o£ is situated between 49" 40' and 52"* 8' N. lat., and between 
H^^^d^and l^"* ld'E.long. It isboundedonthe north-weslby 
Brandenburg ; on the north-east by Posen ; on tbe east by 
Poland ; on the south-east by Cracow and Galicia ; on the 
aouth by Austrian Silesia ; and on the south-west by Bohemia. 
Including the county of Glatz, and the Pr ussian part of Upper 
Lusatia, ita area is 15,600 8quare miles. The province is 
210 miles in length from north-east to south-west, and from 
70 to 80 miles in breadth irotn east to west. The river Oder, 
which becomes navigable soon after entering the Prussian 
boundaiy, divide8 the province in its whole length into two 
nearly equal parts, which are very diSerent from each other. 
That on the left bank, which is called the German side, is 
mountainous,but has a very fertile soil,which amply rewards 
tlie labour of thehusbandman, and supplies almost the whole 
province. That on the right bank, called the Polish side, is 
vei7 diierent; it oonsists chietly of a sandy and not very 
Aruitful soil. There are however some sandy tracts on the 
German side, and some rich and productive spots on the Polish 
side. The country is hiehest on the south-eastern rrontier, 
and dedines more towards ihe north-we&tern irontiery where 
it is ihe lowest. 

Where the ^rontiars of Silesia and Bohemia meet, a 
mountain-chain lises, which extends southwai-ds to the 
8ouroes o( th^ Breswa and the Ostrawitza, where it joins the 
Carpathians» divide8 the basin of the Oder on the one side 
from those of the Elbe and Danube on the other, and form8 
the naturai boundary between Silesia and Bohemia and 
Moravia. This ohain, called by the general name of the Su- 
detic chain, is divided into dinerent parts» bearing diSerent 
name8,aa thelserg^irge, the Riesengebirge, tbe ioftiest and 
wildest part of the whole chain, the Schneekoppe, which is 

4950 teet above the level of the sea, the Glat« M^otintainB, «cc. 
In the interior there are some ranees unconnected with the 

treat chain-*the principal of which is the Zobtengebirgc, 
318 feet above the level of the sea. On the right side of the 
Oder, from the part where its course is to the tiorthward, the 
high land disappears, and those immense plains begin which 
characterise this part of Europe. The Oder, called by the com- 
mon people the Ader, that is, ' the vein,' comes from Moravia, 
and receive8 all its ri^ers. with the exception of some on the 
frontier8. The principal are the Eba, the Klodnitz, the 
Slober, and the Bartsch, on the right side ; the Oppa, the 
Neisse, the Ohlau, and the Katzbach, on the le/t. There 
are few lakes, and those which are so called are rather 
large ponds. The largest are the Koschnilz, Mo8witz, jiud 
Schlawer lake?. The last is however four miles in length, 
but nowhere above a mile in breadth. The climate varie8 
very much in the different parts of the prQvince. The air 
on the whole is very mild, except in the roountainous tracts ; 
but in proportion as we approach the southem trontier, the 
temperature becomes lower, and the winter longer and more 
severe, which is owing to the elevation of the country, to 
the extensive forests, and parlly to the lofty Carpathians 
and the winds that come from them. 

Nahtral B^ductions.-^The animals are— horses, horned 
cattle, sheep» goats, swine, game, fish, bees, and domeslic 
poultry. WoWes are found on the Zohtengebirge, oiters 
in the Bober, and sometimes beavers in the Oder. The 
vegBtable products are — corn, pulse, garden vegetables, 
fruit, flax, tobacco, hops, madder, woad, teazle, and timber. 
The minerals are copper, lead, cobalt, arsenio, iron, and 
zinc This last metal is found in Silesia and in the ad- 
joining republic of Cracow in far greater auantities than 
in any other country in Europe. Other mmeral products 
are sulohur, inarble, alum, lime, and, above all, coal, of 
which from two millions to two millions and a half tons 
are annually obtained, wHich are worth from 100,000/. to 
130,000/. sterLing. 

Though Siresia is on the whole one of the most fertile 
and be8tcultivated provinces of the Prussian monarchy, 
and produces much corn, so that in good years it can export 
a portion to Bohemia, vet, as it is very densely populated, it 
has not suiiicient in unravourabIe years for its own consump- 
tion, and is obliged to import. The culiivation of pola- 
toes has become much more general of late years. 

The manufacture8 of Silesia are of the greatest importance, 
and that of linen has existed from a very remote time. It is 
carried on with little aid from machinery, . and chieAy by 
the country-people, though this branch of industry affords 
them but a scanty subsistence ; it is however their chief 
occupation. Dieterici says :— ' A third part of all the looms 
at work in the Prussian dominions, viz. 12,799 out of 36,879, 
is in Silesia. The linen annually manufactured in Silesia 
is estimated at between eieht and nine millions of dollars 
(1,333,000/. to 1,500.000/.).^ Uncertain as such estimates 
are, the ouantity exported may be assumed to be worth 
between tnree and four millions of dollars. Woollen cloths 
are manufactured in some towns, and cottons at Reichen- 
bach. There are sugar-houses in seyeraJ places ; tanneries 
at Breslau and Schweidnitz, aud breweries and brandy-dis- 
tilleries in most of the towns. Wilh respect to spinning and 
weaving, we may observe thal machinery is beginning to be 
introduced into some larger manufactories. The population of 
the province, which at the end of 1 837 was stated at 2.6 79,473, 
had increased, at the end of 1840, to 2,868,820. They are 
mostly Germans, and some Slavonians of Polish origin. 
About half the inhabitants are Protestants, and tbe remain- 
der Roman Catholics, besides about 18,000 Jews: all have 
the free exercise of their religion. The province is divided 
into the three government8 of Breslau, Oppeln, and Lieg- 
nitz ; and has twenty towns with above 5000 inhabitants, 
as noted in the statistical table in the article Prussia. All 
the most important of these towns are described under 
their respective heads. 

AusTRiAN SiLEsiA is that part of the province which was 
retain^d bv Austria in the treaty of Hubertsburg in 1763. 
It is united with Moravia» with which it forms oue province. 
It is bounded on the uorth-west, nortly and uorth-east by 
Prussian Silesia, on the east by Galicia, on the south by 
Hungary and Moravia, and on the south-west by Moravia. 
The area is about 1750 souare miles, witJ^30,Q00 inhabi- 
tants, who are partly of Grerman and pmly of Slavouian 
origin. Next to the kingdoms of lombardy and Venice, it 
is the most densely peopled part of the Austrian dominions 
Digitizedb\ B2 

S I L 


The country is mountainous» and on the Bouth-east are the 
Carpathians (of which the Sigula is 4300 feet high), and on 
the north-west the Morayian-Silesian chain^a hranch of the 
Sudetes. Near the Carpathians, and about the source of 
the Oppa and the Mohra, the climate is cold, and the 
mountains are partly covered with snow till the middle 
of June. The southern part of the circle of Teschen is not 
fruitful, the soil being stony ; in other parts it is hetter. 
The principal rivers are the Oder, with its tribuiaries the 
Oelsaand the Oppa; theYistula (in Grerman, the Weichsel) 
rises on the north side of the Carpathiansfrom three sources, 
called the Little, the White, and the Black Yistula ; this 
last rises in the vil1age of Weichsel, at the foot of the 
Tankowberg, which yillage give8 its name (Weichsel) to the 
whole river. 

The inhabitants have a very good breed of horses, and of 
oxen, and especially a very improved breed of sheep. They are 
very skilful and industrious farmers. The manufactures, 
especially those of linen and woollen cloth, are very im- 
portant. The esports are linen, thread, woollen cloth, wire, 
paper, earthenware, cheese, flax, rosoglio, &c. The transit 
trade is very proBtable: the chief articles are Hungarian 
and Austrian wines, Russia leather, tallow, linseed, and 
furs ; Galician rock-salt, MoIdavian oxen, Yienna fancy- 
goods, &c. rMoRAViA ; Tkschkn ; Troppau.] 

SILEX. [SiLiciUM.] 

SILHET, or SYLHET, is a district of Bengal, lying 
along its eastern border, on the east side of the Megna, as 
the lower course of the Brahmapootra is called. Up to the 
year 1830 it consisted only of what must now be called 
Silhet Proper, or a countn* situated between 24°and 25° N. 
latn and 91° and 92° 30' £. long., which, according to the 
most recent information, contained about 4500 square miles, 
and a population of 1,083,120, which gives 241 tothesquare 
mile. It is about 130U square miles less than Yorkshire, 
but more populous, as Yorkshire, in 1831, did not contain 
more than 235 persons to the square mile. In 1830 thc 
royal family of Kashar, a country east of Silhet, became 
extinct; and a few years later the nga or 80vereign of 
Jyntea, a country north of Silhet, was obliged to give up 
his territory to the British, and both countries were annexed 
to Silhet. These two countries taken together are at least 
three times as large as Silhet Proper, and the district at 
present contains about 18,000 square miles, or two-thirds 
of the area of Ireland. Silhet, in this extent, lies between 
24° 10' and 26° 20' N. lat., and between 90° and 94° E. 
long. On the west it borders on Bengal, on the district of 
Mymansing, and on tho mountain-region of the Grarrows ; 
on the north on Asam, on the east on Muneepoor, and on 
the south it is bounded by the unknown region called the 
Tiperah Mountains or Wilderness. It is only towards Munee- 
poor that it has a natural boundary, which is formed by the 
course of the nver Barak, where it runs from south to 
north, east of 93° E. long., and by two of its conduents, the 
Jeeree, which joins it from the north, and the Tooyaee, or 
Chikoo, which falls into it from the south. 

Sur/ace and Soil. — Silhet is naturally divided into two 
regions. The northern part is a mountain region, which 
extends along the southern boundary of Asam, and divides 
that large vale from the valley of the Barak, which river, as 
far as it drains Silhet, runs through a wide valley that con- 
stitutes the low and level portion of Silhet. The mountain 
region comprehends about two-thirds of the country, or 
12,000 square miles, and the plain about one-third. 

The Mountain Region, of which Silhet now comprehends 
nearly one-half, extends along ihe southern border of Asam, 
and at its most eastern extremity, near 97° E. Ionjr.and 
28° 40' N. lat., at the sources of the Lohit river, or Brah- 
roapootra, it is united to the high table-Iand of Central 
Asia. Its western extremity coroes close to the Brahma- 
pootra, where this river, after leaving Asaro, forms its 
great bend to the soulh (90° E. long.). The western 
portion of this extensive mountain region is callcd the 
Garrow Mountains, which are considered to extend east- 
ward to the river Patli, which, traversing the mountain 
region in a southern direction, joins the Soorma near the 
towii of Laour (91° 10' E. lat.). The most western oiTsel 
of the Garrow Mountains skirts the banks of the Brahma- 
pootra, between the mouth of the river Lalu and the village 

of MahendragandL a distance of about twelve miles. Along 
■^er the mountains are merely rocks, from 
bove the level of the river, rising with a 

draganoL i 
I of iheiĔ^i 
) feet aDov 

the banks 
150 to 200 
stoep ascent. They are called the Caribari Kocks, from a 

smali town situated somewhat to the south of their southern 
termination. But in proceeding farther east, the mountain- 
roass rises gradually in elevation, and occupies a greater 
breadth. In 90° 20' E. long. it has attained a general ele- 
vation of more than 2000 feet above the sea-Ievel, and 
occupies a widih of about 50 miles. We are only acquainted 
with the outer border of this mountain-mass, where it con- 
sists of ridges broken by numerous wateroourses, and ia 
entirely coyered with trees and dense underwood. Some 
isolated peaks rise 2000 feet above the general level of the 
mass. Accordine to information collected from the natives, 
the interior of this elevated region is nearly a level table- 
land, destitute of trees, and covered only with grass ; and 
this is probable, as it corresponds to the characteristic fea- 
tures of the mountain region iarther east. Only the lower 
portion of the Garrow Mountains is subject to the British, 
and united to the three divisions of Bengal, Rangpoor, My- 
mansing, aud Silhet. The interior, called 6onaser,or Ganes- 
wara, is occupied by the Garrows, a mountain-tribe which 
has never been subjected by the princes of Bengal, as the 
country is only accessible by long and winding mountain- 

gasses, which are so narrow as to he impracticable for 
orses or other beasts of burden : they are properly only 
paths over rugged crags, and along steep precipices, 
and through extremely narrow gorges. From these fast- 
nesses the Garrows make incursions into the adjacent 
countries, and hence several tracts of some extentalong the 
boundary of their country have been entirely abandoned. 
They cultivate rice, millet, and cotton, and use as food 
several plants which grow wild in the forests, as diiTerent 
kinds of arum, caladium, and dioscurias. They cultivate 
capsicum, onions, and garlic. They keep cows, goats, hogs, 
and eat cats, dogs, foxes, and snakes. Different kinds of 
deer are said to be common in Gonaser. 

Adjacent to Gonaser on the east, and only separated from 
it by the river Patli, is the mountain region of the Kasiaa 
(Cossyas), which extends eastward to the river Kopili, an 
affluent of the Deyung, which falls into the Brahmapootra. 
This mountain region runs above 100 miles eastand west, be« 
tween 91° 10' and 93° E. long. ; and in proceeding eastward 
it gradually enlarges in breadth from 50 miles to about 70 
miles. This portion of the mountain region is much better 
known than Gconaser, being subject to the British, who haye 
traversed it at two places in passing from Silhet to Asam, 
and who have erected on it several sanatory stations, among 
which that of Chirra Punji is very much freauented. The 
western road leads from Pondua in Silhet, tbrough Chirra 
Punji, Moiplong, Lombray, and Nungklao, to thebanks of the 
river Kailasi, an aSluent of theBrahmapootra, and to thelow 
land of Asam. The traveller, passine by a steep ascent oTer 
four ridges, arrives atC^irra Punji, wnich is 5000 feet above 
the sea-fevel. Here begins a table-land, the surface of which 
is often level, but generally exhibits yery gentle slopes, which 
continues toNungklao. The mostelevatedpointsareatMoip- 
long (5942 feet) and Lombray (5914 feet). At Nungklao it 
is only 4550 feet. North of the last-mentioned place it sinks 
by three wide terraces with steep descents to the plain of 
Asam. The table-land is entirely destitute of trees and 
bushes, especially in the southem parts. This sterility, as 
Pisher thinks, is closely connected with the character of the 
sandstone-rocks of which the mountain-mass is composed, 
and with the disturbance oF the strata, but more especially 
the latter ; for where the strata are horizontal, there is an 
absence of vegetation, and where the strata are inclined, 
symptoms of fertility begin to show themselves. Through- 
out the ascent from the plains of Silhet to Chirra Punji, 
the vegetation is only dense on the slopes; and where 
ledges or steppes occur, it is comparatively barren. The 
table-land itseU is covered with a short turf, and there 
occur only a few bushes, as raspberries ; stunted fir-trees 
only occur in the glens which are formed by the river- 
courses — as, for instance, in that of the Bogapani. To the 
north of this river the aspect of the country changes gra- 
dually ; and though the elevation is greater, the vegetation 
increases, and continues to increase, until in the vicinity of 
Nungklao it becomes abundant, though it does not exhibit 
that excess which prevails farther to the north, on the lower 
descent of the table-Iand towards Asam. This change is attri- 
buted to the numerous large granite boulders which are scat- 
tered in great abundanee over the country. The disintegra- 
tion of these boulders has largely contributed to the 
tion of the soil, especially where it has been &voured by the 
conAguration of the 8yrface. But ia those tracta wh^r^ 

Digitized by 


S I L 

S I L 

tbere are no boulders, and the strata presenre their hori- 
Kontal position, vegetation is deftcient. The climaie at 
Cbirra Punji is very temperate and pleasant, especially be- 
tween November and March. Neither snow nor frost 
occurs; but in December and January hoar-fro&t is very 
common. The sky is generaily clear, but violent showers 
irequently occur. The almost continual coolness of the air, 
and the absence of frost, has pointed out this place as a 
convale8cent station. Near Moiplong however frost oocurs 
even in November, asthe thermometer then descends to 21^ 
Nungklao has a more pleasant climate. The earlier part 
of the summer is not much warmer at that place than in 
London, as the thermometer ranges between 65*^ and 74^ 

Cultivation appears only on the southem declivity, and 
in the neighbourhood of Nungklao, where rice is grown in 
eoiisiderable quantity. On the southern declivity of the 
mountain-mass many fruits are cultivated, as oranges, plan- 
tains, and the areca palm ; and much honey and wax is 
coUected. On the northern declivity, where nr-trees oover 
laige tracts of land, European fruit-trees grow, especially 
apples, pears, and plums, and also strawberries and rasp> 
berries. Tbeeastern road traverses the Kasia Moontains, be- 
tween 92^ and S^^^^O^E. long., frora thetown of Jynteapoor, 
the capital of the former kingdom of Jyntea, to Raha 
Choky in Asam, situated where the Deyung unites with 
the river Kulung. The southern edge of the mountain 
region, which b only a few miles distant from Jynteapoor, 
seems to be formed by a ridge which is considerably elevated 
above the table-land fartlier north, and which is traversed 
by the mountain-pass of Mutagul. Nortk of this ridge 
lies a plain, about 2000 feet above the sea-level, whose sur- 
face is undulating, and in some parts hilly, but it is covered 
only with thick grass, without bushes or trees, except that 
in a few places, and at great distances from one another, 
small groves of firs or other trees are met with. It cer- 
tainly might be used as pasture-ground, especially as the 
elimate is very mild ; but tbe few inhabitants say that they 
are prevented from keeping cattle by their neighbours, who 
/requeotly make predatory incursions into their country. 
Tbis table-land occupies a width of 50 miles alon^ the road. 
Tbenorthern edge is less distinctly marked, and tbe descent 
occupies about twelve miles. The nature of the table-land 
precludes agriculture ; but in the northem districts rice is 
raised in oonsiderable quantity, particularly in the small 
glens and on the sides of the valleys, where irrigation is 
practised, water being brought to the Aelds through narrow 
canals, and conveyed over hollows and up heights for short 
distances by means of trunks of trees and bamboos. Rice 
and yams are cultivated, and a kind of coarse silk called 
rnong is collected on the trees. 

That portion of the mountain region which lies east of 
the Kopili and Deyung river8, and extends eastward to the 
river Dooyong and the boundary of Muneepoor, comprehends 
TJpper Kachar, and is called the Kachar Mountains. It is 
likewise a tableland, the southera edge of which is marked 
by an elevated range, which continues to run east to 93^ 12' 
£. long., when it turns north-east and continues in that direc- 
tion till it approaches 94° £. long., where it again runs east 
and Btretches into an unknown country. Where this range 
mns north-east it is called the Bura Ail Mountains, and at- 
tains a meane1evation of 6000 feet above the 8ea-level. It is 
coYered with large trees and light underwood. The southern 
declivity of the Bura Ail Mountains is very little known, 
but it seems to be certain that this side of the range is 
intimately connected with tbe three ridges which traverse 
the western portion of Muneepoor, and by runninG; north and 
souih unite the mountain region which we are now noticing 
with the extensive mountain-system of Tiperah. The ridges 
are called, from west to east, theKeibunda, Kubitshing, and 
Muneepoor Mountains. These chains and their numerous 
short offi»et8 render the western portion of Muneepoor a 
lapid Buccession of elevated ridges and deep and narrow 
▼alleya. The country which lies north of the Bura Ail Moun- 
tains, both near the range and to the distance of 10 or 12 
miles, is covered with the high offset8 of the range, and bas 
an entirely mountainous character. North of this compara- 
tively narrow mountain-tract the surface of the country is 
hilly. Most of the hills are isolated, but in some places 
they form ridges. This hilly tract occupies a width of about 
20 miles, and it is ibllowed by a plain. Both the hilly and 
leTel country are almost entirely covered with forests. The 
noTthem edge of the table-land is marked by a range of low 
hilla, and » gentle desc^ot, tbe greater part of wbich seems 

to skirt the southern banks of the Sumoona, an affluent of 
the Deyung, the country north of that river constitut- 
in^ a portion of the plain of Asam. It is much more thickly 
inhabitcd than the tableland of the Kasia Mountains. A 
very large portion of it is fit for agriculture, and the small 
progress that both agriculture and population have made is 
mainly if not exclusively to be attributed to the unsettled 
state iu which the country has been for a long time, under 
the sway of petty sovereigns, who were never able to 
defend their subjects against the incursions of the bold 
tribes wbo inhabit the mountains, especially the Angamee 
Nagas. Some large tracts are quite uninhabited, though the 
vigorous growth of the trees snows the excellent quality of 
the soil. But along the large rivers and in their neighbour- 
hood cultivated tracts and villages are numerous, and will 
increase, since the British have compelled the Angamee 
Nagas to keep quiet. The inhabitants cultivate rice, and 
in the valleys of the hilly and mountainous part of the eoun> 
try 8everal kinds of coarser grain are grown ; there is also a 
very fine-flavoured kind of purple vetcb. About the vil- 
lages of the more elevated region there are groves of peach- 
trees in the most luxuriant state, and tbe apple-tree grows 
wild and produces a well-tasted fruit. The bay-leaf and a 
very small kind of orange are also natives of these moun- 
tains. Cloth is made of a nettle, which is procurable in 
great abundance. On the lower hills cotton and chillies 
are grown as articles of commerce, and in these parts also 
rauch wax and honey is collected. The cultivation of Ihe 
lower and Ievel country reserables that of Asam, being simi- 
lar in climate and soil, but no part of it is subjcct to annual 

The Plain,^A\ong the southern base of the mountain 
region hitherto noticed there is a plain, or rather a vale, for 
along itssouthern side the mountain-system of Tiperah rises 
to a great heigbt. The length of this vale may be about 120 
railes. and the width in the western half aboiit 50 miles on 
an average, but towards the east it narrows to 30 and even 
20 miles, until it is shut up bv the Keibunda range, which 
lies near the boundary and within the territories of Munee- 
poor. As to the conAguration of its surface and the capaci- 
ties of the soil, it may be divided into two portions. A line 
drawn from Chattac on the Soorma, 80uth-west of Pondua 
(91° 40' £. long.), passing in a south by west direction west of 
Tajpur, through Nubigunj and thence to thehilU south-east 
of Turruf near the Tiperah Mountains, very nearly separates 
these two tracts. The country west of this line is very low 
and level, and constitutes properly a portion of the lower 
portion of the plain of Bengal. It is in most parts marshy, 
and the whole is subject, like the greater part of Lower Ben- 
gal, to periodical inundations of long auration, being in 
general under water from April to tbe middle of November. 
These inundations are partly the effect of the heavy rains 
which fall during the south-wjest monsoon, and partly of the 
iramense voIume of water which is brought down by the 
rivers during tliat season, especially by those which drain 
the mountain-system of Tiperah, the Manu, Khwa-hi, and 
Cognati. This lower tract is called Bhatta. The towns 
and yillages, which in some parts, especially to the south, 
are numerous, are built on mounds of earth ; huts, templcs, 
mosques, and sheds for cattle are huddled togelher. 
When the inundations are at their height, there are from 
8 to 12 feet water on the lower grounds. As soon as they 
have sutiiciently subsided, or in the beginning of No- 
vember, such lands as are high enough for the purpose are 
sown with rice and millet; the crop is cut in April. The 
lands yield only one crop. There appear occasionally a 
little sursoo and hemp, wilh some gourds and cucumbers 
about the huts. Tbe marshes are however filled with cattle, 
from which profit is derived sufficient to make the occupa- 
tion of these desolate tracts desirable. Ghee and cheese are 
made from the milk of bu^aloes and cows, and the upper 
country, which lies farther east, is furnished with young 
buUocks for the plough. During the inundations the cattle 
are confined to the sheds and feed on green fodder brought 
in boats from the jhils or marshy tracts. 

From this low country a few tracts of low and level land 
extend eastward of the line above indicated. They run up 
for several miles, more especiall^ between the courses of the 
great river8, wbere they form jhils of great depth, which 
are uncultivable. The remainder of the eastem division has 
a higher Ievel, and rises gradually towards the mountains 
on botb sides. This country is in general dry, tbough there 
are some marshes of sipGi^ ejitent. The t^nr^ Qf this diyi^ 

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•ion presentB great iiregularities. It is eMsed bj •ereral 
raDgels of allayial forQiation, ^rhich run up into ridges 
fi'om one to three hundred feet bigb, and the Yalleys be- 
tween rise gently towards eaoh side, The banks of the 
$oorma and all the mountain river8 are also considerably 
elevated above the general level ; the tracts which lie near 
the swampy plaoes, and are not much elevated above their 
leveU are under water for some weeks, and yield only one 
orop. They are sown in January» and the short inondation 
does not damage the grain. The crops are much more 
abiindant than in the Bhatta. The more elevated parte, 
which are never inundated, and especially the slopes of the 
ridges, yield two crops of grain, which are generally good. 
Some experiments which have been made show tbat wneat, 
barley, oats, and potatoes might be raised. All the giains 
found in the plains of the Ganges are cuUiyated. Indigo is 
not cultivated, but an excellent dye very similar to it is 
obtained from a plant which grows wild on the hills. 
Poppy, sugar-cane, safflowei; sursoo and other plants yield- 
ing oU, and aUo hemp and flax are grown. Orange^trees 
and the areca are oultiyated on the decliyities of the Kasia 
Monntains, and large quantities of the produce are annually 
seni to Calcutta and other places in ISEengal. Areca of in- 
ferior quality is found all over Silhet, but it deteriorates in 
quaUty towards the east, and inKacbar it whollydisappears. 
Among other fruits the plantain is particularly fine, the 
lemon grows wild in the Kasia Mountains, and the apricot 
and lichi in those of Kachar. It is thought tbat the tea- 
plant would succeed in some of the alluYiiu soils of Kachar 
or Tiperah. 

The Tiperah Mountains, which lie to the south of the 
plain hitherto noticed, belong to Silhet only so far as a por- 
tion of their lower declivitie8 is inoluded within the bound- 
ary of the district. We are not acquainted with the interior 
of this extensive mountain-system. The central parts, be- 
tween 23'' and 24'' N. lat. and 91'' and 94'' E. long., probably 
attain a great elevation, which may be inferred from the 
great volume of watet brought down by the rivers which fall 
from the south into the Soorma and Kusiara, as the Dela- 
seri, the Sungai, the Munu, the Khwa-hi, and the Cognati ; 
and from their rapid course. During the rains each of these 
riyers discharges on an average a Tolume of about 25,000 
cubic feet per second, though none of them are more than 50 
yards wide. It is certain that they have a long course, and 
descend fVom a very elevated oountry. llie nortbern por- 
tion of this mountain-region, towards Silhet, as well as that 
which towards the south enters the district of Chittagong, 
consists of ranges ronning south and norlh, divided by wide 
yalleys. Some of these ranges enter the northern plain, as 
the Banca Mountains, which extend along the western 
banks of the Delaseri, and the Bokman range in Kaohar, 
which compels the river Barak to change its southern course 
into a northern one. Immense masses of lava occur even on 
the northern ranges of the Tiperah Mountains, and it is sup- 
posed that this is the termination of the long series of vol- 
canoes which stretch from the island of Java nortbward 
through Sumatra, Barren Island, the island of Narcondam, 
and those of Cheduba and Ramri on the coast of Arracan, 
where the traces of volcanic agency are lost: they appear 
again in the Mountains of Tiperah. The southern declivi- 
ties of the Tiperah Mountains are noted for immense 
f9re8ts of bamboo and large herds of elephants. The 
northern declivities are also covered witb forest8 of trees 
and bamboos, (rom which the inhabitants of the plain derive 
great profit, but they resort also to these hills to cultivate 
cottOn, which does not grow in the plain. The quantity of 
cotton which is raised is barely suliicient for doroestic oon- 
sumption. It is short in staple, but the clotbs made from it 
corobine warmth with ligbtness. 

Rwers, — The largest of the riyers of Silhet is called in 
the upper part of its course Barak, and in the lower part 
Soorma. The Barak originates in the roountain region 
north of tlie plain of Muneepoor[MuNKEPOOR], near 25** 30' 
N. lat. and 94° 20' £. lon^^., and traverses in a south- 
west and south by west direction the mountain legion 
which connects the Tiperab Mountains with the Bura Ail 
range. After a course exceeding a hundred miles, it meets 
with the Bokman ridge of the Tiperab Mountains, whioh 
compels the river to change its southern into a northern 
course. Flowing in that direction .30 miles, it turns round 
the northern extremity of tbe Bokman ridge westward, and 
thus enters Ihe plain, where it begins to be navigable, a few 
miles above Lukipoor. It runs westward with numerous 

windingB tbrougb the upper plain in one cbannel ibr 40 
miles, but having passed the northern extremity of the 
Banca ridge, it begins to divide at Banga. In these parts the 
name of Soorma begins to nrevail. The northern arm, or 
tbe Soorma, Aows along the eoutbern base of the Kasia 
Mountains v^th numerous windings, sometimes approach- 
ing the hills and sometimes receding from them, uniil it 
reSohes the town of Sonamgunj after a course of 90 miles, 
when it turns southward, and in tbat direction traversing 
the lower plain, joins the soutbern arm after baving run 70 
miles. Tbe soutbern arm of the river branching off at Banga 
bears different names, but in its upper coorse it is generally 
known by that of Kuaiara, and in the lower by tbatof Barak 
or Brak. Its direction througb the plain is west-soutb<west 
for about 100 miles, when it joins tbe Soorma, and the 
united river joins the Megna near Sunerampoor by a more 
southern oourse of about 20 miles. These appear to be the 
principal branches of the river, but both of them divide and 
subdivide again so frequently, that thewhole'of the lower 
plain is traversed by numerous watercourses» allofwhich 
join, either singly or united, the Megna between the town of 
Caribari and t&at of Sunerampoor, which are more than 100 
miles from one another. Nearly all these watercourses are 
navigable for boats, and greatly facilitate the ttansport of 
graiu from the upper plain of Silhet to other districts of 
BengaL It is observed that these river8 are subject to 
cbange iheit beds in tbe districts wbicb approach the Megna, 
which is the case with tbe Soorma it8elf below Azmeri- 

Of the rivers wbicb join the Brabmapootra or Lohit, we 
sball only mention the Dooyung and the Deyung. The 
first-mentioned river, wbich falls into the Brahmapootra 
west of 94*^ £. long., probably rises nortb east of the source 
of the Barak, but its source bas not been ascertained. Its 
course is nearly due north, and about 30 miles from its 
mouth it is joined on the left by the river Dhunsiri, which 
rises in the Bura Ail Mountains, and skirts tbeir nortbern 
declivity for more than 30 miles. The Dooyung, as well 
as the Dhunsiri, is navigable. The Deyung rises in the 
Bura Ail Mountains near 93^ E. long., and aAer having 
been joined bysome small river8 itbecomesnavigable about 
20 miles below its source at Aloogong (25" 25' N. lat.), and 
continues to be navigable to its mouth, with tbe exception 
of one plaoe, where a ledge of rocks traverses the bed cf the 
river. The Deyung is joined from the left by the Kopili, 
and from theeast by the Soomoona river, of which the latter 
is navigable about 30 miles above its moutb. It is not 
known how iar the Kopili is navigable, but tbis important 
point will soon be asoertained, as it is supposed that a gobd 
road, made between tbe places wbere the Kopili and tbe 
Jatinga, an affluent of the Barak, become na\igable, will 
establish an easy communicalion between Asam and the 
plain 6f Silhet 

Chmate, — ^The climate of tbe lower plain does not appear 
to diiTer in any respect from tbat of Bengal [Bengal, vo1. 
iv., p. 230] ; but the upper plain bas tbe advantage of earlier 
rains, which begin to fall in Pebruary, and become more 
abundant in the following montbs. Owing probably to 
tbese rains, the lower plain of Silhet is under water earlier 
than tbat of Lower Bengal. 

Productions, — In the ^orests of tbeTiperah Mountains 
tbere are herds of elephauts, many of which are annually 
sent to Calcatta, where however they are reckoned inrerior 
in size and quality to those brought irom Cbittagong. 
Among the minerals the cbunam, or lime, perbaps is still 
tbe most important, as large quantities of it are taken irom 
the lime-bills which skirt the Garrow and Kasia Mountains 
at Pondua and &rtber west, whence it is conveyed by 
water to Calcutta and otber places in Bengal. Many years 
ag:o coal was discovered in the Garrow and Kasia Moun- 
tains, but it was not tumed to any profit until the introduc- 
tion of steam-navigation. It is now known that ooal is 
found on the table-land of the Kasia Mountains at Cbirra- 
Punji and Serarim, and at tbe base of tbese mountains near 
Silhet and Laour. But none of tbese ooal-deposits seem to 
be extensive. It is however stated that tbose which occur 
in the Caribari Hills and along the soutbern boundaries of 
Asam, both which Ibcalities are within tbe Garrow Moun- 
tains, are not inferior in extent to any in England. Iron-oro 
is abundant in the Kasia Mountains north of Oiirra-Punji, 
where it is worked, ahd wbence iron is sent to Bengal. 

Inliabitants, — The inhabitants of Silhet Proper are Ben- 
galis, and hardly distinguisbable fr<u&>that racein the dit- 

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$ I h 

s 1 1 

iriets farlher weat. But «mong t]xem there are also many 
familie8 of Hindustani and Persian originy.wbo are distin- 
guished by their feature8 and the stronger make of the 

Tbe ELacharis form the bulk of the population in Kachar, 
but they are also fdund in Asam and Tiperah. Tbey con- 
stitute a distinct people, diiTecing in appearance, religion» and 
cttstoma from the other inhabitants. The antient rehgion 
of Kaehar is diSerent Arom Brahmanism. It acknowledges 
a Supreme Being, or iirst principle» ftom which the world 
and ail that it oontains is derived. The manifest powers of 
uature are worshipped« or rather, certain spirits who have 
authority over tbem and inAuence the changes of the 
seasona. But in modern times Brahmanism bas gained 
footing, and is spreading. The Kaoharis have a distinct 
language, but as it is unwritten, it has been superseded 
for ali purposes of business by the Bengali for many cen- 
turies, so that at present the language is npt known by 
nany of the Kacharis them8elveS. The Kaeharis are in- 
dustrious agriculturists. 

Tiie Kasias, eommon]y called Cossyas, call themselves 
Khyee, and inhabit the mountains, which have obtained 
their name from this nation. They are an athletic race of 
mountaineets, fond of martial appearance, and their repu- 
tation as warriors is hardly extinct, for their extensive pre- 
datory inroads are still remembered in Silhet and Asam. 
Tbeir religion is limited to certain superstitious practices, 
and to reYerenoing and sacrificing to the presiding deities 
of Tillages, bills, and similar localities, without the know- 
ledge of a universal and all«pervading intelligence. Brab- 
manism has made some progress among the Kasias, ORpe- 
eially those of Jyntea, but it has not led to the entire aboii- 
tioD of their national superstitions, connected with wbich 
was ihe praeticeof human sacriAce. The Khyee language 
is unwritten, and exhibits no affinity to any of the neigh- 
bouring languages, some of which, numerous and diver- 
siiled as they are» oontain vanous indications of a common 
origin. No ^reat respect is paid by the Kasias to hereditary 
ehiefs, though their rank is readily admitted, but tbeir m- 
Aaenoe depends mbre on their personal character and their 
power to direct the public assemblies without which nothing 
is determined either in the community coUectiTely or in 
Ihe seToral yillages. It was reserred to the British govem- 
ment to subdue the martial disposition of this people, and 
to eompel them to discontinue their predatory incursions 
into Silhet and Asara. Polyandry is said to exist among 
tbe Kasias, but if it is still in use, it is far from being 

The Nagas are another race of mountaineers, consisting 
of numerous small tribes, which extend from the southern 
border of the yale of Asam, east of the Kopili river, to the 
eastern portion of the Tiperah Mountains. On the north- 
east they appear to be neighbours of the Khamtis. Tbey 
are generally associated with the Kukis, from whom how- 
ever they difier essentially in language, customs, and ap- 
pearance. Though in general tall, well made, and often 
powerful men, the limbs of the Nagas have not the massive 
configuration of those of the Kukis and other hill-men. It 
appears from the featurc8 of their face that they belong to 
the Mongolic race. The Nasas are not a migratory or wan- 
dering people, like tlie hill Kacharis and Kukis, who con- 
tinually change their loeality, and seldom keep their vil- 
lages more than three years in one spot, whilst thc Nagas 
lemain fixed. AU their viI1ages are built on the tops of 
tbe mountaius, and fortified with stookades and a ditch. 
Like the nations that inhabit the peninsula beyond the 
Gangea, they eat all kinds of animals, tigers, elephants, 
hogs, dogs, cats, monkeys, and even serpents. It is certain 
that the different dialects which are spoken by them differ 
80 much that several tribes liying not far from one another 
can have no intercourse without an interpreter. Several of 
their tribes are much addicted to plunderine. In 1839 
soma troops were sent by the British against the Angamee 
Nagaa, who inhabit the mountainous country north of the 
Bura Ail range, and had become very troublesome to the 
Kacharis who inhahit Upper Kachar. 

The Kukis inhabit tbe Tiperah Mountains. A few families 
ofthi8 race.which are found inUpper Kachar, have been 
transplanted to ^hat country in modern times. Though 
short of stature, they seem to be the most powerful of all 
the mountaineers in that part of the world, and have long 
been notorious for their attacks on the peaoeful inhabitants 
of the pUun» not for the purpose of pluiiaering them» but in 

order to kill them and carry off their heads. These heads 
are used in certain ceremonies which are performed at the 
funerals of their chief8. In this particular, and cdso in their 
features, which approach tbose of tbe Chinese and other 
nations of the Mongol race, they resemble the Garrows, who 
also, like the Kukis, eat all kinds of animals. But both 
nations, as well as the Nagas, and the Mugs in Arracan» 
cannot be induced to take milk or anything made of it 
This similarity in customs, and aUo in their physical cha- 
racter, leads to the conclusion that all these nations belong 
to the same race of whieh the Chinese constitute a branch. 
It is however remarkable that the Garrows are separated 
from those nations by the Kasias and Kacharis, who differ 
in the conformation of tbeir bodies, and among whom all 
the customs just enumerated are unknown. It is nearly 
certain that the Kukis are cannibals. 

Political Diinsions and Towns. — That portion of Siihet 
which form8 a part of the British possessions contains the 
district of Silhet, and the two oountries of Jyntea and 
Kachar, which have lately been annexed to it. 

1. Silhet comprehends the whole of the lower and a part 
of the upper plain as far east as the Banca Mountains or 
the Delaseri river. It seems to contain raany small towns^ 
and some of considerable extent The largest is probably 
Baniacbung, situated in the low plain between the Soorma 
and Brak river8. It is the residence of the raja of Bania- 
chung, the greatest land proprietor in Silbet, and is a large 
place, containing a great population. The town of Azme- 
rigunj, west of Baniachung, on the banks of the Soorma, is 
a place of considerable inland trafiic, with a boat-building 
establishment for the construction of native craft. The town 
of Silhet is built on the upper plain, on tbe banks of the 
Soorma, and is the seat of the local govemment. Laour, 
farther west, at the foot of the Garrows Mountains, carries 
on a oonsiderable commerce with the Garrows, who bring 
cotton, wax, and honey, which they exchange for salt and 
some cotton-cloth and brass ornaments. Lime is sent from 
tbis place to Calcutta. Pondua, a small fortress, at the 
base of the Kasia Monntains north-north-west of Calcutta, 
is the marketfor the Kasias, who inhabit the westem partof 
the mountain region. Tbey exchange wax, honey, oranges, 
areca nuts, cassia, and other products of 'tbeir country, for 
cotton 8tuff8, salt, rice, and other pro^iaions. 

2. Jyntea lies north of the npper plain of Silhet, of which 
a small portion also belongs to it, and it extends northward 
to the boundary of Asam, where also a part of the low 
and liat country was subject to its raja, but the greater por- 
tion of this country was in the Kasia Mountains, and the 
Kasias constituted the principal populat ion of the raja's ter- 
ritory. Eastward it extended to the Kopili, or the boun- 
dary of Kachar ; and on the west it was separated from the 
mountains inhabited by the Garrows by two smaller coun- 
tries, called Koiram and DuUa, whose sovereigns however 
seem to have been dependent in some degree on the raja of 
Jyntea» as they now are on the British. Jynteapoor, the 
capital, is built not far from tbe southem declivity of the 
KasiaMountains in the plain, about 20 miles to the northof 
the town of Silhet The convalescent station of Chirra 
Punji is in the territories of the raja of Koiram, and that of 
Nungklao is in those of the raja of DuUa. 

3. Kachar, or Kirumbha, extends over the larger part of 
the upper plain, and the whole of the mountain region 
which is east of the Kopili and west of the Dooyong. But 
within these boundaries are the territories of the Tooleram 
raja, and the country inhabited by tbe Angamee Naga 
tribe, which is quite independent, whiUt the Tooleram raja 
is dependent on the British. The country is chieAy inha- 
bited by Kacharis, among whora many Naga tribes are dis- 
persed, and also a number of Kukis, BengaUs,and fugitives 
frora Muneepoor. Kachpoor, the capital, is on the plain 
between the banks of the Barak river and the base of tbe 
Bura Ail range: it is a poor place. East of it, and south of 
the pass of HaAong, is the village of Oodarbund, which is 
much resorted to by the Naga tribes, who exchange cotton, 
ivorv, wax, and chillies, for salt, dried fish, conch shells, 
beads, and brass ornaments. But the chicf part of the 
cotton collected in these parts is brought in boats to Raha 
Chocky in Asam. 

History, — Silhet Proper seems always to have been sub- 
ject to the sovereign of Bengal, and it passed with that pro- 
vince under the dominion of the British : but it does not 
appear that anv portion df the mountatu regioui or eveii 
IjDwer Kachari nai erer belonged to any iovereign of Hin 

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dustan. Some centuries ago howeyer the greater part of 
these countries vas included in the empire of Kamroop, 
vhich also extended over the greater part of Asam. This 
empire fell to pieees, and tben the kingdoms of Muneepoor, 
Kachar, and Jyntea were formed. Continual disputes in 
the reigning famiUes rendered them weak, but the dif- 
/ieulties of entenng their country with an army secured 
them against foreign invasion. The English. after taking 
possession of Bengal, did not pay atlention to these coun- 
tries, considering this frontier 8ufficiently defended by the 
weakness of their neighbours. In 1774 they punished the 
Kasias of Jyntea for their predatory incursions by taking 
possession of that country, but restored it to the raja on 
payment of a fine. The Burmese, taking advantage of dis- 
putes in the royal family of Muneepoor, possessed them- 
ielves of that country, and at last (1820) declared it to be a 
part of their empire, and they soon after sent an army from 
Birma, and another from Asam, to the conque8t of Kachar. 
Upon this the sovereign of that country and the raja of 
Jyntea placed themseWes under the protection of the 
British. During the war with the Burmese, the possession 
of these countries was obstinately disputed, but by the peace 
of Yandaboo (1825) they were given up to the British, who 
restored them totheirlegitimate soyereigns. In 1830 theraja 
of Kachar, Govind Chandra, died, without leaving any issue, 
and the East India Company took possession of Kachar. A 
few years afterwards the raja of Jyntea was deprived of his 
country on account of his crimes and his cruelty, and since 
that time both countries have been united to Silhet. 

(Walter's Joumey across the Pundoa Hills^ in Asiatic 
Besearc/ies, vol. xvii. ; Pemberton's Report on the Eastem 
Prontier of Brilish India; MacClelland, On the Dif- 
ference of Level in Indian Coal-Jlelds, in Joumal of the 
Asiatic Society qfBengal, 1838; (rrange^s Narrative ofan 
Expedition into the Naga Territory ofAssam, in Journal 
of Asiat. Sodeiy of Bengal, 1839; Fisher*s Memoir of 
Sylhet, Kachar, and the adjacent Disiricts, in Joumal of 
the Asiatic Soc of Bengal, \SAO ;yfi\son'% Historyofthe 
Burmese War.) 

SILHOUEITE, aname frequently applied to the black 
proAle porlraits commonly known simply as prnJUes or 
shades. The latter name indicates the origin of this simple 
class of pictorial representations, they having been probably 

suggested by the shadow thrown upon a wall. Beckmann, 
in his paper on * Plant Impressions ' {Hist of Inceniions, 
English edit. of 1814, vol. iv., p. 621), observes, in referenco 
to such productions and profile portraits, ' If it be true that 
the extreme boundaries of all thinga approach or touch each 
other, one might almost belieye that the arts of drawing and 
engraving on copper must have attained nearly to the 
highest degree of perfection.' ' At present,' he continues, 
' while we have among us a Tischbein, a Haid, and other 
great «'tists, whose portraits of the persons whom they 
honour with their pencil or graver are such striking like- 
nesses that they appear to live, we return again to the 
commencement of the art of drawing, the paltry outline of 
a shadow, like the loYe-sick daughter of Dibutades, and 
tbink we ornament our aparlments and books with these 
dark and dismal proSles, and that we can discover by tbem 
the talents and disposition of the persons they are supposed 
to represent.' The name silhouetie has been said to be 
derived from Etienne de Silhouette, French minister of 
finance in 1759. It appears that 8everal parsimonious 
fashion8 introduced during his administration, in order, by 
8evere economy, to remedy the evils of a war that had just 
terminated, were called,after this miuister, d la Silhouette; 
and that th^ name has continued to be applied to one of 
them, — the use of profiles in shade. 

Silhouettes are executed in variou8 ways. One of the 
simplest is that of tracing the outliues of a shadow thrown 
on a sheet of paper, and then reducing them to the reauired 
6ize, either by the eye or by means of a pantograph. [Pan- 
T06RAPH, vol. xvii., p. 192.] Another mode is tracing the 
outline upon a i^lass supported in a suitable position, and 
either coated with a solution of gum-arabic in water« in order 
to euable a lead pencil to mark upon it, or covered with a 
sheet of very thin tracing-paper. The camera-obscura and 
camera-lucida are also occasionally used for the purpose. 
A more certain mode of obtaining an accurate outline is by 
the use of the machine invented for the purpose by Mr. 
Schmalcalder, and patented by him in 1806. The prin- 
ciple of this machine is very simpie, and may be readily 
understood by the aid of the annexed d^agram. a6 is an 
intiexible rod, usually about nine or ten feet long, supported 
by a ball-aud-socket joint at c, in such a manner as to leave 
the ends free to move in any direction. At the end o» a 


iracer, which is tapered off to a fine point, is attached to 
the rod, so as to f6rm a continuation of it ; while at the 
opposite end, b, a steel point is sirailarly fixed. The person 
whose profile is recjuired is seated, in the position indicated 
in the cut, in a chair having a rest for the back of the head, 
in order that he may sit perfectly still, while the operator 
gently passes the side of the tracer, o, over his features. By 
the intervention of the univer8al joint at c, a perfectly similar 
motion is communicated to the steel point at 6, although, 
owing to the pivot being placed nearerto it than to the other 
end of tho rod, it moves in a path smalier than that of the 
tracer a. The pivot c being stationary, the steel point at b 
moves in the arc of a circle of which it (the pivot) is the 
centre, as indicated by the dotted line in the diagram ; and 
therefore, in order to keep the paper always in contact with 
it, it is fixed on a swinging board, pivoted at d, and con- 
stantly pressed against the steel point by means of a weight 
or spring, with a sufficient degree of force to make it act 
eAlciently. The steel point does not come into immcdiate 
oontact with the white paper, but with a piece of blacked 
paper placed over it, the pressure of the pioint transferring 
a 8ufficient quantity of the oolour to form a distinct line. 
This part of the operation resembles that of a manifold- 
writer ; and, as in that instrument, several copies may be 
produced simuUaneously, by using a number of pieces of 
whiteand blacked paper, laid alternately upon the swinging 
board. The size of the reduced outline drawn on the paper 
may be regulated by varying the relative proportions of a <; 
and cb; this and 8everal other adjustments being effected 
by apparatus which it is unnecessary here to detail. By 
tneans of a cord eee, held in the hand of the operator, the 

swinging board d may be drawn back from the steel point 
when it is required to move the rodwithout making a mark 
upon the paper. As it is desirable to have the tracer a of 
small diameter, it is usually formed of steel, and carefully 
tempered, to avoid the risk of breakage. Greater accuracy 
may be attained by substituting for the tracer a thin wire, 
tightly stretched in a bow, and adjusted so as to coincide 
peHectly with the axis of the rod. Some friction may be 
avoided by using a double-swivel joint, instead of the ball- 
and-socket, at c; but whaterer kind of pivot be adopted, 
great care should be taken to have it perJTectly accurate, as 
any defect in it will produce a distorted drawingr. When 
the outline of a profile is obtained by any of the roeans just 
described, it require8 to be careful1y filled in with colour by 
hand. In some cases, in the use of Schmalcalder s machine, 
a kiud of knife is substituted for the steel point at 6, and 
the profiIe is thus cut out of a piece of thin black papcr 
placed on the swinging board. This machine may aUo be 
used for making reduced copies of drawings or prints, by 
attaching a suitable tracing-point at a, and fixing the origi- 
nal drawing on a second swinging board in contact wiih it; 
the operator guiding the tracing-point over all the outlines 
that he wishes to copy. Some profilists dlsplay considerable 
talent in cutling silhouettes by hand, with a pair of scissors, 
out of pieces of black paper, without tbe assistance of an 

Although silhouettes have no claim to the chnracter of 
works of art, they frequently convey a very good idea of the 
person represented ; and they roay be made even elegant in 
appearance. Some of the best proAlists greatly improve 
the appearance of their silhouettes b}^ adding the priucipal 
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S I L 


S I L 

markings of the hair and drapery, which, if 
done. has a very good effect. Of the great estent to which 
thid kind of portrait haj» been patronised» some idea may be 
formed from the fact that Mr. Schmalcalder has madeand 
20UI nearly a hundred of his machines. 

SILrCIUM. or SrUCON, the baseo^ the wellknown 
eanh Siliea or Flint By some chemists it is regard:^ as a 
netal, and hence tho termination of its name in um; whiie 
oihers conaider it as non-metallic, but more allied to boron, 
and these adopt the term Silicon. 

Sir H. I>avy, hy actiog upon Silica with potassium, ar- 
rived at the conclusion that it waa an oxide, containing a 
pecttliar inOammable base, to which he gave the name of 
Silicium ; ihe accuracy of this determination has since been 
demonstrated hy Berzeliu8. 

In I>avy*s experiments the silica yielded its oxygen 
directly to the potassium. The process of Berzelius was 
c]ifferent : he prepared it more adyantageously by passing 
Huosilicic acid into a solution of potash, evaporating the 
aolution to dryness, and heating the residue nearly to red- 
ness ; this being then heated with about an eq,ual weight of 
potaaaium in a green glass tube. the potaasium corobines 
vith the oxygen of the silica ; the resulting mass is of a 
brown colour, and is to be washed at flrst with cold water, and 
aAerwards with hot; then heated to redness; and, lastly, 
dtgested in dilute hvdrofiuoric acid, to separate any adhering 
silica : the silicon then remains nearly pure. 

The properties of silicon are, that it has a dark-brown 
colour, no lustre, and is a non-conductor of electricity : it is 
this latter circumstance which has induced many chemists 
to guestion or deny the propriety of classing it with the 
nietala. It is insoluble in water, and incombustible in air 
or in oxygen gas ; it neither fuses nor undergoes any other 
change when beated in the flame of the blow-pipe. iNeither 
the nitric, hydrochloric, sulphuric, nor hydroAuoric acid 
oxidizes or dissoWes it ; but a mixture of nitric and hydro- 
lluonc acid dissoWes it readily, even cold. When ignited 
writh chlorate of potash, silicon is not acted upon ; but if 
deAagrated with nitrate of potash, the silicon combines with 
the osygen of the decomposed acid, and is converted into 
silica. or silicic acid; and this uniting with the potash of 
tbe decomposed nitrate, silicate of pctash is formed. 

Oxygen and Silicon form only one compound, naroely, 
silica, or ailicic acid. It may he obtained artiAcially, but 
Tery inconvenientIy, in the mode just mentioned, of defla- 
Kialing silioon with nitrate of potash. Silica exists very 
largely in nature ; it is indeed probably the most abundant 
of all substauces whatever. Many of the forms under 
whicb it occurs are described elsewhere. [Quartz.] Rock 
eiystal is silica, nearly or quile pure, and Aints or white 
sand are hut slightly interraixed with other hodies. It is 
artiAcially obtained in a pure form by fusing crystal, sand, 
or llints, with about four times their weight of carbonate 
at soda or carbonate of potash ; the resulting fused msss is 
either silicate of soda or silicate of potash ; the latter is a 
de1iquescent substance, and when it has become fluid by 
expofture to the air, has been long known by the name of 
liquor of Aints ; when either of these silicates is treated with 
hydrochlorie acid diluted with water, it combines with the 
alkaU, and with any impurity which the sand or flint roight 
csontain, such as lime, alumina, or oxide of iron, and pre- 
cipitates the silica as a hydrate in the state of a colourless 
^laiinous mass. It possesses the foIIowing properties : — 

Wben rerently precipitated, and while it retains the state 
ot moist hydrate, it is to a certain extent soluble in water, 
and Btill more so in acids» and also in solution of potash or 
soda. When it has been dried, it is an opaque white powder, 
inodorous, insipid, and gritty, and then with more ditficulty 
aoluble in the alkaline solutions, and scarcely at all so in any 
other acid than the hydroAuoric It is infusible by the heat 
ot ordinary fumaces, but by the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe it 
is more readily fused than lime or magnesia. Its speciAc 
gravity is about 2*7. 
It consists of 

1 EquivalentofOxygen . . 8 
1 Equivalent of Silicon • . 8 

Equiva1ent . . 16 

AUbough thts su>stance is tasteless, and does not change 
regetable blue colours red,and is insoluble in water, except 
bndcr the peculiar circurostances roentioned, it is neverthe- 
less by many cheraists considered as and classed with acids, 
uoder the name of SiUcic acid; and the Tarious compounds 
P. C, No. 1360. 

whicii it makes with alkalis and earths, to form cclasa, are 
considered as salts. Thus with potash it form8 silicate of 
potash ; with soda, silicate of soda; and with oxide of lead, 
silicate of lead; and theae are all constituents of glass. 
China and porcelain, on the other hand. may be regarded 
as silicates of alumina and magnesia, and mortar is probably 
a silicate of lime. 

It must be evident from what has been stated, that silira 
is a substance of the utmost importance in many respects ; 
it enters lar^ely into the constitution of minends, rocks, and 
fossils, and is employed in the manuiacture of glass, porce- 
lain, pottery, bricks, tiles» and mortar. 

The compounds which silioon forms with other elements 
are comparatively unimportant: we shall mention only a 
few of them, and those but brietty. 

Chlorine and Silicon may be made to combine by heating 
tbe silicon in chlorine gas, or by passing tbe gas over silicon 
heated to redness in a porcelain tub6; or, acoording toOersted, 
by passing chlorine gas over a red>hot mixtQre of finely 
powdered silica and charcoal. 

Chloride of Silicou is coraposed of 

1 £quivalent of Chlorine . . 36 
1 Equivalent of Silicon . . 8 

Equivalent . . 44 

It is a Yolatile Iiquid which croits aoid fume8 ; when ex- 
posed to moist air, or mixed with water, both are decom- 
posed, and the results are hydrochloric acid and silica. 

Plunrine and Silicon, [Pluosilicic Acid.] 

Meials with Silicon. — Some of the metals may be com- 
bined with silicon : these compounds, which are not impor- 
tant, are termed Siliciuret*, ' Some Yarieties of casi-hron 
contain neurly 8 per cent. of ihe siliciurei of that metal. 

SILrCULA (in Botany),a kind of fruit. In its structure 
it resembles the Siliqua [Sxliqua], and differs in nothing 
but its Agure, which is rounded and much shorter, and in 
the number of its seeds. It is never more than fuur trmea 
as long as broad, and often mucb shorter. Examples of it 
may be seen in the whitlow-grass iDraba), in the shep- 
herd*s-purse {Capxellah and in the horse-radish. 

SI'LIQU A (in Botany). a kind of fruit It is characterised 
hy having one or two cells, with many seeds, dehiticiug by 
two valve8. wbich separate from a central poition callecl the 
replum. It is linear in form, and is alwaVs superior to the 
calyx and corolla. The seeds are attached to iwo placent»» 
which adhere to the replum, and are opposite to the lobea 
of the stigma. This position of the seeds, being abnormal, 
can only bc explained in two ways : eilher this fi uit is ia 
reality composed of four carpels, two of which have, during 
the growth of the. pistil, become abortive ; or the stigmaa 
must be looked upon as the fusion of two halves, one trom 
each side. The dissepiment of tlie fruit in this case ia 
most probably a spurious one formed by the projecting 
placeniiB. It is sometimes found incomplete, fiom the 
edges of the placentsB not meeting ; it is then said to be /e- 
nestrate. This kind of seed-vessel is posbcssed by a large 
number of plants belonging to the order Crucifer8D, and ex- 
amples may be seen in the stock or wall-flower (Cheiran' 
thus), in the ladies* sroock ( Cardamine\ and in the cabbage. 
turnip, and muslard. Tlie Linnssan class Tetradynamia 
is divided into two orders, according to the form of iis fruit : 
those plants of the class having a silique are comprised 
under the order SiIiquosa; those having a silicle [Sili- 
cula], under the order Siliculosa. 

Sl^LlpUA (Megerle), a genus helonging to the Legu- 
minariat Schum.. and consisting of those species of Solen, 
Auct., which are fumished with an internal rib — Solen ror 
diatus for exarople. [Pyloridians.] 

S1LIQUA'RIA. [Yermetus] 

SILPSTRIA, a sandjak (district) of Bulgaria, in Euro- 
pean Turkey, situated between 42° 12' and 45* 22' N. lat., 
and 26* 11' and S^* 3' E. lons;., is one of the most Tertile 
parts of Turkey. This sandjak is bounded on the north 
by the Danube and Sireth, which separate it from Mol- 
davia and Bessarabia ; on the east by the Black Sea ; on 
the south by the sandjaks of Kirk-kilissia and Tchirmen ; 
and it has on the west Rustchuk and Lower Wallachia. It 
is crossed in the soath by the Balkan, which forms Cape 
Emineh, at the termination of the roountain-range ; and 
by a ramification of less height in a northern direction, 
which terminates on the Black Sea in Cape Calaghriah. 
From these heights descend the numerous rivers which 
fertilise the province; the Pravadi, the Buyuk-Curapl- 

VpL, xxii.--x: 

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S I L 


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Chik» the Nadir, and the Aidos Aowinto the Blaok 
Sea, into which the Danube empties it8elf on the northern 
extremity of the provinoe, after receiving the Dristra, the 
Taban, and the Karasu. It ia chielly an agricultural 

SILISTRIA. or Drystra, the antient name of which is 
Dorostero or Durosterum, in 44'' 7' N. lat and 27^ 12' E. 
lon?., 155 miles uorth-north-east of Constantinople, is the 
capitaL of the sandiak which bears the Bame name. The 
town ia lar^, and aefended by a citadel, which is kept in 
good order, and aurrounded by double walls and ditches. 
The city itself is surrounded by ditches from twelve to fif- 
teen feet deep; and defended by strong palisades. The fort 
is situated on the extreme west of the town, whioh, upon the 
whole, is ill built ; the streets are narrow and crooked, the 
houses low and duU; even the five mosque8 and the two 
public baths partake of the general ugliness. There is how- 
ever at the eastern extrenflty of the town acustom-house in a 
better style of architecture. The large magazines which sur- 
round it contain chietty com and tlour. As it is a fortress 
built on the northern frontier, in the neighbourhood of the 
Danube. and is principally of a military character, the com- 
merce has never been Mourishing; andalthough many mer- 
chants have lately settled in Silistria, it is uot likely that 
any greater commercial activity will be the conse^uence. 
The population amounts to 20,000, the greater part of whom 
are Greeks. 

The environs of the town are rather pleasant, and the 
numerous vineyards which border the Danube give them a 
cheering aspect. There are also ruins, which are said to 
have formed part of the wall raised by the Greek emperors 
against the incursions of the barbarians. 

Silistria has frequently been the theatre of sharp actions 
between the Russians and the Turks. It was unsuccess^ully 
besieged by the Russians in 1 773, and was again attacked by 
tbem in 1 779, on which latter occasion they suATered a con- 
siderable loss. In 1828 General Rosh was obliged to retreat 
afler besieging the town for some months ; but it fell into 
the hands of the Russians in 1829, whcn Grenerals Diebitch 
and Krassowski took it by assault on the 30th of June. 

SrLIUS ITA'LICUS, CAIUS. The place of this poet'» 
birth is unknown. It has sometimes been stated that the 
name is derived from Italica (near Seville) in Spain, and 
that this was the birth-place of himself or of his ancestors. 
But to this conjecture we must oppose the silence of Martial, 
who frequently mentions Silius without speaking of his 
Spanish origin. The name also ought in that case, accord- 
ing to analogy, to be Italicensis. Silius was of an illustrious 
plebeian family. He studied oratory, in which Cicero was 
nis pattern ; and he also aspired to roake himself a poet on 
the model of Yirgil. He is said to have possessed niraself 
of a country-bouse that had belonged to Cicero, and of onc 
that had belonged to Yirgil. (Martial, Eptg., xi. 48.) In 
the ycar a.d. 68, in the last year of the reign of Nero, he 
was consul with M. Yalerius Trachalus Turpilianus ; and 
some time after he was governor of the province of Asia, 
which he is said to have administered in a creditable man- 
ner. He was a friend of yitellius, and appears to be the 
Silius Italicus who is mentioned by Tacitus (H/«/., iii. 65). 
There was, says Pliny (J^., iii. 7), a rumour that he had 
acted the part 'of an accuser or informer under the reign of 
Nero ; but while he enjoyed the friendship of Yitellius, he 
conducted him8elf with prudence. He finully retired to his 
estate in Campania, where he devoted himself to poetry and 
philosophy. Silius was fond of objects of art, and he en- 
richcd his residence with statues, paintings, and books. 
When his old age became troubled with infirmities, he has- 
tened his death by starvation, in which be followed the 
^ashion of those times, when suicide was not uncommon. 
Silius was a Stoic. The time of his death is rixcd at a.d. 
100, when he is said to have completed his sevent^-fifth 
year. He was married, and had two children. He enj.oyed, 
says Pliny, unmingled happiness to the dp.y of hi? death, 
with thc exception of the loss of his younger child. 

The only extant work of Silius Italicus is an epic poem 
un the second Punic war, in seyenteen books, entitled 
'Punica.' This poem, which may be called an historical 
epic, comprises the chief events of thĕ war from the com- 
menccment of the siege of Saguntum (i. 268), to the defeat 
of Hannibal in Africa and the triumph of Scipio Africanus. 
[Scipio.] The materials of Silius seem to be chietly taken 
from Polybius and Livy, and the poem has consequently a 
kind of historical valuc. As a work of art, it has been va- 
riously cstimated, but the judgment of the younger Pliny 

(Ep., iiL 7) ieems to us to be correct: 'Sillus wrote wtth 
more industry than genius.' His poem is in fact a very 
laboured eompoiition, and the labour is apparent. Nume- 
rous episodes interrupt the continuity or the narrative. 
Silius fall8 short of his model, Yirgil, in simplicity and 
cleamess ; and he endeavours to roake up for force and pre- 
eision by rhetorical ornament and long-drawn description. 
Instead of making a picture by a few striking touches, he 
fill8 it with detail till the whole is trivial. His inrvention is 
poor. There are few passages which excite our sympathies. 
In short, the poem is a rhetorical history in ver8e. AI1 his 
contemporaries however did not judge so unfavourably of 
him. Martial on 8everal oocasions speaks very highly of 
him, and compares him with Yirgil (Ep.^ iv. 14 ; Vi. 64 ; vii. 
63; 'perpetui nunquam moritura volumina Sili;* viii. 66 ; 
ix. 86; xi. 49, 51): he also celebrates his eminence as an 
orator. Acoording to Martial, in an epigram written af\er 
Silius had enjoyed the consulate, he did not attempt to imi- 
tate Yirgil till he had acquired distinction as an advocate. 
Martial mentions the court of the Centumviri as one of 
the places in which he practised : Pliny the younger also 
prantised in this court. [Pliny.] 

The poems of Silius seem to have been forgotten afler his 
death, if we raay judge from the silence of subsequent 
writers as to them. Sidonius Apollinaris is the only writer 
who mentions them. Poggio is said to have discovered a 
MS. of Silius in the library of the convent of St. Gallen, in 
Switserland, which was printed at Rome, 1471, folio. An- 
other MS. was atterwards found at Cologne by Ludwig C&rrio, 
from which the textof Silius was improved. It was to supply 
the loss of the * Punica' that Petrarca, as it is said, wrote his 
* Africa.' It has been conjectured that Petrarca had a copy 
of Silius, which he made use of, and carefully suppressed. 
Such conduct would be quite inconsistent with the character 
of Petrarca, and one would suppose that a comparison of the 
two poems would soon determme whether there is any foun- 
dation for such a statement. 

There are numerous editions of Silius. The editio prin- 
ceps is that of Rome already mentioned. There is an edi- 
tion by Drakenborch, Utrecht, 1717. and Mitau, 1775 ; by 
Ernesti, Leipzig, 1791-2; and by Ruperti, with a prerace 
by Heyne, Gottingen, 1795-98. 

There is an English translation by Thomas Ross, London, 
1661, 1672, folio; and a Prench translation by Le Febvro 
de Yillebrune, Paris, 1781, 3 voIs. 12mo. 

SILIVRI, a seaport of Romania, in European Turkey, 
in 41® 4' N. lat and 28* 13' E. long., ihirty-two miles west 
of ConstantinoplOt is built in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the declivity of a small hill facing the Sea of Marmara. 
It forms a beautiful object when seen from the sea, and 
commands a fine prospect of thc Sea of Marmara. The top 
of the hill is crowned by the ruins of a fort, which waii 
built under the Greek empire. The population is 150O 
Greeks and 200 «lews. The part of the town below the fort 
is solely occupiod by Turks, who are about 4500. TheTurks 
have 8everal mosques, aiid a market-placo, which is much 
admired. The harbour admits only stnall vessels, and is 

tenerally filled with fishing-boats, which furni$h the inha- 
itants with a plentiful supply of food. The environs of 
the town are covcred with vineyards and corn-fields. Tho 
antient name is Selybria, often written Selymbria. (Steph. 
Byzant., ^fj\vfiPpia; Strabo, p. 319, Casaub., Xij\vfifiia.) It 
was a colony of the Megarians. 

SILK. Thc manner in which raw silk is produced haa 
already been described'[BoMBYCiDA], and its value when 
wrought andmanufactured hasalsobeen noticed. [Riband.] 
China was undoubtedly the country in which men dnt 
availed themseWes of the labours of the silk-worm. Serica 
(the country of the Seres) was a name by which the Mace- 
donian Greeks designaled the country which produced the 
silk that came overIand from tho north of Chiua. The au- 
thor of the • Periplus of the ErythroBan Sea' speaks of silk 
in Malabar as an article imported from countries farlher to 
the east ; from which it may be inferred that the culture of 
the silk-worm ahd the manuracture of silk had not been in- 
troduced even into In'dia fuur huudred years after silk was 
known in Europe. In speaking of the country of the 
ThinoB, the same author observes that both the raw mate- 
rial and manufaclured article were obtained there. The 
' Median robes,' spoken of by the Greek writers of ihe period 
of the Persian empire, and extolIed for their lustrous beauty 
and brilliancy, werc no doubt silken vestment8, as Proco- 
pius, long afterwards, when silk had been introduced iuto 
Europe, states that 'the robcs which were formerly called 
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S I L 

Median by the Gioeks aie now called silken.' Anstotle is 
the Orst Greek author wbo mentions the Bilk-worm (Nat. 
HuL, V. 19) ; and he states ihat silk was first spun in the 
islandof Cos, but the raw material was still an ohental pro- 
duet; and Pliny (xi. 22X in oommenting on this passage, 
states that the silk came from Assyria, and was worked up 
by the Greek women : it may be remarked that Assyriawaa, 
like Media, irequentiy used in an indcAnite sense by antient 
writera. Tbe pirobability is tliat silk was used in Westem 
Asia belbre it was known to the Greeks ; and that it was in 
use among the Gr^eks long before they knew whence the 
substance eame or bow it was produced. Thus Yirgil iOĕorg^ 
ii. 121) supposes that the Seres carded the silk from leayes ; 
and Dionysius Periegetea also suppoaed it to be a yegetable 
product : thu« he says, — 

* Nor Aocks nox lieTcU the dtstant Sere« .tend ; 
But (Voni the flow*r8 that in the dcsert bloom, 
Tiiiekar*d wlih eveiry Torying bue,they eall 
The Klowy down, and eard it IJbr the ioom.' 

Pausanias gives more precise information respecting the 
substance from which the Se«es forraed their cloths. *They 
have/ he says, ' a epinning insect, which is kept in build- 
ings, and produces a fine-8pun thread, whioh is wrapped 
about its feet' (vi% 26). • It wasnot until the 8ixth century 
that the obscurity- which env6loped this subject wascleared 
up. At this time siik was an article of general use among 
the Romans, and was manuiactured for them by the inha- 
bitants o^Tyre andBerytus in PbcBnicia. The Persians mo- 
nopolised the supply of the raw material, and guarded their 
trade with so mucb jealousy, both by land and sea, that 
traTellers from or to China were not allowed to tra^erse the 
Perssan dominions ; and in the time of Justinian, in conse- 
qaence of some interference with the trade, they had en- 
tirely stopped the importation of siik. The trade in silk 
was io tbis unsatis^actory state, when two Nestorian monks 
of Persia, who had travelled to China, acquainted Justinian 
wiih tbe. mode of produeing silk, and undertook to return 
and hrins back with them some of the eggs of the silk- 
worm. They were perfectly sncoessf>il in their expedition, 
and a qaantity of eags, seeured in a hoUow oane, were 
brought in 8afety to Constantinople, hatched by the heat of 
a dunghill, and fed with mulberry-leaves. The monks also 
tanght the subjeotsof Justinian the art of manufacturing 

The breeding of silk^worms in Europe was for six oentu- 
lies confined to the Greeks of tbe J^wer Empire. In the 
twelflh oentury the art was transferred to Sicily ; in the 
thirteenth century the rearing of silk-worma and tbe manu- 
iaeture of silk were introduced into Italy, from whence it 
was snece8sively intrcduoed into Spainand Prance, and in 
the ftfteenth eentury the manulacture was established in 

James I. was extreraely solicitous to promote the breed- 
ing and rearingof silk^worms in England; and in 1608 is* 
sued circular letters, which were addressed to persons of 
inAijence throughout the country, recommending the sub- 
ject to them, and arrangements were made for the distribu- 
tion of the mulberry in the di£ferent counties. Most of tbe 
old mulberry-trees found in the netghbourhood of antient 
mansions at the present day were planted at the above 
period. The experiment was not succes&ful, in conse- 

Snence of our climate being unsuited to the 8ilk-wonn. 
ames also encouraged the introduction of the silk-worm 
into the Englisb settlements in America. About a century 
afterwards (1718) a company was incorporated, whieh ob- 
tained a lease for one bundred and twenty-two years of 
Cbelseapark,where mulberry-trees were extensively planted, 
and large buildings erected for managing the business of 
breeding silk-worms. Tbis schenie also failed. An attempt 
wasnextmadetointroducethesilk-worm in the settlements 
of Georgia and Carolina; the importation of raw silk from 
these coTonies was permitted free of duty, and its production 
was further encouraged by direct bounties ; but the qualitv of 
tbe silk provedindiflrerent, and Bfter tbe trade had languished 
fi)r some time, the hope of deriving any large supply from 
this quarter was abandoned. Abouttneyear 1789 nursc- 
riea of mulberry-trees were planted in several statcs of the 
American Union; bnt though theclimate is not unfavour- 
able to tbe rearing of silk-worms, which are found in their 
natural state in the forests, the high rate of wages is an 
obstaele to this sort of emnloyment, which is better adapted 
to tho looiai eonditionof China, Italy, the South of Prance, 

and Malta, where the wages of labour have nearly reached 
their minimum. The subject however has again recently 
attracted attention in the American Union ; and in 1831 a 
small quantity of raw silk was exported. The nroduction of 
raw silk is fast extending in British India^ and the quality 
bas been for some years gradually improving, Tbere is 
every prospect of the English markelr bein^ iu time aimost 
excrusively supplied with silk from our Indian possessions ; 
as labour is not only cheaper than in any part of Europe, 
but three ' csrops' of silk may be taken in the year, while 
from countries west of India, including. Ti^rkey, only one 
can be obtained. In Graham*s 'India.' it is said that in the 
Deccan the mulberry-trees may be deprived of their Ieaves 
six times a year, and that 8ix crops of worms may be ob- 
tained with ease in the same period. The Chinese method of 
rearing silk-worms, and their mode of treating the mulberry- 
tree (described in Davis'8 China^ p. 280), were introduced at 
St Helena, under the auspices of the East India Ck>mpany, 
but on the expiration of their charter the establishment 
was given up. Some of the silk produced in Prance is be- 
lieved to be better than that of any country in the worlJ. 
The average price is twenty irancs perlb., and the quantity 
produced exceeds three million Ibs. The Italian silk is 
also highly esteemed ; the auantity produced is estimated at 
from six to seven million Ibs. In Russia Peter the Great 
formed mulberry plantations, and the rearing of silk-worms 
waa strongly encouraged by the Empress Catharine, and 
at present those who engage in this business obtain roany 
important privileges. In Bavaria and other parts of Ger- 
many, with the exception of Saxony, the silk-worm is suc- 
cessfully reared as a commercial object; also in Sweden, 
where the silk is said to possess some Taluable pro- 
perties not found in that produced in a warmer latitude. 
The last attempt to introduce the silk-worm in the United 
Kingdom on a large scale was made in 1835, by a company 
wbich commenced its operations by planting 80 acres in tlie 
county of Cork wiih 4U00 mulberry-trees ; but the design 
has been abandoned as far as relates to the United King- 
dom, and the company has trausferred its operations to 

Thcre are several works devoted to details of the manage- 
ment of silk-worms, one of the best of which is that ot 
Count Dandolo, an Italian nobleroan : it has been translated 
into Preuch. There are also works on the same subject 
in our own language. 

It is said that 8ixteen yards of gros-de-Naples of ordinary 
quality, or fourteen yards of a superior aescription, aro 
manufactured out of 1 Ib. of reeled silk, to produce which 
twelve Ibs. of cocoons are required. The average weight of 
a cocoon is fi'om three grains to three grains and a quarter ; 
its average lenglh when reeled oflF, about three hundred 
yards. Taking the silk consumed in the United Kingdoin 
in a single year at 5,000,000 Ibs. the foUowing are the sta- 
tistics of production : — 

Raw silk 5,000,000 Ibs. 

12 Ibs. of cocoons to l Ib. of raw silk . 60,000,000 ib$. 
30,000 worms to 1 Ib. of cocoons, 18,000,000,000 worms. 

1 oz. of eggs to 100 Ibs. of cocoons . 600,000 ( °^' ^ 

1 6 lb8. of leaves to l Ib. of cocoons 96,000,000 ( \^l[.^^ 
100 Ibs. of leaves from each tree . 9,600,000 trees. 

Silk is obtained from the spider, not the cobweb, but the 
silky thread which the fem'al^ spins round her eggs has been 
woven ; the silken Abres of the pinna form a Btrong and 
beautiful fabric [Mytilid*] ; and sorae «pecies of molhs 
form cocoons wbich may be spun as a roatter of experiment 
and curiosity, but not with a view to commereial profit. 

The quannties of raw, waste, and thrown silk taken for 
consumption in the United Kingdom in the following 
periods was as under : — 

Annual average. 

1765 to 1767 (inclusive) . . . 715,000 

1785 to 1787 „ . • . 8Sl-,000 

1801 to 1812 „ . . • 1,110,000 

1814 to 1822 „ . . - 1,940,902 

1824 10 1835 „ . . . 4,164,444 

1836 to 1840 „ . . . 4,999,791 

The countries from wbich we importcd raw, waste, and 
thrown silk, in 1839, were as follows : — 

pigitized by V:iOOQIC 

S I L 


S I L 

Watle. Knobt. 

R«w Rilk. 

aad Ili»ks. 

Thrown SUIi 




Imlia . . 



. , 

China . . . 



, , 

Turkey, Syria, 

and Egypt • 


, , 

• • 

Italy , . . 




Pranoe . . 




Otber countriea 





3,746,248 1,042,490 225.268 

Tbe duty on raw silk is Id. per Ib. ; on waste. knubs, and 
husks, It. per cwt ; and on tlirown lilk the following duties 
are imposed:— 5«. 2(L per Ib. on organsine and crape, and 
Zs on tram and singles, dyed ; 3s, 6d. on organsine and 
crapea, 2s, on tram, and It. 6d, on singles, not dyed. It is 
objected to tbis duty on foreign-thrown silk tbat it raises 
unnecessarily the price of all silk thrown at home. A draw- 
baek is allowed on tbe exportation of foreign-thrown silk : 
no British-thrown silk is exported. The first silk-throwing 
mill eiected in England was at Derby, in 1718. [Derby.] 

Reeling firom the cocoons is only performed in countries 
where the silk is produced. Silk reaches the weaver in 
three diiTerent states, in which it is called sineles, tram, and 
organiine [Riband], the preparation of whicn is the busi- 
nesB of tbe throwster. In plain silk-weaving the process is 
much the same as in weaving wooUen or linen ; but the 
weaver is assisted by a machiue for the even distribution of 
the warp, which frequently consists of eight thousand 
separate threads in a breadth of twenty inches. The Jac- 
quard loom, invented by a weaver of Lyon, has been the 
means of facilitatingand cheapening the production of fancy 
or figured silks to an extraordinary extent. Patterns which 
required the greatest degree of skill and the most painful 
labour are produced by this machine by weaver8 of ordinary 
akill, and with but little more labour than that required in 
weaving plain silks. The Jacquard loom has been im- 
proved oy Mr. Hughes and Mr. Jennings, but at Lyon it 
has undergone no alteration. The powei^loom has been 
only partially employed in the silk manufacture ; and ex- 
eepting for the commonest goods, it does not possess any 
great advantage over the hand-loom, as the delicacy of the 
material to be worked, and the attention which must be 
given to the process of the weA, frequently render it neces- 
sary to stop the machine. 

Brocade and damask, the most sumptuous articles of silk 
manufacture acentury ago, are now comparatively unknown. 
Persian, sarsnet, groMe-Naples, ducapes, satin, and levan- 
tines, are the names given to plain silks, which vary from 
one another only in texture, quality, or softnes8. Satin 
derives its lustre from the great proportion of the threads 
of thewarpbeing leftvisible, and the piece being afterwards 
passed over heated cylinders. Other varieties of silk goods 
are produoed by mechanical «rrangements in the loom, such 
as usin^ ditterent shuttles with threads of various substanoea, 
&o. Thepile which oonstitutes the peculiarity of velvetia 
produced by tbe insertion of short pieces of silk thread, 
which cover the surfaoe so entirely as to conceal the inter- 
lacings of the warp and woof. Tbe process of weaving 
velvet isslow, and it is paid for at flve times tbe rate of plain 
ailks. There are several sorts of goods in which silk is em- 
ployed with woollen materials, as poplins and bombazines. 
The Chinese, says Mr. Davis (p. 286), make a species of 
wasibing silk, called at Canton ' ponge,' which becomes more 
soA as it is longer used. Their crapes have nevor yet been 
perfeclly imitated ; and they particularly excel in the pro- 
auetion of damasks and Aowered satins. 

Thesilk manufacture, after its introduction intoEngland 
in the fifteenth centurr, remained for a long period one of 
the least important branches of the national industry. 
After the revoeation of the Edict of Nantes, in 1685, about 
50.000 refugees Hed to England, a large proportion of whom 
settled in SpitalSelds, and carried on the siik manufacture. 
At tbis period foreign ailks were freely admitted ; and 
from 1685 to 1692, suks to the value of from 600,000/. to 
700.000/. were annually imported. In 1692 the refueees 
obtained an exclusive patent for certain artides ; and in 
1697 parliament prohibited the importation of Kreneh and 
other silkgoods; and in 1701 the silk i^oods of Indiaand 
China were included in the prohibition. Some inconsiderable 
relaxation was made in tbis polioy in 1713, but in 1765 the 
aystem of prohibition was again fully adopted, and continued 
in operatiou until 1824. During this period the state of the 

manufecture was anything but satisiketory ; the manulko- 
turers complaining of tlie smuggling of foreign silks, par- 
liament vainly endeaYouring to exc1ude them. wiih constant 
disputes about wages on the part of ihe weaver8. In 1773 
they obtained an act, called the SpitalAelds Act, which 
entitled the Middlesex weavers to demand fixed wages, to 
lie settled by the roagistrates. To this act maybe attributed 
the establishment of the silk manufacture in Tarious parts 
of the country ; and having done great mischief, it wai 
repealed in 1824. Thecbanges introduced in 1824 (some 
of which onlycaroe into operation July 5th, 1826), with a 
view of stimulating the silk manufacture, have been most 
sucee8sful, as the table of tbe consumption of silk, be- 
fore and after the duttes were reduced, 8ufficiently proves. 
Now that silk has become cheaper, and conse^uently a 
commoner article of dress, it is less dependent on the caprice 
of fashion than when it was an expensive luxury. The 
declared value of silk goods exportea aince 1820 is sbown 
in the following table : — 

Aooml Bxmf:e. 

1820 to 1823 (inclusiye) • . . 369,835 
1824 to 1827 „ . . • 286,119 

1828 to 1831 „ • . • 405,961 

1832 to 1835 M • • • 693,961 

1836 to 1840 „ . . . 771,479 

The declared value of silk manufactnres exported in 1839 
was 868,1 18/. : of which the United States of America took 
410,093/.; British North America, 136.750/.; Australian 
settlements, 46,724/.; Prance, 44,628/.; British West 
Indies, 38,467/.; Chili, 44.733/.; Brazil, 23.117/.; other 
s(atesof Central and Southern America, 49,060/. ; Germany, 
17,135/.; East Indies and CJeylon, 14,713/.; Holland, 
14,306/.; Belgium, 10,316/.; all other parts, 18.136/. 

The value of the silk manufacture8 of Great Britain is 
estimated at between 6,000,000/. and 7,000,000/. One-half 
of the silk factories are in Cheshire, next to wbich stand 
Lancashire, Somerset, Derbyshire, and StaATordshire. Tbere 
are one or more factorie8 in abore one*half of the counties 
of England ; one or two ^ictories have been established in 
Ireland, and a few more in Sootland. They employ alto- 
gether in these factories above 30,000 persons, of whom 
two-thirds are female8. 

The duty on eilk manulkctared goods imported from 
European conntries is equivalent to 30 per cent. ad va- 
lorem. In 1839 this duty produoed 227.438/., and the 
value of the goods was therefore about 700,000/., nine-tenths 
of which were from France. The exportation of silk goods 
Arom Erance to England was 3,589,594 Ibs. from 1827 to 
1838; but the quantity entered at the English custom- 
house was only 1.875,708 Ibs., and there were therelore 
1,713,886 Ibs. introduced by smuggling, or 48 per ccnt of the 
total (juantity entered at the Prench custom-house for ex- 
portation to England. The duty on tlie legally imported 
goods averaged 20«. 4d. per Ib. ; but if the illegal importa 
oould have been charged also, a duty of 10«. lld. would 
haye produced the same revenue. (Table by G. R. Porter, 
Esq., of the Board of Trade, in ihe Report o/ Commiliee on 
/m^r/ DuHee.) 

The silk manufactures of India are subject to an ad va- 
lorem duty of 20 per oent., which, in 1839, produced 
19,867/. The imports consisted in that year of 503,182 
pieces of baodannoes, romals, and silk luindkerchiefs, of 
which only 112,280 paid duty for consumption in tbis 
country ; and of other articles the greater part were re-ex- 

( Treatise on ihe Silk Manu/acturey in Lardner's * Cyclo- 
psDdia ;* Ure's Philosophy qf Mant^actures ; Manuat for 
the Culture o/Silkt prepared by order of the Massachusetts 
L^islature, Boston, 1832; Bssays on American Silk, with 
Directions /or raising Silk-worms, Philadelpbia, 1830; 
Second Report on Cnmmercial Relaiions between Greai 
Britain and Prance (Silk), 1835.) 


SILLIMANITE, a crystallized silicate o/ alumina. It 
occurs in rhombic prisms imbedded in quarts. Cleayage 
parallel to the long diagonal. Colour dark brownish-grey or 
cIove-brown. Fraclure uneven, splintery. SpeciAc gravity 
3*41. Lustre vitreou8, nearly adamantine on tbe face of 
cleavage. Nearly opaque. Hardness 8*0 to 8*5. Brittle 
and easily reduced to powder. 

It is met with at Saybrook, 0)nnecticut, North America« 
It was at oue time considered tobe avariety of anthophyl- 
litc, but it is much harder than tbia^ineral, and contains 

Digitized by V:rOOQ lC 

S I L 


S I L 

more alumina and less silica and oxide of iron. It more 
nearly reserables sienite both in form and composition. 
It yielded by the analysis of Bowen — 

Silica . . . .42*67 

Alumina • . .54*11 

Oxideoflron • .2*00 

Water .... 0-51— 99*29 
SrLPHIUM («r(X^(ov). Antient authors mention this 
plant and its juice. In the artide on Lasbr, it has been 
stated that two kinds are described of this substance, which 
is also called juice of siljphium. One kind, from Cyrene, 
was probably yielded by Ttiapsia Silphium [LasbrJ, and 
the oiher was most likely assaf(Btida, which has beeii em- 
ployed medicinally by Asiatics from very early times, though 
it has been known by this name in comparative modern 

Silphium wai however remarkable for other properties, 
and hence has attracted the attention of modem traveller8 
wbo have reoently ^isited the countries where the silphium 
h described as growing by the antients. The army of 
AIexander, in crossing the mountain-range whick Arrian 
ealls Caucasus (iil 28, 10),and which is the same range that 
he aAerwards mentions under the name of Paropamisus (v. 
5, 3>, met with the Silphium. Arrian says, on the authority 
of Aristobulus, ' In this part of the Caucasus nothing grows 
except pines and Silphium, but the oountry was populous, 
and fed many sheep and cattle, for the sheep are very fond 
of the silphium. lf a sheep should perceive the silphium 
from a distance, it runs to it, and feeds on the Aower, and 
digs up the root and eats that also. For this reason in Cy- 
rene they drive the sheep as far as possible from the spots 
where the silphium grows, and some even fence in such 
places to prevent the sheep from entering them, if they 
should approach ; for the silphium is worth a good deal to 
the Cyrenseans.' Burnes, in crossing the Hindu Koosh, aud 
seeing both the men and cattle eating the young parts of 
the as8af(Btida plant, supposed that it must be the silphium 
of Arrian. But as this author describes the country where 
the silphium grows as abounding in cattle, Dr. Royle had 
cooeluded that the Prangos of Mr. Moorcroft was the sil- 
phium alluded to, and which is much fed on by sheep and 
cattle in the present day in Tibet. Mr. Yigne, when tra- 
veUing in these regions, came to the same conclusion. It is 
probable therefore that both plants, being umbelliferouB, 
and einployed for the same nurposes in nearly the same 
regions, may have contributea to form the accounts whioh 
are so brief in antient authors. [Lasbr ; Pranoos.] 
SrLURES. [Britannia.1 

SILURIAN SYSTEM. One considerable gioup of the 
fossiliferous primary strata, occurring in remarkable pertec- 
tion in Wales, especially in the eastern and some of the 
southern districts, and in some of the adjoining English 
counties, is thus named by Mr. Murchison in avery splendid 
work, the fruit of his lon^ inv6Sligation of Ihis part ot the 
sehes of Biilish strata. Under this title we propose to ar- 
range some general views of the present state of our kiiow- 
ledge regarding the history of the lower Paloeoioio strata. 
[Gkolooy; Primary Strata ; Palaozoic Rocks ; Sali- 


yihen Mr. Murchison commenced his researohes in 
Shropshire and Wales (1831), the principal knowledge we 
possessed of the succession of the older stratified rocks of 
Britain, then commonly called grauwackĕ and transition 
formations, was based on the still incompletely published 
labours of Sedcwick in Wales and the district of the Eng- 
lish lakes ; and so little was known of their fossil contents, 
that it is believed the Arst deAnite notice of this kind was 
contained in Mr. Phillips*s description of a group of slate- 
rocks in the viciniiy of Kirby Lonsdale. (Geol. 'lYans., 
1827.) Now, in consequence principally of the develop- 
meot given to this subject by the appearance of the Silurion 
researches of Mr. Murchison, and other works to which it 
haa led, we are able to trace in one conaecutive history 
nearly the whole series of mineral depositions and organic 
combinations of which the ocean was antiently the theatre, 
from the period of the mica schists to the termination of 
the carboniferous sera. 

In this survey, the Silurian strata form a very conspicuous 
and interesting portion, and in the district from which the 
type was originally drawn tho]^ appear within distinct and 
definite limits which seem to insutate them from the older 
aod uew rocks, and to justify their claim to the rank of a 
peeoliar system; but in other diatricts phenomena appear 

which show that the order of physical changes and organio 
combinations which characterise the Silurian System. was 
in operation both beibre and after the period induded in 
the ages of the four Silurian groups of ' Llandeilo,' 'Cara- 
doc,' 'Wenlock,* and *Ludlow;' while in other districts 
these characteristic assemblages do not all clearly appear ; 
and thus we are naturally conducted to a more oomprebensi^o 
view of the whole of the antient (P^laDoioic) formations. 

Whatever be the true theory of the origin of the Grani- 
toid Strata of gneiss and mica schist (with their many and 
various auartzose, chloritic, and calcareous aecompaniments), 
it is at least certain, as a general rule, that rocks of (his 
general type are prevalent among the very deepest and 
oldest deposits from water which retain proof of their watery 
aggregation, and that they are in this position devoid of the 
tracea of antient life. 

Equally certain ia the character of the great series of 
Neptunian rocka which lies upon the mica schist ; it is a 
vast and various mass of strata (principally argillaceous, 
locally arenaceous or conglomeritic, rarely yielding lime- 
stone), in which, though unequally, and in degrees varying 
with locality, ĕlaty cleavafe tends to be deve1oped. Oiganic 
life has ]eft traces in this series of muddy sediments boUi 
of vegetable and animal origin ; in the lower and older parti 
very sparingly, in the npper parts abundantly. If, with 
Professor Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison, we take the series 
of these rocks as they appear in Wales and Cumberland» 
namely — 

Silurian, or upper group ; 

Cambrian, or mid£e group ; 

Cumbrian, or lower group ; 

we shall find in the mineral charaoters of these groups» 
in the countries named» some diagnostic marks of import- 
ance, but they vanish or become equivocal in other regions. 
In like manner the organio contents seem, in the countriea 
named, to be definitely arranged. in zones, so as to mark 
successive periods there : no organic remains are known in 
the Cumbrian rocks; tbey are rare, and confined to a few 
layers, in the Cambrian deposits; and are very plentiful 
and general in the Silurian group. The districts in whi(th 
these peculiarities occur are probably mpre wide and scat- 
tered farther asunder than those in which the original 
tvpe.^ of mineral structure prevail; but yet it is evident 
that they are limited in respect of geograpbical area, and 
variab]e in regard to the distinctness and completeness of 
the terros, even in districts not far removed from the centre 
of investigation. Let any one who may desire proof of this 
compare the argillaceous series of Ayrshire, Westmoreland, 
Pembrokeshire, Tyrone, or Waterford, in which Silurian 
fossils occur, with the full and varied series of Shropshire, 
the Berwyn, and Snowdon. 

Under these circumstances of diiliculty in regard to the 
right general view of the antient fossiliferous strata, we 
must consider the eeries of Silurian rocks and foBsiIs not as 
the type of this enormous sequence of minernl and organic 
phenomena, but as one, and perhaps the richest of all the 
local physical combinations of that antient period, and em- 
ploy it as a general term of comparison for reducing to 
order and place many detached and difficult districts in 
which the strata have local, peculiar, and perhaps excep- 
tional aspects. 

Mr. Murchison arranges the Silurian strata in groups, as 
follows ; in a iescending order :— >- 




Ludlow rocks 

Wenlock rocks 

( Upper Ludlow rocks ^ 

. < Aymestry limestone > 

(LowerLudlow rocksj 

{Wenlock limestoiie 
Wenlock shale • 

ia feet. 



Lower ( Caradoc rooks . . . • | very 
Silurians ( Llandeilo rocka . . . . j variable 

We shall present a very brief analysis of some of their 

Upper Ludlow Rocki. 

Mineral Charaeter.— Greyish, argillaceous, or calcareous 
sandstones, very slightly micaoeous, decomposing to ashcu 
or rusty-brown colour. 

Struoture. — Mostly laminated, parallel to the stratifica- 
tion, with joints considerably symmetrical, nearly rectangu* 
lar to the plane of the beds, as near Ludlow. 

Aspect of the Country.— A region ri8ingfix>m beneath 

Digitized by 


S I L 


S I L 

the old red-sandatone, often to a eonsiderable and rather 
continuous lescarpment, as near Usk and Ludlow. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 2 ; Crinoidea rare ; Con- 
chitera Plagimyona rather plentiful, 10; Conchifera Meso- 
myona, 1; Conchifera Brachiopoda, 15; Gasteropoda, 6; 
Cepbalopoda Monotbalamacea, 3 ; Cephalopoda Polythala- 
macea, 6 ; Crustacea, 5 ; Annelida?, 1 ; Fishes^ 7; Doubt- 
fuK 3 (in all about 58 specles). 

Localities. — Ludlow ; vicinity of Usk. 
Aymeslry Limestone. 

Mineral Character.— SubcrystaUine, argillaceous 11 me- 
stone, bluish-grey, or motiled, as near Ayraesti-y. 

Structure.— Irregularly laminated, or nodular; with 
oross joints nearly rectangulated to the plane of 8tratifica- 

Aspect of the Country. — Often a slightly nrominent ter- 
race on the woody steep escarpment of a hill, capped with 
Upper Ludlow rocks, as near Ludlow. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 1 2 ; Crinoidearare ; Pla- 
gimyona»6; Meson^yona, 2; Brachiopoda, 12; Gastero- 
poda, 9 ; Monothalamacea, 1 ; Poly thalamacea, 4 ; Crusta- 
cea, 3 (in all about 49 species). 

Localities. — ^Aymestry; Sedseley near Dudley, &c. 
Lower Ludiow Rockt, 

Miiieral, Character.— Argillaceous (called 'Mudstone'), 
lightrgreyt dark-grey, or black, but weathering to ashen 
tMM0, as in ^e Wigmore Yalley. 

Structure. — Partially tlaggy, in places the lamination is 
uneven and nodular. in the lower parta, nodules of black 
limestone in lines of stratification. 

Aspect of the Country.— Toward the base of tho steep 
escarpment of a hill, which may contain the whole Ludlow 
iTormation, as in the Wigmore Yalley. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 9 ; Crinoidea rare; Pla- 
gimyona, 8; Mesomyona, 2; Brachiopoda, 19; Gastero- 
poda, 7; Monothalamacea?; Polythalamacea, 27; Crus- 
tacea, 3 ; Annelida, 1 ; Pishes, 1 ; Doubtful, 2 (in all about 
79 species). 

Localities.— Ludlow; Usk. 

Wenlock Limestone. 

Mineral Character. — Grey, bluish, or pinkish crystalline 
and subcrystalline limestone, arranged in strata of concre- 
tionary aspect, separated by much argillaceous matter. 

Structure.-^As above stated, concretionary in detail, but 
8tratified on a large scale with considerable persistence of 
the parts. The concretionary structure most remarkable at 
top and bottom. 

Aispect of the Country.— Usually a prominont or terrace- 
like escarpment, where the beds aip moderately ; risin^s^ to 
insulated hills, where contortions prevail, as near Ludlow, 
Wenlock, Malvern Hills. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 53; Crinoidea, 14; Pla- 
gimyona?; Mesomyona, 1; Brachiopoda, 28 ; Gasteropoda, 
8 ; Monothalamacea, 2 ; Polythalamacea, 9 ; Crustacea, 14 ; 
Annelida, 1 ; Doubtful, 2 (in all about 132 specics). 

Localities. — Dudley; Wenlock; near Usk. 
Wenlock Shale, 

Mineral Character. — ^DuU argillaceous shale,.with concre- 
tions of impure argillaceous limestone, much analogous to 
the argillaceous Ludlow rocks. 

Structure. — Laminated, with spheroidal calcareous con- 
cretions, especially toward the base. 

Aspect of the Country.— Owing to the wasting of the 
middle beds, this shaly mass is often the line of a valley. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 18 ; Crinoidea rare ; Pla- 
gimyona, 1; Mesomyona?; Brachiopoita, 33 ; Gasteropoda, 
4 ; Monothalamacea ? ; Polythalamacea, 5 ; Crustacea, 2 ; 
Annelida?; Doubtful, 2 (in all about 65 species). There 
are marine plants in this deposit, and we nave ssen them 
of a vermilion colour. 

Locality,— Wigmore Valley. 

• Caradoc 'Sandetone, 

Mineral Character. — Sandstones of varioufl colours, more 
or less micaceous, sometimes ^uartsoee or conglomeritic, 
with thin courses of impure limestone, especially in the 
upper part. (Where alter^ by igneons action, this sand- 
stone becomes a sort of quartz rock.) 

Stiucture.— Usually laminated. Where altered by heat, 
the stratification is nearly or quite lost. 

Aspect of the Country. — Very characteristic where the 
strata are indurated by vicinity of trap-roclu: the quartx- 
ose masses then assuming very picturesaue form8. 

OrganioCoatents.— Polypiaria,12; Crinoidearare; Pla- 

gimyona, 1 ; Mesom^ona, 3 ; Braehiopoda, 53 ; Gastero- 
poda, 7 : Monothalamacea, 3 ; Polythalamacea, 6 ; Crus- 
tacea, 8 ; Doubtful, 2 (in all about 95 speeies). 

Miueral Veins. — Green copper-ore (Malachite) ; thin 
strings of galeoa ;' and in tho vidnity of trap true mineral 

Localities. — Caĕr Caradoc ; May Hill ; near Llandeilo. 
Llaiideilo Plags. 

Mineral Character. — Hard dark-coloured ilags, some- 
times slightly raicaceous, frequently calcareous. 

Structure. — ^Thinly laminated, parallel to the 8tratifica- 
tion, with some internal oblioue cleavage. 

Aspect of the Country. — Wot characteristic, the s(ratifi- 
cation being commonly very highly inclined and the masses 
very thick. 

(Jrganic Contents. — Polypiaria, 4 ; Crinoidea rare ; Pia- 
gimYona, 1 ; Mesomyona?; Brachiopoda, 26 ; Gasteropoda, 
3 ; Monothalamacea, 1 ; Polythalamacea, I ; Crustacea, 11 
(in all about 47 species). 

Mineral Veins. — Occur in the Yicinity of trap, as in the 
Shelve yid Corndon district. 

Localities. — NearBuilt; Llandeilo; Pembrokeshire. 

Pyrogenous rocks are associated with the Silurian strata 
in many situations — as tbe Caradoo Hills, where compact 
felspar predominates — the Wrekin and Lilleshall Hill, cha- 
racterised by sienitic rockjs — Corndon, full of greenstone. 
Alterations of stratiGed rocks by the contact of igneouB 
rocks are common in the Caradoc, Stiperstones, &c. The 
irap rocks near Welshpool are in places columnar; the 
Breiddyn Hills are mostly greenstone, and yield elongated 
dykes in a north-east direction, which traverse the new red- 
sandstone. Mineral veins (yielding lead-ore) are plentiful 
in Lower Silurian rocks, in the Sheive district, adjacent Xo 
the trap rocks of Corndon, and the altered sandstones of tbe 
Stiperstones. ' In a plan of Mr. More*s of Linley Hall, the 
chief proprietor of this district, upwards of 24 are laid down 
in the district of Shelve alone, excluding the tracts arouiiA 
the Bog and Penally : so that, comprehending the principal 
portion of the mining-ground, we may say that it contains 
upwards of 30 metalliferous veins which have been proAta- 
bly worked.' (Murchison, SiL Syst., p. 282.) 

Volcanicgrit8, composed of materials derived from igneoua 
action, and aubsequently arranged in water, are mentioned 
by M. Murchison rather frequently. In the Shelve district 
they are traversed by lead veins; in the Caradoc Hills, they 
aboun(), and were noticed as * allied to greenstone ' in the 
Wrekin by Mr. A. Aikin. Tbey contain organic remains in 
several places, as near the Corndon Hills. 

On reviewing the series of strata comprised in the Silu- 
rian System, in the vicinicy of Ludlow, Usk, Llandeilo, or 
Denbighshire, we see them to form in reality one closely 
associated 8equence of oceanic deposiis — apparently accu- 
mulated with little local disturbance and very slight admix- 
ture of organic exuvisB from the land. Volcanic eruptions 
appear to have rather varied than greatly disturbed thia 
sy8tc?m of operalions, though it is eviclent they contributed 
no small part of the granular materials of the principally 
sedimentary strata. Tbe formation of limestone is local: — 
where coral prevailecl, we find the Aymestry and Wenlock 
limestones, and even the calcareous parts of the Landeilo 
rocks, to be in a great de&rree filled witn coral. The Brachio- 
pod shell ' Pentamerus* nlls sorae whole beds of liraestone 
(near Aymestry), and where it is deficient the limestone 
also iails, as in the district of Usk. In their course from 
Shropshire, northward to Denbighshire, Mr. Bowman (JRe- 
ports ofthe British Assodation for 1840-41) has found the 

feneral type of the Silurian rocks to vary, and the line of 
istinction between it and the slaty strata below to be ex- 
tremely obscure ; and similar observation8 are recorded by 
M. Murchison in the account which he gives of these rocka 
in Caermarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. 

Mineral character alone will scarcely suffioe, anywhere, 
for any but an arbitrary (and therbfore unsatisfactory) 
boundary-Iine between the Silurian and Cambrian deposiu. 
It is extremely probable, perhaps we may say it is already 
proved, that no jdistinction of higher value can be found on 
coraparingthe organio remains of these groups. In Snowdon 
(supposed to be very low in the Cambrian series of rocks) 
are shells and corals, which are perbaps the same, but cor 
tainly are congeneric with and very similar to ' Silurian ' 
fa«8ils ; and there is really as great (if not greater) diSerence 
between the liandeilo and Wenlock rocks, iu regard to 
foMils, than betweenjhe Silutiai^ a^i^ P«mbrian BtraU. 

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If we tam to other diBtriots where Silarian fom\s ooenr 
plentirully (North America. Ireland, Norway), the result 
appears the same. There is apparently only one great series 
oiorganiocombinations distinguishable among the Tossili* 
ferous strata anterior to the old red-sandatone ara, and it 
waswith a perception of this important truth that Mr. Mur« 
ehison onoe propoeed for the Siluirian strata iHe title of Pro- 
tosoic. If instead of tbis we employ PalfBozoio (aa suggested 
by Sedgwiek), and adopt the general yiew advoeated in this 
work [Pajlaosoic ; Salivbroui Sy8tbm], we shall rank all 
thefo8ailiferou8 strataof tbeCumbrian» Cambrian, and Silu 
rian groups as Lower Bjd€Boxoio Simia. 

The lower arbitrary boundary of the Silurian strata heing 
tbus 8oftened or erased, we may regard its upper suriace as 
only loeally more definite. Certainly in alL tbe region 
aiDund Wales the separation of the Silurian and old red 
depoaits is somewhat sudden ; the oolour changes from grey 
to red; the dull mudstones become micaoeous sandstones; 
the richly fossiliferous Upper Ludlow loses its character in 
anprolific red marle and grits. What fow ibssils do occur 
in theae orerlaid strata (except near the very bottom) are 
of auite other types of organisation. But these are local 
trutha, depending mainly on the introduction of new sedi- 
ments poisonous to marihe irwertebral life ; and as these 
aediments are very looal, we may find in other eountries 
groups of strata newer than tho Silurian, older than the 
Carboniferous, with fo8sils intermediate in character and 
eombinatton to both. 

Tbis espectation is in eourse of fulfilment. but it is not 
yet fully satisfied. In Devonshire, the Rhine Yalley, the 
£ifel, we find numorous assemblages of such Middle PeiUeO' 
zoic Ibesils, but they do not by any means flU the whole in- 
terval between the Silurian and Carboniferous types ; nor 
have we seen in ooUections from North Ameriea, Australia, 
the Hartz» Brittany, or Russia, all that is desired to fiU the 
void. Bver alive to this most interesting inquiry, the author 
of tbe * Silurian System' i» perhaps at this moment adding 
valuable facts concerning it, the fruit of his eontinued 
researehes in Russia ; and we believe that by further exami- 
oatioo of the hwer strata of the Rbine Yalley, and the 
Hars, some additional data may be gathered. 

At present the most important of the discoveries which 
(bowever inoompletely) represent a Middle Mao^oic 
Psriody have been in De^onshire and Cornwall, . in tbe 
Picblelgebirge, and in the £ifel and Rhine YaUey. The 
principal of tbese, at leastin regard to the analogies which it 
olBsra to the strata of earlier and more receni date, is ihe 
distriet of Devon and Comwall ; from which ten years ago 
only a emall number of fossil species was known, but which 
has now yielded to numerous inquirer8 fuUy 300 distinct and 
reoogniaable formB. Of these, according to Mr. Lonsdale, 
who gives {GeoL Tran». 1840) a table of the species whieh 
he exainined, and to Mr. Murohison and Professor Sedg- 
wick, wbo enumerate 128 species, a few of tbese species are 
. fouiHl in the Silurian and a few in the C]!arboniferous rocks. 
Professor Pbillips, in his recent work iPotlteotoic Fo»eils o/ 
Devon and ConmaU)^ diacusses the relations of 275 species, 
and arrivesat the conclusion that both by numerical valuations 
of the general combinations of groups of invertebrata, and 
by 8pecific analogies, the conclusion of thc intermediate age 
of the Devon and Comwall strata is oonfirmed. As tbe 
diATerences of the Devonian and Silurian fo8sils are very 
moch greater than those between the Silurian and Carabrian 
fo9sils, it appears probable tha0 the boundary assumed by 
Mt. Murchison for the upper termination of the Silurian 
group may rematn with but slight alteration. One change 
coniemplated by the author himself we should be glad to 
see adopted : — there are some fos8iUferous bands placed by 
Mr. Morchison near the base of the old red system, which 
would better go to the Silurian ranks, sinoe, in respect of 
the shells wbtoh they contain and their mineral composition, 
they are scaroely distinguishable from Silurian strata. 

On oonsidering the distribution of organic remains in 
the 8occesBive stages of the Silurian rocks, it is evident 
that tbe greatest variety of species occurs in the lower part 
of tbe opper and towards the upper part of tbe lower Silu- 
rian racks. In other words, the conditions favourabIe to 
oi^nie life in the sea were in the earliest period consider- 
able; tbey arrived at a maximum in the middle part of the 
pertod, in tbe Caradoo sandstonc, the Wenlock shale and 
tbe Wenlook limestono, and still eontinued considerable till 
the Silurian depositions coased, and were replaced by old 
nd««nditoiie nearly devoid of organic remains. Polypiaria, 

Crinoidea, and Orustacea are mott numeroua m the prinei* 

pal calcareous rock, Wenlock limestone ; Brachiopoda are 
most pleiitiful in Caradoo sandstone ; Cephalopoda, in the 
Wenlock sbale ; fishes, in the upper Ludlow rock. 

Mr. Murcbison gives the foUowing general recapitulation 
of organio remains in tbese strata*— • 

Pisces • 



MoUusca (Heteropoda*) 

Conchtfera (Brachiopoda) 


























SILU'RIDi£, a family of Ashes of the order Malacop- 
terygii, placed byCuvier, in his * Rĕgne Animal,* between 
the Esoeidce, or rike tribe,' and tbe SalmonidcB, or family 
of the Salmons; but in the 'Histoire Naturelle dea Pois- 
sons,' the present group commences the Malacopterygii. 
The fami1y Siluridis constitutes a very extensive section of 
fishes, the speoies of which are for the most part eonfined to 
the fresh waters of warm cUmates. No group perhaps pre- 
sents greater diYersity of form than the Silurians, and their 
habits are equa]ly interesting. Their most obviou8 external 
characters are, the want of true scales; the skin is generaUy 
naked, but in parts protected by large bony plates; the 
foremost ray of the dorsal and pectoral Ans almost always 
consists of a strong bony ray, often serrated either in front 
or behind, or on both sides. These Ashes moreover fre- 
quently are furnished with a sroall adipose fin on the hinder 
part of tho back, as in the Salmonidce* The mouth is al- 
most always provided with barbules. 

The genus Sikirus^ as now restricted. is distinguished by 
the dorsal fln being very small, without any dislinct spine, 
and situated on the fore part of the back ; the anal fin is of 
great length, extending along the whole belly of the fisb, 
and sometimes joining the tail-fin ; the maxiUarie8 and in- 
termaxiUaries are furni8hed with small thick-set curved 
teeth, and there is a band of similar teeth on the vomer. 

Tbe species of this genus are conGned to the old world; 
the onJy known European species is the Silurus glania 
(Linn.), a fish of very large size,which is found in the lakes 
of Switzerland, in the Danube, the Elbe, and all the riyers 
of Hungary. In Prussia and Sweden it is also found. 

The Silurus glanis is introduced in several works on the 
Ashes of this country. It has however, says Mr. Yarrell, 
been snspeoted that the so-called Silurus, supposed to have 
been found formerIy in some of the Scoltish rivers, might 
have been the burbot. 

Cuvier states that this fish is sometimes upwards of 8ix 
feet in length. and is said to weigh three hundred pounds 
(Frencb). Thebody is elongated, and bas the hinder part 
compressed, bu.t towards the head its width gradually in- 
creases, and the head itself is depressed and large; its 
colour is dark-green above, of a pale-green below the lateral 
line, and yellowish on the belly, and the whole body is 
covered with dark spots; six barbules surround the mouth, 
and two of these, which have tbeir origin (one on each side) 
just above the angle of tbe mouth, are very long. 

Mr. Yarrell observes, * The SUurus is represented as slug- 
gish in its habits, and a alow swimmer, taking its prey by 
lving in wait for it, in a manner somewbat similar to tbe 
Angler, Lophius ; hiding itseU in holes or soft mud, and 
apparently depending upon the accidental approach of Asbes 
or other animals, of which its long and numerous barbules 
may be at the same time the source of attraction to the 
victims. and the means of warning to the de^ourer. From 
its formidable size, it can have but few enemies in the fresh 
water ; and from them, its dark colour, in addition to its 
habit of secreting itself either in holes or 8ofl mud, would 
be a 8uffioient security. In spring, the male and female 
may be seen together, about the middle of tbe day, near the 
banks or edges of the water, but scon return to their usual 
retreats. The ova, when deposited, are green; and the 

• Theee^ ia.Uie pieoeding pencraph*, we li«Te called M<»othalMMcea. 

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young are excluded between Uie sixteenth and nineteenth 

* The Aesh of the Silurus is white, fat, and agreeable to 
many persons as food, particularly the part of tbe fish near the 
tail ; but on aocount of its betng luscious, 8oft, and difficult 
to digest, it is not recommended to those who have weak 
stomachs. In the norihern countries of Europe the flesh 
18 preserved by drying, and the fat is used as lard.' 

it appears by some statements in the ' Histoire Naturelle 
des Poissons,* that the present fish is so voracious. that it 
has been known, in several instances, to devour children; 
and in one instance the body of a woman was found in one 
of these ilshes. 

Several examples of tlie restricted genus Silurus are 
found in Asia. 

Cuvier separates from the typical Siluri, as a genus, the 
Silurus mystus of Linnceus. and some others, on accounl of 
the compressed form of the bodv, and the dorsal fin having 
a strong bony spine in front, which is denticulated on the 
hinder margin. The body is deenest near the middle, but 
tapera somewhat suddenly towaras the extremities. The 
liead ia small and depressed, and the eyes are placed low 

The species upon which Cavier founds this genus— to 
which he applies the name Schilbe — are found in the Nile, 
but there are others described in this author's great work 
on fishe8, one of which is found at Senegal and another in 

Genus Cetcpsis.—ThiA genus is founded by Ajrassii on 
certain species found in Brazil, wbich in their atlinities ap- 
proach the genus Silurus, but are distinguisbed by the ex- 
tremely small size of tbeir eyes.* 

Genus Bagrui, Cuvier. — Tbe species of this genus are 
distinguislied from tbose of the genus Silurus, as restricted, 
by their possessing an adipose fin on the hinder part of the 
back. The body is naked — that is, unprovided with bony 

Elates — and the mouth is provided with barbules, the num- 
er of which, varying in dilTerent species, has been selected 
for the minor division8 of the group. Numerous species 
are found in the Indian and African rivers. 

Genus Pimelodas, Lacĕp. — Differs from Bagrua in having 
no teeth on the vomer ; the palatines however are often pro- 
vided with teeth. The species vary much in the number of 
tbeir barbules, and in the form of tbe head, which is often 

Erotected by a bony plate, and a large bony plate is situated 
etween that on the head and the dorsal spine; similar 
bony plates on tbe head however are observable in many of 
the species of tbe preceding: genus. The species of Pime- 
lodas are very numerous, and are found both in the Old and 
New World. Numerous species are described from North 
America, others are found in South America, and the rivers 
of India also furnish numerous examples. 

Genus Phractocephalus^ Agassiz.~This genus contains 
but one speciea, an inhabitant of the Brazils ; its generic 
distinction consists in its possessing some inromplete osseous 
rays enchased in the upper margin of the adipose fin. The 
head is depressed and corered by a deeply sculptured bony 
plate ; a secoud bony plate, of a transverse oval form, is 
situated in front of the first dorsal fin. The branchioste- 
gous rays are nine in number, and tho mouth is provided 
with six barbules. 

Genus Ptatystoma, Agassiz, is composed of several South 
American species of SiTuridce which bave the muzzle de- 
pressed, and are remarkable for the great number of their 
branchiostegous rays, which amount in some to fifteen in 
number. Some of the species attain a large size, there 
being specimens in the Paris Museum as much as five feet 
in length, and they have been seen of still greater bulk. 

Genus Galeichthys, Cuv. and Val. — ^This genus is nearly 
allied to Bagrus, but distinguished by the head being round 
and unprotected by any distinct bony plate : the branchios- 
tegous rays are six in number. Some possess six barbules, 
and others have four. One species is found at the Cape 
of Good Hope, a second is said to be found both in North 
America and at Rio Janeiro ; several species occur in 
Brazil, and the Ganges also ^urnishes a species of the pre- 
sent genus. 

Genus Silundia, Cuv. and Val.— This genus is founded 
upon a fish from the Ganges, which has the head small and 
smooth, a very small adipose fin, and a long anal fin. It 
has but two barbules, and they are very small ; the bran- 

• See Um pait od lehtbyology of tbe *Vuyage of MM, Splx and Mtr- 

ehiostegouB rays are tweWe in number ; tlie teeth are longer 
and less abundant than usual in the Siluridca. The only 
species known {Silundia Gangelicoy Cuv. and Val. ; Pime- 
lodus Silundia of Haroilton) is said to be very common at 
the mouth of the Ganges, and to bo much esteemed for 

Genus Arius, Cuv. and Val.— Contains many species of 
Siluridas, allied to the Bagri, but distinguished by their 
palatine teeth forming two distinct and widely separated 
masses. In some species the teeth are minute and dense, 
like the pileon velvet, or Uke the teethof a carding-machine, 
and in others the palate is furnished with teeth in tbe 
rounded form of paving-stone8, instead of having them 
pointed. Species of this genus are found in the tropical 
portions of both continents, and also in North America. 

Genus Auchenipterus, Cuv. and Val. — May be distin- 
guished from other genera which possess the adipose fin by 
the small 8ize of the head, thevery minute sizeof the teeth, 
and there being five branchiostegous rays. It evinces an 
affinity with Pimelodus in having no palatine teeth, and ia 
tho number and form of the maxillary barbules. The firBt 
dorsal is situated very forward, a circumstance which sug- 
gested the generic name. The bony shield whieh covera 
the upper surface of the head is, in the fishe8 of rhis genua, 
united by a suture with the dilated bony nuchal plates. AU 
thĕ known species are from the tropical portiona of South ^ 

Genus Trachelyopterus. — ^The genus is founded by 
MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes, upon a small Silurian from 
Cayenne, in which thero is no adipose fin ; the teeth are 
fine, like the pile of velvet, and the palate is destitute of 
teeth ; tbe barbules are six in number. The head is some- 
what short, and protected by a stout bony shield, which is 
united almost immediately with the dorsal on account of 
the 6hortneBsof the interparietal plate, and almost rudimen* 
tary state of the chevron, placed generally in front of tbe 
spiny rays of tbe dorsal fin ; the pectoral fins are inserted 
as it were under the throat. 

Genus Hypophthalmus (Spix), Cuv. and Va1. — ^This genus 
is composed of but few species, and thcse are from the tropi- 
cal portions of South America. The principal characten 
are : — Mouth destitute of teeth ; eyes piaced very low down 
near the angle of tbe mouth ; branchiostegous rays fourteen 
in number; body fumished with an adipose fin. 

Genus Ageneiosus(LBLc6pĕde), Cuv. and Val.— This genus 
is th us characterised in the * Rĕgne Animal :*— Cliaracters the 
same as in Pimelodus, excepting that tbere are no barhules 
prnperly so callcd. In some, the maxillary bone, instead of 
being prolonged into a Aesby and flexible barbule, assumes 
the form of a projecting denticulated horn. In others this 
bone does not project, but is concealed under the skin ; the 
dorsal and pectoral spines are but little apparent. All ihe 
species are fi'om South America. 

Genus Synodontts^ Cuv. — This genus is coroposed of 
Silurians found in the Nile and Scnetral, which have an 
adipose fin, the muzzle narrow, and terminated by an 
ethmoid whicb supports two small intermaxillary bones 
armed with bristle-like teeth; the lower jaw composed of 
two short and slender rami, bearing in front a mass of teeth 
which are in the form of very slender laminee and closely 
packed — eacb of these teeth is attached to the jaw by a 
flexible and very slender stalk. The stout bony plate which 
covers the head is joined to the nuchal plate, and tbisextends 
to the first spine of the dora^ fin, whicb is of very large siae, 
and in this respect reserobles the Srst spine of the pecloral 
fin8. The inferior barbules, and sometimes the maxillary 
barbules, have small latoral branches. 

Genus Doras, Lacĕpdde.— The species of this genus aro 
distinguished by the lateral line being armed with bony 
plates, wbich are carinated, and terminate in a spine. They 
have a second adipose dorsal fin, and the foremost spine of 
the pectoral and anterior dorsal fins is very large and deeply 
serrated. Osseous plates cover the upper surface of ihe 
head and extend to the dorsal fin, and the humoral bone is 
produced backwards and pointed. 

These may be regarded, say the authors of the ' Histoire 
Naturelle des Poissons,' as the most powerfulIy armed of 
all the Silurida; thus the Spanish colonists in South 
America have given to them the name Matorcaiman (or 
Crocodile-killer), because it often happens that when thoy 
are swallowed by these large reptiles, the cBsophagus anfl 
pharynx of those animals are so lacerated by tlie spiues o^ 
the Silurus as to cause death. Strabo also (p. 824, Casaub. 

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attributes similu power to certain Ashes o( ihe Nile, which 
he called choeru» (xo<-poc), and which are Bupposed by soine 
naturalists to belong to tbe modern genus Synodontie. 

The genus Doras is di?ided into two sectious on account 
of tbe structure of the mouth. In some it is situated at the 
end of a depressed muzzle, and is provided with two broad 
bands of delicate teeth, both in the upper and lower jaws. 
In otbers the opening of the mouth is situated on the uuder 
side of a oonical muzzle, and the opening is of a eircular 
ibrm — here the teeth aro either wanting or are hardly 
visible; the maziHary barbules are sometimes furnished 
with small lateral branehes. To the Arst of these seotions 
belongs the Silurus costatm of LinnoBUS, a species found in 
the rirers of Guiana. 

A species of Dora», described by Dr. Hancock, in the 
fourth Yolumeof tbe ZoologicalJoumal, p. 241, under the 
name of D. eoatahi», is a native of Demerara, where it is 
ca) led the Ftat*head Hassar: it possesses the singular property, 
says Dr. Hancock, of deserting the water, and traveUing 
orer land. 'In these terrestritu exeursions large droves of 
the species are freauently met with during very dry seasons, 
ibr it is only at sucli periods that they are compelled to this 
dangerous march, which exposes tbem as a prey to many 
and such various enemies. When the water is leaving the 
pool in which tbey commonly reside. the Yarrows (a species 
of Bsox, Linn.), as well as the second species of Hassar, to 
wbich I shall presently refer, bury themseWes in the mud, 
wbile all the other Ashes perish for want of their natural 
eloment, or are picked up by rapacious birds, &c. The./W- 
head Hasiar», on tbe contrary, simultaneously quit tbe 
place, and march over land in search of water, travelling for 
a wbole night, as is asserted by the Indians, in searcb of 
their object. I have ascertained by trial that they will live 
many hours out of water, even when exposed to the sun*s 
rays. Their motion over laud is described to be somewhat 
Uke that of tbe two-footed lizard. Tliey project themseWes 
forwards on their bony arms by the elastio spring of the tail 
exerted sideways. Their progress is nearly as fast as a man 
will ieisurely walk. The strons scuta or bands which en- 
Telope their body must greatly lacilitate their march» in the 
manner of the plates under the belly in serpents, wbich are 
raised and depressed by a voluntary power, in some mea- 
sure performing the oiBce of feet. it is said tbat the other 
species, the roundrhead iCallichthy» Uttorali», Hancock), 
has not been known to attempt such excursions, altbough 
it is capable of ]iving a long time out of its element ; but, as 
I before observed, it buries itself in the mud in the manner 
of the KarrotM, when the water is drying up. 

* Tbe Indians say tbese fishes carry water within them 
for a supply on their joumey. There appears to be some 
truth in this statement ; for I have observed that the bodies 
of the Ha»»ar» do not get dry, like those of other fishes, when 
taken o^t of the water ; and if the moisture be absorbed, or 
tbey are wipeddry with a cloth, they have such a power of se- 
cretion that they become instantly moist again. Indeed it 
is scarcely possible to dry the surfaoe while the fish is 

Both the species of Ha»»ar here mentioned, it appears, 
make nests in which they lay their eggs in a Aattened cluster, 
and cover them over most carefully. This care does not end 
here. They remain by the side of the nest till the spawn is 
hatched, with as much solicitude as a hen guards her eggs ; 
both the male and female Ha»»ar, for tbey are monogamous, 
steadily watching the spawn, and courageously attacking 
any assailant. Hence the negroes frequently take them by 
putting tbeir hands into the water close to the nest ; on 
agitating which, the male Ha»»ar springs furiously at them, 
and is thus captured. 

' The round-head forms its nest of grass ; ihe^-head, ot 
lcaves ; both at certain seasons burrow in the bank ; they 
lay their eggs only in wet weather. I have been surprised 
to obserre the sudden appearance of numerous nests in a 
morning afier rain occurs, the spot being indicated by a 
bunch of froth, which appears on the surface of the water 
over the nest ; below this are the eggs, placed on a bunch of 
iallen leaves or grass, if it be the littoral species, which they 
cut and collect together. Bv what means this is efiected 
seems rather mysterious, as tne species are destituto of cut- 
Ung teeth. It may possibly be by the use of their serrated 
arms, which form the first ray of the pectoral fins.' 

Genus Caliichthy», Linn.— The snecies of this genus 
bave the body almost entirely covered by large bony plates, 
iheM forming four longitudinal ranges» two on each side : 
P. C, No. 1361. 

the head is also protected by bony plates ; the mouth is but 
slightly cleft, and provided with rour long barbules; the 
second dorsal has a bony spine in front ; the foremost ray 
of the pectoral fins is strong, but that of the anterior dorsal 
is comparatively feeble and short. The species of Callichthys 
appear to be confined to the tropical portions of South 
America. [Callichthys.] 

Gen^is Arge», Cuv. and Val.— The principal characters of 
this genus are — teeth bifid at the extremity, and with the 
points curved inwards ; palate destitute of teeth ; opening of 
the mouth large ; maxillary barbules two in number ; an- 
terior dorsal fin small, and with the frout ray feeble ; adipose 
fin long ; the other^fins with the outer rays prolonged into 
a filament. 

The species which forms the type of this genus (Arge» 
eabalo, Cuv. and Yal.) is^a small fish about eight inches in 
lengtb, which was brought by Mr. Pentland from Upper 
Peru, being found in tbe neighbourhood of the missjon of 
Santa Anna, at a height of from 4500 to 4800 Prench 
metres above the level o? the sea^ The specimen was given 
to M. Yalenciennes, who prized it much, since it threw a 
light on the afiinities of a fish described by Humboldt, under 
the name Pimelodu» Cyclopum, relating to wbich that 
autbor has given such an interesting account. The Pime- 
lodu» Cydlopum, which M. Yalenciennes thinks most pro- 
bably belongs to the present genus, is about four inches in 
length, and is found in lakes at the heigbt of 3500 metres 
above the level of the sea. But the roost remarkable cir* 
cumstance relating to these fishes is that they are fre- 
quently ejected in the eruptions fi:om the yolcanoes of the 
kingdom of Quito, and in such quantities that the fetid 
odour arising from their putrefaction waa perceived at a 
great distance, and the putrid fever8 which prevailed in 
those districts were attributed to the miasmata they pro- 
duce. These fishes sometimes issued from the crater'of the 
voIcano, and sometimes from lateral clefts, but constantly at 
an elevation of from 5000 to 5200 metres above the level of 
the seo. In a few hours millions are seen to descend from 
CotopaiCi, with great masses of cold and fresh water. 

The ^enus Brontes, Cuv. and Yal., is founded upon a fish 
possessing all the cbaracters of the preceding genus (and 
which, irappearsp like the Pimelodu», is thrown out from 
the volcanoes of Cotopaxi}, but which diffeis ia having no 
adipose fin. 

uenus A»troblepu», Cuv. and Val., consists of but one 
species (the Astroblepu» Grixalvii of Humboldt). Tbis 
fish possesses all the cnaracters of the genus Brontes, hav- 
ing-, like it, the head depressed, the eyes directed upwards» 
a single dorsal fin, the external rays of the fins prolonged 
into a filament, and four branchiostegous rays, but it pos- 
sesses no ventral fins. This fish is found at Kio de Palace» 
near Papayana, where it is known by the name peecado 
negro; it attains about fifleen inches in length. 

€renus Heterobranchus, Geoff. — Here the head is fur- 
nished with a rough bony shield, whicb is flat and broader 
than in theotber Silurians, on account of the lateral laminss 
Aunished by the frontals and parietals, which cover the 
orbital and temporal bones. The operculum is still smaller 
than in the precedinff fishei, and what chiefiy distinguishes 
these fishes from otners of the family is, that, besides the 
ordinary brancbise, they have an apparatus ramifying like 
the branches of a tree adhering to the upper branch of the 
third and fourth branchial rays; the branchiostegous rays 
vary trom eight or nine to fourteen or fifleen in number. 
The pectoral spine is strong and denticulated, but there ii 
no bony spine to the dorsal fin. The body is elongated and 
naked, aud the dorsal and anal fins are greatly extended in 
the longitudinal direction. The barbules are eight in num- 
ber. Tne species inbabit the river8 Qf ATrica, and some 
of those of Asia. 

In some species the long dorsal fin is supported through- 
out by rays ; tbese constitute the subgenus Clarias, Val. ; 
and in others tbere is a dorsal fin supported by rays, and a 
second behind this, which is adipose. To them the term 
Heierobranchus is restricted in the Histoire NatureUe des 

Genus Saccobranchus, Cuv. and Val.-^This genus is 
founded upon the Silurus Singio of Hamilton's * Fishes of the 
Ganges,' which possesses some interesting peculiarities in its 
internal organization, pointed out bv Mr. Wyllie, in the ' Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoologica] Society, forMav, 1840. 

Genus Plotosus, Lacĕpdde, is distinguished by the elon- 
gated form of the body and the possession of two dorsal fins« 


S 1 L 


S I L 

tbe hindenEost being Bunported by rays as well ai the*olber. 
The bead is protected by a bony plate, the lips are*fleshy 
and pendent, the jaws ai^e fumi8hed with strong and conical 
teeth, and the Tomer with rounded teeth. , The species in- 
habit India. 

Genus AspredOt Linn. — ^Tbe Ashes of tbis genus, says 
CuYier, present very singular characters, particularly in the 
Aattening of the head and in the dilatation of tbe anterior 
portion of the trunk, whioh cbieAy arises from that of the 
Donea of the shoulder ; in the proportionate length of the 
tail; in tbe smaU siEe of tbeir eyea, which are placed in the 
upper Burfbce of tbe head. Tbe intermaxillaries are situated 
under tbe ethmoid, direoted baokwards, and are only fur- 
nished wilh teeth in tbeir hinder margin. But the most 
Btriking cbaracter consists in there being no power of motion 
in the operculum, a oharacter wbich distinguishes the pre- 
sent genus from all other oseeous Ashes. The branchial 
opening oonsists of a simple sltt ia the skin under tbe ex- 
temal edge of tbe head, and the brancbiostegous membrane 
is provided witb five rays ; the dorsal fin is of moderate siie; 
tbe anal is long; the tail moderate, and the adipose fiu is 
wanting: tlie whole of Uie body is smooth and witbout bony 
plates. Tbe specioB are found in tlie tropical parts of 6outh 

Genus Chacat Cuv. and Val., which is the next in suoees- 
siou in the Histoire des Pnssons^ is founded upon the IHa- 
tyĕtacuĕ Ckaca of Bucbanan Hamilton. It InbabitB the 
riverB of India. 

The genuB Sisor is also foQnded upon a single species 
described (under tbe name Sisor rhabdophorus) by tbe 
autbor just mentioned, in bis Pishes qf ihe Ganges. 

Genus £oncarca.— LinniBus gave this name to a group 
of Siturida distinguisbed by the head and body beinK co- 
vered tbroughout by large angular b(my plates ; they differ 
moreover frora certain other Siluri whicb bave the body 
protected by plates (such as Callichthys and Doras), in baving 
tbe opening of the mouth on the under side of the muzzle, 
in this respect approaching the genus Synodoniis. Tiie 
intermaxillarieB are small and suspended beneath the 
muzBle, and the mandibles are transYerse and not united ; 
tbey are furnished wilh long and slender teeth, and these 
are flexible and terminate in a hook. The mouth is en- 
eirded by a large, circular, membranous veil; the pha- 
ryngeal bones are furnished with numerous teeth rounded 
hke paving-stones. The true opercula are fixed as in 
jispredot but two small extei'nal plates, ^icb are movable, 
appear to take their place. The branchiostegous rays are 
ibur in number. The first ray of the dorsal, pectoral, and 
anal Ans is in tbe form of a strong spine. 

This genus is subdivided into two subgenem. In the 
one {Hypostomus, Lacĕp ), there are two dorsal Ans ; the 
hinder one is small and provided witb but one ray. The 
labial veil is oovered with paptllee, and provided with a small 
barbule on each side. The belly is not protected by plates. 
The epeeies are found in the river8 of South America. In 
tbe BOGond subgenus, to which Lac^pdde restricts the term 
Loriearia, there is but one dorsal fin ; tbe labial veil is fur- 
nished with Beveral barbules, and sometimes beset with 
Tillosities ; tbe belly is protected by plates. The speoies of 
this section are aUo found in South America. 

S1LVA Y FIGUEI10'A. GARCIA DE, was born of 
illustrious parents at 6adajoz, in 1574. At the age of 
flfteeu hia Aither sent him to court, where he enterea tbe 
housebold of Philip II. as page. He then joined the 
Spanisb army in Pianders, wbere he greatly distinguisbcd 
himseU, and obtained tbe command of a«company. Having 
sub8equently shown some talent for diplomacy, be was de- 
spatcbed by Philip III. on an embassy to Bhah Abbis, king 
of Persia, who was willing to conclude a treaty of commerce 
with Spain. Silva embarked for Goa, where he arrived in 
1614; but the governor of that place, who was a Portu- 
guese, fearing lest Silva*s mission should lead to an inquiry 
Snto the administration of tbe Spanish possessions in India, 
threw every impediment in his way, and refu8ed to provide 
bim with a^essel and money to prosecute his jouraey, as he 
was ordered to do. Impatient at tbe delay, Silva embarked 
on board a nat{ve ves8el and sailed for Ormuz, which port 
be entered on tbe 1 2th of October, 1617. Thence he sailed 
to Bandel (Bender Abassi) in the dominions of the Shab, 
when be was well received. He reached Ispab&n on the 
18th of April, 1618, by tbe tben usual route of Lar and 
Shir&z. After a short residence in the latter place, Silva 
started for Kaz\vin, or Casbin» where Sbah Abb&s was 

then holding bis court, who reoeiTed him with OTery mark 
of distinction, but would not bear his message until he had 
himself returned to Ispah&n, where he directed Silva to 
wait till bis arrival. Accordingly, after a stay of two 
months at Kazwin, the Spanisb envoy returned to Ispa- 
han, wbere Shah Abbas arrived shortly afler, in July, 
1619. He granted Silva an audienoe; but though he ma- 
nife8ted a wish to conclude a oommercial treaty, and to be 
upon friendly terme with Spain, tbe Shah refu&ed to sub- 
Boribe to two conditions stipulated by tbe ambassador of 
Philip III.» namely, that be sbould restore some ^ortresaes 
belonging to Ormuz, wbich he bad lately Beized ; and that 
he abould exclude all otber European nations from trading 
with his dominions. The negotiations for tbe treaty being 
thus BUBpended, Silva left Ispahan on the 25lh of August, 
1619, and retumed by the same route to Goa, where be 
landed in November, 1620. From Goa he sailed to Spain, 
where he died^in 1628. 

During his residence in Persia Silva wrote an itinerary of 
his travel8, with an aceount of sucb event8 as came within 
his obaenration ; and a sketch of the mannerB and ouBtoms 
of the inbabitants of tbat empire. This work was never 
printedin the original SpaniBh, thougb a Prencb tranalation 
appeared in 1667, under the title of * UAmbaBBade de Don 
Garoias de Silva Pigueroa en Perse, contenant la Polili^ue 
de ee Grand Empire, les Moeurs du Roi Shah Abbas, et une 
relation exacte de tous lesLieux de laPene etdeslndea oii 
cet AmbasBadeur a M respace de huit anneĕs qu'il y a de- 
meurĕ,' par M. Wicqfort, Paris, 1667, 4to. It is one of the 
best accounts of Pecsia tbat we possess, and is much com- 
mended by Cbardin. During his residence in Groa SiWa 
also made an abridgment of Spanish history, which appeared 
at Lisbon soon after his death: 'Breviarium Historise 
HispanicsB^' Lisbon, 1628, 4to. A Latin letter of his, dated 
Ispaban, 1619, and addressed to tbe Man|uis of Bedmar,in 
which he gaye a ahort account of his travelB, was also pub- 
lisbed at Antwerp : * Garcise Silva Pigueroa, Philippi IIL 
Hispaniarum Indiammque Regis, ad Persarum Regem Le- 
gati, de Rebus Persarum Epistola,' Antw., 1620, 8vo. 

SILYER, a metal wbicb bas been well known and highly 
yalued fjN>m the remotest period— circumstanceB which are 
readily explained by the fact8 oi its oecurring frequently 
native, and posseBBiug great lustre and fitnesB fur immediate 
use without being Bubjected to any metallurgic process. 

Ores qf Silver. 

Native StYrer.— Tbis occurs crystallized, arborescent, or 
dendritic, capillary, reticulated, granular, and mas6ive. The 
primary form of the crystal is a cube. It has no cleavage. 
Practure hackly. Colour white, but external1y often 
blackisb, owing probably to the presence of a little sulphur. 
Hardness 2*5 to 3. Lnstre metallic. Oolourpure white, 
except when tarnished. Streak shining. Opaque. SpeciAc 
gi-avity 10* 47. Malleable, but oommonly less so than pure 
siWer, probably owing to an admixture of other metals. 
Soluble in nitric acid, and the solution colourless wben 
pure, but blue if copper be present; and if autimony, a 
white substance, and if gold, a black one remains undis- 
8olved. Tuses into malleable globules beibre the blowpipe. 

Native siWer is met with in most parts of the worid . in 
tbe British Isles, Germany, Hungary, in the norlh of 
Europe, but especially, and in largest quantity, in Mexico 
and South America. SiWer occurs in mixture ot com- 
binatton with otber metals, as already hinted at. The ilrsl 
compound of this nature we shall describe is 

Antimomal Siher. Stibiuret ofSilver, — Tbis occurs in 
cr^rstals, in grains, and mas8ive. 

Primary form of the crystal a rigbt rhombic prism. 
Cleavage parallel to tbe terminal plane and short diagonal 
of the prism. Practure ttneven. Colour silyer wbite, or, 
when tarnished, yellowish whtte. Streak silter white. 
Lustre metatlic. Opaque. Slightly malleable. Easily 
frangible. Hardness 3 ' 5. Specioc gravity 9 * 44 to 9 - 6. 

Before the blow-pipe on charcoal readily melts, witb the 
formation of wbite antimonial vapour, into a greyisb globule, 
wbich is not malleable. but eventually pure sihrer is ob- 
tained. It is not totally soluble in nitric acid, oxide of 
antimony remaining undi8solved. 

The Massive Varieties are amorphouB, and haTe a gra- 
nular or ibliated strueture. 

Atttimonial siWer is found in day-slate at AndreaBberg in 
the Harz ; in Baden ; near Guadalcanal in Spain ; at Sals* 
burg; and at AUemwit in Fhince. (^ f^f^cs]c> 

S I L 


S I L 

Tbe Andreasberg minoral (1), analyised by Vauquelin, 
and the Baden (2), by Klaproth, gave the annexed re- 
Mlls: — 

ri) (2) 

SiWer . .78-0 . 84-76 

AntimoDj . 22*0 . 16*24 

100 100 

Telluric Siiver oocurs in coarse-grained masses. Colour 
my. Lustre metallic. Soft. ' Somewhat malleable. 
8peci6e gravity about 8*5. It is dissoWed by nitric acid, 
■od wben heated, and beibre the blow-pipc, or charcoal, 
grres a fused blackish mass, containing specks of metallic 

It is found at the siWer-mines of SaYdinski, in the Altai 
Mountains, Siberia. 
Analysis by Roae — 

Silver . . . . 62'42 

Tellurium • . .36*96 

Iron • . . . -24 


Naiive Atnalgam is a componnd of silver and mercury. 


Auriferoiis Natwe Siher occurs crystalli^ed in cubes, 
capillary, and disseminated. Colour yeilowish white. Spe- 
ciSe gravity 14*0 to 17*0. DiATerent varietie8 gave the 
mesed results to 

Pordyee. KlAproth. BocuingRult, 

BiWer 72 
Gold 28 




98 100* 



26 35*07 
74 64*93 

100 100- 

Jnemeal Antimonial Silver, or rather Areenuh/errU' 
gimme Antimomal Silver. — ^Tbis substanee occurs mam- 
■uUated or in small globular and reniform masses, and 
MBetiines inve8ting other substances. When untarnished it 
ii nearly silver white, but is commonly tamished yellowish 
« bbrkish ; its lustre is metallic. It is harder than anti- 
Boaial silver, but is sectile and brittle. SpeciAc gravity 9*4. 
Beibre the blow-pipe antimonyand arsenie are volatilized 
vith the alUaceous smell, and a globule of impure 8i1ver 
lOBaiin. Its localities are nearly the same as those of 
aatimonial 8ilver. Klaproth obtained from a specimen from 

SiWer • • . . 12'75 

Antimony . • .4*00 

Iron . , . .44-25 

Arsenic • • . •35'* 


The native compounds of silver next to be described are 
tbose in wbich it occurs in combination with the nuu- 
metallie elements. It is not found simply combined with 
oijeen, nor at all with azote, hydrogen, or Auorine. 

CMaride o/ Silver. Rom Siher. Mnriate of Siher, 
Laimannite. — Thia ore occurs crystallized and massive. 
Priouiry form of the crystal a eube. No cleavage. Frac- 
ture uneven. Hardness 1*0 to 1*5. Yields to the pres- 
inie of the nail. Streak shining. SpeeiAc ^rarity 4* 75 to 
S'55. Translucent. Opaque. Lustre resmous. Colour 
grey, yelbwish, greenitih, and blue of variou8 shades. Mal- 
kaUe and sectile. Pusible in the llame of a candie. 
Heated with potash by the blow-pipe, yields a globule of 
nietallie siKer. Insoluble iu nitric acid, but dissoK-ed by 
smmonia. When rubbed with a piece of moistened zinc 
tbe 8urface becomes covered with metaltic siWer. 

Tlus ore oceurs in variou8 parts of Europe and Ameriea, 
along with others of the same metal. The largest masses, 
which are of a greenish colour, are brought from Mexico 
and Peru. It is found in vein8, chieAy in primitive rocks. 

Two speeimens irom Peru (1) and hom Saxony (2), ana- 
lyied by Klaproth, gave— 



Chlorine • 

. 24 


. 21*50 

SiWer . 

. 76 


. 67*75 

Oxide of Iron 

, — » 


. 6*00 


• — 


. 1*75 

Sulphurio acid 



. 0*25 


JButtermilh Siher. Earthy Comeoue Siher, — ^This is 
resarded as a variety of the foregoing. It is described as 
bniog of a brownish colour, with oceasionally a tinge of 
gseen ur blne. / It is opaque, dull, with an earlhy fiacture, 
and is soit, sectilei and heavy. It occurs massiye, andalso 

inve8ting other substances. It ocours only at Andreasberg 
in the Uarz. 
According to Klaproth, it is composed of—- 

.Chlorine . • .8*28 

SiWer • . • .24-64 

Alumina . . .67*08 


" locHde o/ Siher. Herreralite.-^-Occun massi^e in thin 
plates, which are silver or greyish white, and which become 
bluish by exposure to the air. Transparent. Translucent 
Lustre resinous to adamantine; in thin lamin» flexible 
and malleable. Melts on charcoal before the blow-pipe» 
vapour of iodine being evolved, and globules of siKer 
remainini^. Found at Abarradon near Mazapil, in the 
state of ^acatecas, Mexico, in serpentine. 

Sttlpkuret o/ Siher. Vttreou3 Siher. Siher Glance, 
Henkelite. — ^Occurs crystallized and massive, Primary 
form a cube. Practure nne-grained and uneven ; sometimies 
small and flat conchoidal. Colour lead-grey; blackish 
when tarnished. Lustre metallic. Opaque. Hardness 
2*0 to 2*5. Malleable. Sectile. Specifio gravity about 7*2. 
When heated by the blow-pipe, sulphur is expelled and 
silver remains. It occurs in Saxony, Bohemla, and in greal 
abundance in Mexico. It has been oceasionally found in 
Cornwall, and in most siWer-mines. 

Analysis, (1) by Klaproth, of a specimen Arom Preiberg; 
(2) by Berselius:-^ 

(1) (2) 

Sulphur . »' ^ 15 12*95 

Silver . • • 86 8705 

100 100 

Black Sulpkuret o/ Silver, Earthy Siher Olanee.—* 
I>erived from the decomposition of the last mentioned. 
Ocours mai»ive and pulverulent. Practure uneven. Colour 
dark lead-grey, inclining to black. Devoid of lustre, or 
only feebly glimmering. Somewhat sectile. Streak sbin- 
ing, metallic. It is found in Norway, Siberia, Hungary, &c., 
usually investing other slWer-ores or Alling up cavitie8 
in them. 

Sulpkuret qf Siher and Arsenic. -^^A/ Red Siher. 
Proustite. — Primary form a rhomboid. Colour cochineal 
to aurora red ; streak lighter. Lustre adamantine. Trans- 
lucent to transparent. Specific gravity 5*5 to 5*6. 

It is found at Joachimsthal, Johanngeorgenstadt, Anna- 
ber^, &c. 

Rose*s analysis (1) and Proust'8 (2) give tbe following as 
the composition of a spedmen from Joachimsthal :— 



Sulphur . . 


Sulphuret of Silver . . 


Silver . . . 


Sulphuiet of Aisenio • 


Arsenic . . 


Antimony • 




Sulpkuret o/ Silver and Antimony. Ruby Siher. Dat 
Red Silver. Braardite. — Occurs crystallized and mas8ive. 
Primary form a rhomboid. Cleavage parallel to the primary 
planes, usually indistinct. Praeture eonchoidal. Colour, 
by reAected light, from lead-grey to iron-black ; by irans- 
mitted ligbt, ttom brilHant to dark red. Lustre adamantine. 
Translucent. Opaque. Hardness 2*0 to 2*5. Extremely 
britile. Streak red, SpeciAc gravity 5* to 5*9. 

Massive Varieties.'~ Structure grannlar, compoet, lanel- 
lar, dendritic, amorphous. 

It is found in maiiy parts of Europe and Amerioa, as 
Germany, Norway, Mexico and Peru, and alao in Com- 

According to Bonsdorif, a specimen flrom Andreasberg 
yielded by analysis— 

Sulphur . . 16*669 

SiWer . . . 58*949 

Antimony . . 22*846 

Sulpkuret o/Silver and Antimony. Miargyrite.—OccMrs 
crystallized. Primary form an oblique rhombic prism. 
Cleavage imperfect Practure uneven. Colour iron-black 
in mass ; but in tbin fragments deep red by transmittedlight 
Nearly opaque. Lustre brtght metallic. Hardnese 2 to 
2*5. Very sectile. Streak dark red. Surfaee9 of the crys- 
tals usually sthated. Specific gravity 5*2 to 5*4. 

Ilt is found with argentiferouB arsenical pyritesat Brauns- 
dorft, near Preiberg, Swony. 
Digitized by ^ 


S I L 


S I L 

According to Roso, it yielded — 





Antimony . 







StUphuret qf Siher and a little Iron. Biegsamer Sil' 
'3tfr^/aft2r.— Occurs crystalline and massiye. Crystala small 
and tabular. Cleayage parallel to the tcrminal planes. 
Colour nearly black. JLustre metallic. Very soft. Readily 
scparable into thin llexible laminsa. 
Found only in Hungary and at Freibei-g. 
According to WoUaston, this mineral (which is extremely 
rare) consists of sulphuret of siWer with a little iron. 

Sulphuret o/ SiUer and Iron, Sternbergite. Flexible 
Sulphuret o/ Silver, — Occurs crystiillized. Primary form 
a right rhombic prism. Cleavage parallel to the terminal 
plane, distinct. Lamined Tery flexible. Colour dark-brown, 
often with a blue tarnish. Streak black. Lustre metalUc. 
Hardness 1-0 to 1-5. Specific gravity 4*2 to 4'25. 

It is found at Johanngeorgenstadt, Schneeberg, and Jo- 
achimstahl in Bohemia, with other silver-ores. 

A specimen from the last-mentioned locality yielded, ac- 
cording to the analysis of Zippe^ 

Sulphur ... 30 

Silver . . . 33*2 

Iron ... 36- 


Brittle Sulphuret o/ Siher, Aniimony, and Iron, Brittle 
Silver Glance. — Occurs cryslallized. Primary form a right 
rhombic prism. Crystals commonly macled. Eracture 
usually conchoidal, with a shining metallic lustre. Colour 
dark grey or iron-grey. Harduess 2*0 to 3. Specific 
gravity 5-9 to 6-4. 

It is found iu Saxony, Bohemia, Hungai*y, Siberia, and 

Analysis of a specimen from Frieberg by 

Sulphur . 



Antimony . 
Iron . 







Sulpkuret qf Silver and Copper. Silberkup/erglanz,-^ 
Occurs massive. Compact Practure brilliant, granular, 
iiat conchoidal. Colour dark lead-grey. Streak sbining. 
Lustre metallic. Opaque. Soft »peoifio gravity 6-25. 

Found at Schlangenberg, near Colivan in Siberia. 
; Analysis by Stromeyer : — 

Sulphur . . . 15-96 

Silver . . • 52-87 

Copper . • . 30*83 

Iron . • . 00*34 


Sulphurei o/ Silver, Antimont/t and Copper. Romelite. 
Mine cCArgent grise Antimoniale.^--Occ}xn crystallized. 
Primary form a right rhombic prism. Cleavage parallel to 
the lateral planes. Colour nearly silver-white. Lustre 
shining, metallic. Opaque. Hardness 2 to 2-5. £x- 
treraely brittle. Specific gravity 5*5 to 56. 

It consists principally of sulphur and the metals above 
named, but in proportions not yet delermincd. 

Sulphuret o/ Siher^ Arsenic, Antimony, and Copper. 
Polybasite. Brittle Silver. — Occurs crystalliied. Primary 
form a right rhombic prism. CIeavage imperfect Practure 
uneven. Colour iron-black. Lustre metallic. Translucent 
Opaque. Hardness 2-0 to 2*5. SpeciAc gravity 6*269. 

Occurs in Bohemia, Saxony, and other parts of Europe ; 
and in Mexico and Peru. 

Analysis (l) of a speoimen from Mexico by Rose, and 
(2) from Preibei^ by Brandes : — 

(1) (2) 

Sulphur . . 17-04 . 19*40 
SiWer . . 64-29 . 65*50 




Antimony • 






Biwtttthic Silver> — Occurs in acicularcryslalsand mas8ive. 

Fracture uneven. Colour, when first broken, lead-grcy,but 

liable to tarnish. 
Ma8sive Varieties disseminated, amorphous. Fracture 

fine-grained, uneven. Lustre metallic. Opaque. Soft 

Sectile and brittle. 
It is found accompanying pyrites and galena at Schap- 

oach in the valley of Kiuzig, Baden. 
Analysis by Klaproth : — 

Sulphur • . . 16-3 

SiWer • . . 150 

Iron ... 4-3 

Copper . . . 0*9 

Bismuth . . . 27* 

Lead ... 33' 


Seleniurei qf Silver. Selensilver. -^Occurs crystallized. 

Primary form a cube. Occurs in thin plates. Hardness 

between gypsum and calcspar. Flexiblc. Specific gravity . 

8*0. Colour iron-black ; strcalL the same, but brighter. 

Occurs at Tilkerode in the Harz, associated with seleniuret 

of lead. 
Analysis by G. Rose : — 

Selenium . . . 24*05 

Silver . . . 65*56 

Seleniuret of lead, with a little iron 6-79 


Seleniurei o/ Silver and Copper. Eukairite^—OccMrA 

ma8sive. Structure granular. Colour grey. Lustre shin- 

ine. Disptosed in films on calcareous spar. 
Found in a copper-miue at Skrickerum in Smalaiid, 

Analysis by Berzelius : — 

Selenium • . • 26* 

Silver . . . 38*93 

Copper . . . 23*05 

Earthy matter . . 8*90 

Carbonic acid aud loss . 3*12 


Carbonate qf Silver and Antimony. Selbite.^Occurs 
n>assive and disseminated. Fi'acture uneven. Colour 
greyish-black. Structure fine granular. Lustre metallic. 
Opaque. Soft. Brittle. Heavy. 
Found at Altwolfach in the Black Forest 
Analysis by Selb : — 
Carbonic acid • 
Silver . , 

Oxide of antimony and a trace of | 
copper • • . .J 





Sulphuret qf Silver, Iron, Copper, Bismuth^ and Lead. 


This analysis cannot however be correct, if Ihe ore contain 
carbonate of silver. 

A rseniate o/ Silver and Iron. Gansekothig'erz ; Goose- 
dung Silver-ore. — Occura massive. Mammillated. Fracture 
conchoidal ; sometimes earthy, and mixed with cobaltore. 
Colour yellow or pale green. Dtreak white. Lustre resinous. 

Found chieAy in the mines of Clausthal in the Harz ; 
and also in Cornwall, and at Allemont in France. 

It does not appear to have been accurately analyzed. 

Having nowmentioned theprincipal mineralswhich con- 
tain siWer, it is to be observed that few of them are largely 
worked as ores: the principal are native siWer, chloride of 
silver, and sulphuret of siWer. The first, when the quantity 
is considerable, is separable by mere fu8ion ; tbe chloride 
and the sulphuret are obtained by amalgamatiou with mer- 
cury ; the sulphuret being Arst converted into a chloride 
by treatment with common salt &c. A considerable quan- 
tity of siWer is also procured from the lead-ore of this 
country by cupellation. 

Properties o/ Silver. 
The nroperties of silver are, that it has a purer white 
colour than any other metal ; it has great brilliancy, and ia 
susceptible of a very high polish. Its specific gravity is 
about 10*4 when cast, and 10*5 to 10*6 when stamped or 
rolled. It is sufficiently 8oft to be cut with a knife. It is 
very malleable and ductile, so that it may be beaten into 
leaves about ]-10,000th of an inch in thickness, and drawn 
into wire much finer than a human hair. It does not rust 
or oxidize by exposure to the air, but when the air contains 
sulphureous vapour8 it tarnishes, becoming first yellowish 
and afterwards black, Three metals only, viz. iron, copper> 
and platinum, exceed siWer in tenacUys a ^ire 0*787 of a 
Digitized by V:iOOQ1C 

S I L 


S I L 

line in diameter supporU rather Tnore tlian 187 pounds 
without hreakin^. Wben expo8ed to a bright red heat 
silver meltSi whicb, according to Daniell, is equivalent to 
1873° of Fahrenheit; on fu8ion its appearance ig extreme]y 
brilliant, and during this it absorbs oxygen from the air to the 
amouat of about 22 times its volume, and this it eiyes out 
either by cooling or by being poured into water. When ]eaf<- 
silver or fine siWer-wire is heated by Toltaic electricity» it 
burns with a flne green llame ; if intensely heated in the 
open fire, it boils, and a portion is vaporizea. 

Ojcygen and Siher cembine to form three compounds, 
viz. suboxide, protoxide, and peroxide. 

ProkMdde o/ Stlper is prepared by oxidizing and dissoW- 
ing the metal in dilute nitrio acid ; when lime or barytes 
water, or solution of potash or soda, is added to the solution 
of nitrate of silver, a precipitate is formed, which is the prot- 
oxide of silver, composed of 

One equivalent of oxgyen . . 8 

One equiYalent of siWer . . 108 

Equivalent . 116 

The properties of this oxide are, that it is of a brownish 
oolonr, inodorous, tastless, very slightly if at all soluble in 
water; it is decomposed by the action of light, being reduced 
to metallic silver and oxygen gas, and the same efiect is 
produced by heat. 1t is insoluble in the alkaiis or allLaline 
earths in general, but is rapidly and largely dissolved by 
ammonia. Nitric, acetic, sulphuric, and some other acids 
combine with it readily, but it is decom])osed by hydro- 
chloric acid, the resulta being chloride of silver and water. 
It gives a yellow colonr to glass and porcelain. This is the 
ozSe which is the basis of all the commou salts of silver. 

Suboocide qf8ilver was first procured by Faraday, by the 
partial decomposition of the protoxide ; when the ammonia- 
cal solution of this is exposed to the air, its 8urface becomes 
covered with a pellicle or darls fllm, which is the suboxide in 
question ; it is probably owing to the decomposition of a 
portion of the ammonla, whioh in this case yields hydrogen 
to a part of the oxygen of the protoxide of silver. 

According to Wohler, it may be obtained also by subject- 
ing citrate of silver to a temperatnre of 212^ 

Suboxide of silver appears to be a di-oxide, compoaed of— 
One equivalent of oxygen . • 8 

Two equiYalent8 of silyer . • 216 

Equivalent . 224 
It does not readily, if at all, form salts with acids. 
Peroxide qfSilver has been stated to be obtained by elec- 
trumg a weak solution of siWer. It separates at the p08itive 
pole in the Btate of minute acicular crystals. 

Sulphuric and phosphorie aoid decompose it with forma- 
tion or respeotive salls of the protoxide, and by ammonia it 
is acted upon and decomposed with great eneigy, 
It appears to be a binoxide, composed of 

Two equiva]ents of oxygen . 16 

One equivalent of siWer . . 108 

Equiva1ent • 124 
Chlorine and Siher readily combine, and the oompound, 
as already mentioned, form8 one of ore of siWer. 

It may be artiftcially formed in 8everal ways, fir8t by heat- 
ing the metal in a finely divided state in the gas, or by 
adding any soluble chloride, as common salt, to nitrate or 
any soluble salt of silver, except the hyposulphite. 

When recently precipitated, or if hept from the action of 
light, chloride of siWer is perfectly white, but by expo8ure to 
daylight it becoroes slowly bluish-white, and eventually 
almost black. The direct rays of the sun produoe this effect 
alroust instantaneously ; on this property is founded its use 
in photogenic drawing : the exact nature of the change which 
talces place does not appear to have been satisfactorily 
determined. This chloride is quite insoluble in water, either 
cold or hot ; the stronger acids take it up sparingly, and it is 
precipitated from them by dilution ; it is aissoWed however 
to some extent by hyposulphurous acid, and readily and 
larsely bv amroonia. It is decomposed by hydrosulphuric 
acids, and soluble sulphurets, which immediately blacken it 
by conrertin? it into sulphuret of siWer ; it is also decom- 
posed by hydrogen gas, and by iion and zinc when put into 
contact with it and water. 6y mere heat it undergoes no 
change except fusion, and when it has solidified on cooling, 
it has the appearanoe of hom ; hence the name of homnher 
for tbe natiye cbloride. 

It is composed of— 

One equivalent of chlorine . . 36 

Oneequivalent Grf siWer . . lUB 

£quivalent * 144 
Chloride of siWer ia largely and advantageously used 
both in qualitative and quantitative analyses, to determine 
the preaence and quantity of chlorine, chlorides, and hydro- 

Muorine and Silver may be combined to fomi Auoride of 
siWer. It is an uncrystallisable soluble compound; wben 
heated it fuses ; and at a higher temperature and exposed 
to the air it is slowly reduoed. 
It is composed of 

One equivalent of Auorine . • 18 

One equivalent of silyer . . 108 

Equivalent . 126 
Sulphur and Siher form sulphuret of siWer; this com- 
pound has been already noticed as existing in nature and 
constituting the vitreous silver'Ore. It may be prepared by 
direct action, as by heating alternate layers of siWer and 
sulphUr ; thus obtained, it is a soft malleable dark-ooloured 
compound ; it may be procured also by decomposing solu- 
tion of nitrate or of ammoniuret of siWer by hyarosulphuric 
acid, hydrosulphates, or soluble sulphurets. It is insoluble 
in water, ammonia, or other alkalis or acids, except nitric 
acid, which decomposes and is decomposed by it with tbe 
formation of sulphate of siWer. 
It is composea of— 

Onc equivalent of sulphur • 16 

Oneequivalent of siWer . . 108 

Equivalent . 124 
Phosphorui and Siher, — The sesubstances combine when 
heated together; and form a white brittle compound ; when 
fused and exposed to the air, it loSes phosphorus. It may be. 
formed either by projecting phosphorus on redbot siWer, 
or by heating a mixture of siWer Alings, phosphorio acid, 
and charcoal. 
It is composed of 

One equivalent of phosphorus . 16 

One equivalent of siWer . . 108 

Equivalent . 124 
lodine and Siher readily combine when hydriodic acid 
or iodide of potassium is added to a solution of nitrate of 
silver. Tbe iodide of siWer formed is precipitated of a 
greenish-yellow colour: it is insoluble in water or ammonia, 
and decomposed wben heated with potash ; when fused, it 
acquire8 a red celour, and is discoloured by light; in the 
invention of the Daguerreotype, a film of tbis compound, on 
the 8urface of a polisbed plate of siWer, is the substanoe 
that reoeive8 the impressions of light. It is decomposed by 
concentrated nitric or sulphuric acid. 
It is composed of 

One equivalent of iodine . • 126 
One equivalent of si]ver . . 108 

Equivalent . 234 

The compounds containing oxide of siWer consist of the 
ammoniuret and the o^isalts of 8ilver : we shall first mention 

Ammoniuret o/Silver. — Protoxide of silrer di$8olves with 
great readiness in ammonia, and by careful operation the 
substance discovered by Bertholiet, and called /ulminating 
eiher, is obtained. It should be prepared only in very small 
quantity at a time, on account of the facility and violence 
with which it explodes ; in exploding it forms water, sets 
free asotic gas, and metallic siWer, remains ; it isprocured by 
adding a small quantity of solution of ammonia to oxide of 
siWer ; a portion is dissoWed, and a black powder, which i% 
the fulminating ammoniuret of siWer remains ; it may be 
also formed by adding solution of potash from the ammonio- 
nitrate of silver ; a very gentle heat or slight friction causes 
it to explode, sometimes even before it is dry. Its exact 
composition has not been determined. 

We come now to the compounds of the oxacid8 and oxide 
of siWer, or the oxisalts of siWer ; it is the protoxide only 
which enters into combination with acids; at least they are 
the only well-known compounds. The first we shall men- 
tion is 

Nitrate o/ Sihcr.-^This is one of the/most imporiant 
Digitized by V300y IC 

S I L 


S I L 

salts of silver. It is generally prepared by adding the metal 
to the diluted acid, in which case the siWer id oxidized by 
dccomposing a portion of the nitric acid, and that which re- 
mains undecomposed dissoWes the oxide formed. It may also 
be prepared, but less adyantageously, by dissoWing the prot- 
oxide of siWer in the dilute acid ; in this cose no nitric 
oxide is evolved, for no nitric acid is decomposed. The 
solution is colourless, and by evaporation colourless crystals 
are readily obtained, the primary form of which is a right 
rhombic prism. Nitrate of siWer has a bitter metallic taste, 
is soluble in about its own weight of water at 60°, and in ha]f 
itsweightof boiling water; the solution is neutral to litmus- 
paper. Cold alcohol dissoWes only a little of this salt, but 
when boiling takes up a considerable quantity of it, the 
greater part of which separates on cooling. 

By the action of light, especially when in contact with 
organic roattcr, nitrate of siker is rendcred of a dark 
colour, and is then insoluble in water. When moderately 
heated, nitrate of siWer fuses, and being then cast in a mould 
in small cylindrical sticks, it constitutes the argenti 
nitras of the PharmaoopoBia, commonly called lunar causHc ; 
if the heat applied be too great, the salt is decomposed, 
oxide of siWer being Ieft, which, if still more strongly heated, 
gives metallic silveh When sulphur, phosphorus, or char- 
coal is mixed with nitrate of silver, and struck on an anvil, 
dctonation ensues, and metallic silver is obtained; the 
expcriment should be roade on Tery small quantities. 
Nitrate of siWer is decomposed by simply placing charcoal 
or phosphorus in its solution, metallic silver being deposited 
in the crystalline state; the same effect is produced by 
several roetals, and more especially copper, which is used in 
8ilver-reflning for precipitating ihe siWer from the nitrate 
in a pure state. 

Chhrate of Siher may be obtained by dissoWing prol- 
oxide of silver in chloric acid ; the solution yields small 
rhombic erystals, which are soluble in four parts of water at 
60^ This salt is not applicd to any use. 

Nitrate of siWer is decomposed by sulphuric and phos- 
phoric acids, and their soluble salts, sulphate and phosphate 
of silver, are thrown down. Potash and soda and.the 
alkaline earths precipitate protoxide of silver; ammonia pro- 
duces the same effect, but when added in excess, redissolves 
the oxide at first precipitated. Hydrosulphuric acid, hydro- 
sulphates, and soluble sulphurets occasion the formation and 
precipitation of black sulphuret of silver. 

Chlorine partially, and soluble chlorides and hydrochloric 
acid and hydrochlorates, perfectly, decompose nitrate of silver, 
chloride of siWer being precipitated. It is on this account 
that niti-ate of silver is employed, and with great accuracy, in 
both qualitatiYe and quantitative analyses. 

Nitrate of silver is composed of 

One equivalent of nitric acid . 54 

One equivalent of protoxide of siWer 116 

Bquivalent . 170 
Besides the uses already named, nitrate of siWer is em- 
ployed by precipitation with carbonate of soda, &c. for 
>Yriling on linen ; it is commonly called indelible ink. 

Carbonaie of Siher is prepared by adding a solution of 
carbonate of potash, or of soda, to one of nitrate of siWer. 
It is a white substance, insoluble in water, but dissoWed by 
animonia, and decomposed by acids ; it is blaokened by ex- 
posure to light, and readily decomposed by heat. It is pro- 
bably composed of 

Ono equivalent of carbonic acid . 22 
One equivalent of oxide of siWer .116 

EquiTaIent . 138 
Sulphate of Siluer. — This salt may be formed by bojling 
Anely divided siWer in strong sulphuric acid, by dissoWing 
the protoxide in dilule sulphuric acid, or by adding a solu- 
tion of sulphate of soda to one of nitrate of siWer, when it 
is thrown down as a crystalline precipitate. 

Sulphate of siWer is a colourless salt, solnble in about 90 
parts of water at 60° ; a saturated boiling solution deposits 
crystals on cooiing. which are prismatic and anhydrous; 
when strongly heated, the acid is expelled, and metallic sil- 
ver remains* It is sometimes cmployed as a chemical rc- 
agent, and is composed of 

One equivalent of sulphurlc acid . 40 
One equivalent of oxide of siher .116 



It is decomposed by chlorides and sulphurets, in thc sanie 
manner as the nitrate of siWer. 

Snlphiie qf Siher may be obtained by adding sulphite o^ 
potash to 8 solution of nitrate of siWer, or by digesting oxide 
of siWer in a solution of the acid. It has the form of cryi* 
talline grains, and, unlike most otber salts of siWer, is 
stated to retain its whiteness when expos6d to li^ht. It is 
composed of 

One equiva]ent of gulphurous acid . 38 
One equivalent of oxide of ai Wer .116 

£quivalent . .148 
Hupoiuipkate of Siher is prepared by digesting earbonate 
of siWer in hyposulphuric acid. It crystallizes in prisms. 

Hypoiulphite qf Siher. — It is obtained by gradually 
adding a weak solution of nitrate of siWer to a uilute one of 
hyposulphite of soda. It is a precipitate of <i grey colonr, 
and the supernatant liquor is stated by Herschel, who has 
particularly examined this salt, to be remarkably sweet, 
without any metallic flavour. It is also formed wben 
chloride of siWer is dissoWed in a hyposulphite. This salt 
is very liable to spontaneous decomposition, and beoomes 
black owing to the formation of sulphuret of siWer. Hie 
byposulphites have been advantageously employed in re- 
moving of the unchanged salt of siWer in photogenic diaw- 
ings. Hyposulphite of siWer is oomposed of 

One equivalent of hyposulphurous aeid 48 
Oneequivalentofoxideof siWer . 116 

£({uivalent . .164 

Phon>hate qfSiher, — ^This is prepared by adding a solu- 

tion 01 the common neutral phosphate of soda to one of 

nitrate of siWer ; a yellow precipitate is formed, which is 

quickly discoloured by exposure to li^ht; becoroea brown 

when heated, but regains its yellow tint on eooling ; and 

when strongly heated, it melts. It is soluble in nitric and 

phosphoric acid. It is a subsesquipho^phate, composed of 

I equivalent of phosphoric acia . 36 

l^ equivalent' of oxiue of siWer . 1 74 

£quiva1ent . .210 
Pyrophosphate of Siher is obtained by heating neutral 
phosphate of soda so as to expel ita water, and adaing a so- 
lution of it to one of nitrate of siWer. This precipitate is of 
a white colour. Like the nreceding, it is composed of one 
equivalent each of acid and base. 

We shall mention the properties of a ibw of the salts 
formed by the combination of the vegetable acida with oxide 
of siWer. 

Acetate qfSiher, — ^lt may be prepared by dissolTing oxide 
of siWer in acetic acid, or, as it is a salt of sli^ht solubility, 
in water, by decomposing nitrate of ailver with aoetate of 
soda, when it is thrown down as a crystalline Aocculent 
precipitate. It is a colourleas salt, sparingly soluble ia 
water, and decoraposed at a red heat. It is occasionally 
used as a chemical re-agent. It oonsists of 

One equivalent of acetic acid . 51 

One equivalent of oxide of siWer .116 

£quiva1ent . .167 
Benzoate of Silver may be obtained either by digesting 
moist oxide of siWer in a solution of benzoio acid, or by 
adding a bensoate to it. It is a white anhydrous com- 

Citrate ofSihet is formed by adding a citrate to nitrate of 
siWer. It is an insoluble white powder, which blackens b; 
exposure to light, and detonates slightly when heated. 
is composed of 

One equivalent of citric acid . 56 

One equivalent of oxide of siWer . 116 


£^uivalent . .172 
Oxalate qf Siher is precipitated when oxalic acid or au 
oxaIate is added to nitrate of silver. It is insoluble in 
water, white, and renderod black by exposure to light. It 
detonates slightly when struck on an anvi1. It is soluble in 
nitric acid, and decomposed by hydrochloric acid. It is 
probably composed of 

Onc equivalent of oxalic add . . 36 
One equivalent of oxide of Bilver .116 

£quivalent . .152 
Cyanide of Sihern preparcd by adding hydrocyanic acid 

S I L 


S I L ^ 

to a tolution of nitrate of siWer; the hydrogen of tbe acid 
nniting with the oxygen of the oxide of silver, water is 
ionned, and the cyanogen and silver combine, and form 
eyantde of silver, which is precipitated. It is colourless, in- 
soluble in water or solution of potash or soda, but readily 
taken up by ammonia. Nitric and sulphuric acid act but 
sliehtly UDon it, untess ooncentrated and heated; hydro- 
ehlonc aeta decomposes it, and hydrocyanic acid and chlo- 
ride of silyer result? and this is one of tbe methods of pro- 
curing the last-roentioned acid, adopted in the London 
Pharmacopcdia. It is deoomposed by hydrosulphuric acid, 
by which sulphuret of silver and hydrocyanic acid are ob- 
tained. It is composed of 

One equivaient of oyanogen . . 26 
One equivalent of silver . . .108 

Equiva1ent . .134 

Perrocyanidĕ qf Siher is obtained when ferrocyanide of 
notassium is added to nitrate of silrer. It ia a white insolu- 
bte substance. 

Cymate qf Siher is formed when cyanate of potash is 
added to nitrate of silTor. It is a white powder, slightly 
soluble in hot water, and also in ammonia. It blackens 
when heated, and burns with detlagration, and there are 
produced di cyanide of silver, cyanio acid, carbonic acid, and 
asotic gas. 

Pkdminate qf Siher, Pulminating Si/tw.— This very 
explosive compound is formed by dissoWing 60 grains of 
silver in half an ounce of nitric acid of speciAo gravity 1*38 ; 
to the solution are to be added two ounces of aloohol of spe- 
dflc gravity 088, and the mixture is to be heated in a capa- 
eious flask; a white Aocculent precipitate soon begins to 
appear, and when ebullition comroences, the flask is to be 
rdmoved fh)m the heat; the eif6rve8oence still continues, 
and when it has ceased, tbe product is to be coUected on a 
Htter, washed with cold water, and dried at a temperature 
notexceeding lOO^ Pahrenheit. 

Pulminate of silver is a greyish-white crystalline powder. 
Ji becomes darker by exposure to light ; it dissoWes in about 
40 parts of boiling water, and separates, as the solution 
cools» in minute crystals. In the quantity even of a half 
grain it detonates violently, either oy the action of heat, 
•lectricitir, strons sulphuric acid, or friction. When placed 
on one flint, and slightly touched with another, explosion 
alao takes place. It has been known to detonate with great 
violence wben a little has remained between a stopper and 
the neck of a bottle, on screwing in the stopper. It should 
bepreaenred therefore in small portion8,in paper,in a wide- 
moutbed oorked vial. It is composed of 

One equivalent of fulminio acid . 68 
Two equivalents of oxide of siher . 232 

Equivalent . 300 

AU€ijf9 qf Siher.-^lAiile or nothing is known respecting 
the alloys of silvcr with the following metals : — Potassium, 
iodittm, and the metals of the alkaline earths ; manganese, 
cadmium» nickel, uraniuro, tellurium, titanium, cerium, 
chromium« and vanadium. 

Iroa and 8tlver eombine with difficulty. They separate 
on oooling, the iron retaining about one-eightieth of siWer, 
and the siWer about one-thirtieth of iron. Aocording to 
Paraday and Stodart, steel containing about one flve-hun- 
dredth of 8ilver forms a good alloy for cutting instruments. 
Iroa and silyer form a bluish-white granular alloy ; tin and 
silver, a white, hard, brittle alloy. When cobalt and siWer 
are fiised together, they separate dnring cooling, each re- 
taming a portion of the other. Lead and siWer give a duU 
brittle alloy; antimony and siWer, a white brittle alloy; 
arsenie and siWer fom a grey, brittle, granular coropound, 
containing about 14 per cent^t the forroer metal. Bismuth 
aad siWer give a yellowish-white, brittle, lamellar alloy; 
melybdenum Ibrms a compact, brittle, grey, granular com- 
pound with siWer ; and tungsten, a brown, sligutly malleable 
btttton ; copper and siWer readily combiue, and the siWer is 
rendered harder by it without much deterioration of colour ; 
the standard silver of this country is composed of 1 1 ' 10 siWer 
a&d 0*90 copper. MercuryandsiWer amalKamate readily, 
and thia compound is sometimes eroployed lor platlng, but 
this operation is now being most advantageously earried 6n 
by precipitation by means of voltaic electricity. 

Aoperiies qf the Salts qf Siher.—The solutions of tbe 
ialts (tf ailver are recognised by the following, among other 
pioperties which haye beeu occasionally mentioned :•— 

They give a white precipitate, insoluble in water or in 
dilute acids, but readily in aromonia, by chlorides and hy- 
drochlorates ; the precipitate becomes black by exposure to 
the light. ^ 

Metallic silver is precipitaled by copper and the solulion 
of protosulpliateof iron ; black sulphuret. by hydrosulphuric 
aciU and bydrosulphates. A yellow precipitate by arsenious 
acid and phosphate of soda; a red-brown, by arseniales; a 
criroson, by chromates ; and white,by the ferrocyanide of po- 

With respect to the uses of siWer it is scarcely rcquisite 
to say anylhing, as they are well known in its applica- 
tion to coin and the formation of yessels of great beauly aiid 

8ilver-ores are found chieAy in veins whieh traverse the 
priroary and the older of the secondary stratified rocka, but 
especially the former ; andalso the unstratiGed rocks, such as 
granite and porphyry, which are associatcd with the above. 
Some of the richest mines in South America are situaled in 
primary strata ; also in limestone and in grauwacke, and in 
still moresecondary strata. In some of the mines of Peru, and 
in those of Kongsberg in Norway and Preiburg in Saxony, 
8ilver has been discovered in roasses weighing froro 1 00 to 
800 Ibs. In the mines of Europe the vcins are numerous and 
slender ; in some of the roines iu the Harz Mountains and in 
the Hungarian mines the veins occur in a small number of 
spots, and are of considcrable dimensions. In threc of the 
richest districts of Mexico there is only one principal vein, 
which is worked in diScrent places. One of these veins, in 
the district of Guanaxuato, isAoro 130 to 148 feet \^'ide, and 
it has been traced and worked to an extent of nearly eight 

In Mexico there were 500 raining establishraents, called 
Beales, at the time of Humboldt*s visit, and from 3000 to 
4000 veins or masses were worked. The most common ores 
are the sulphuret of siWer, antimonial siher, and muriate 
of 8ilver. 

The average richness of all the ores in Mexico is from 3 
to 4 ounces per quintal of 102 Ibs. In one of th« Mexican 
mines a working of one hundred fect in Icngth yielded in i:ix 
months 432,274 Ibs. troy of silver, equal in value to about 
1,000,000/. In Chili some of the roines yield only 8oz. in - 
5000 Ibs. ofore; butinthe rich mine of Copiapo, discovered 
in 1832, the ore frequently contains 60 or 70 per cent. of silver. 
The average produce of thc mines in Saxony is from thrce 
to four ounces in the quintal. The lcad-mines of Cravcn 
in Yorkahire contained 230 ounces per ton ; and thosc of 
Cardiganshire, worked in tlie reign of Chailes I., yielded 
60 ounces. The avera^e proportion of the lead-roines of 
the north of England is ] 2 ounces per ton. Even when 
the proportion of silver is so low as eight ounces, or. one 
grain per ilb., it has been found profitable to separatc it. 

The pure metal is separated from the ore by various pro- 
cesses ; by mechanical divisioQ, roastings to separate the 
sulphur and other volatile matter, and melting at different 
stages of purification, with the addition of fiuxes of variou8 
sorts, ReAning is perforroed by aroalgaroation with quick- 
8ilvor, the two metals being afterward8 separated by dis- 
tilling off the quicksilver. 

The |)roduce of the Mexican mines averaged annually 
4,800,000/. from 1793 to ]803,of which nineteen-twentieths 
were siWer. In the Arat ten years of the present century 
the average annual value was about 5,000,000/., the quan- 
tity of pure 8ilver annually produced in that time being 
1,440,650 troy Ibs. The mines of Potosi in Peru are the 
most foroou8 in South America. [Potosi.] The produce 
of the Chilian mines in 1832 was about 1,000,000 ounces. 
At the oommencement of the present century Huroboldt 
estimated the annual produce of the siWer-mines of Chili, 
Peru, Baenoa Ayres, and NewGrenada, at nearly 700,000 Ibs. 
troy, valued at a,074,476/, sterling. 

The annual aTerage of both gold and siWer coined in the 
different mints of Spanish America was estimated, in 1810, 
at 8 millions sterling. namely, in Mexico 24 millions of dol- 
lars ; Lima, 6 millions ; Potosi, 4^ miUions ; Santa F^ and 
Bantiago, each H million ; and Popayan and Guatemala, 
nearly 1 million. The proportion of &ilver to gold ooined at 
all these mints was stated as 30 to 1 ; but the proportion of 
siWer to gold produced from all the American mines was as 
62 to 1 ; and from the mines of all countries as 52 to 1. 
In a work publtshed at Paris in 1807 by M. Brongniart, the 
▼alue of the gold and giWer bronght annually into oiiculatioa 

Digitized b':, r^-^ 

S I L 


S I L 

from all parts of the world was estimated at nearly 46 mil- 
lions of dollars ; of wliich 36 were from the mines of Spanish 
America, 4^ from those of Portuguese America, and 5{ from 
the raines of the Old World. {Report o/ Bidlion Com" 
mitiee, 1810.) 

Tbe most productive mines in Europe are those in Sasony, 
Austria, Hungary, Norway, Russia, and Spain. The mines 
in SaKony have been worked since the tenth century. The 
average annual produce of all the European mines in the 
last twenty years of the eighteenth century did not exc-eed 
600,000/. in value. lu the early part of the thirteenth cen- 
tury the mines of Schneeberg in Saxony are said to have 
yielded 600,000/. annually ; hut taking the average of all 
the mines of late years, the annual produce does not, ac- 
cording to the estimate of Mr. Jacoh, exceed 400,000 Ibs., or 
100.000/. in value. The mines of Chemnitz and Kremnitz 
in Hungary have been worked about a thousand years. 
Those of the Tyrol have long ceased to be productive. The 
inine of Kongsberg in Norway was probably the richest in 
Biurope during the middle of the last century. It yielded 
649,270 Ibs. troy, value nearly 2,000,000/., in the forty 
years from 1728 to 1768. The silver of Russia is obtained 
from the refining of stream gold found in the Ural Moun- 
tains, and from lead-ores. Silver-mines were worked in 
Spain from a very early period by the PhcBnicians, Cartha- 
ginians, Romans, and Moors ; but they are now abaudoned 
as unproAtable. 

Native silver and several of the other varieties of the orea 
are met wiih in some of the Cornish copperrmines, and silver 
is extracted from the ore of English lead ; but with these 
ttXceptions, and very small quantities which are occasionally 
found of this metal, silver cannot he considered as consti- 
tuting one of the mineral treasures of the United Kingdom. 
A vein of silver-ore and the sulphuret was worked in Stir- 
lingsbire during the latter part of the last century, and 
from 40,000/. to 50,000/. were obtained, when the vein was 
lost In 1607 a silver-mine was worked in Linlithgowshire. 

The siWer-mines of Asia have ceased to be very produc- 
tive in modern times. There are mines in Arorenia, but 
none are known to exist in Persia, nor in any part of the 
East IndiaCorapany*8 possessions. Siker-mines are worked 
in China; and Mr.Davis remarks (Chinese) that the great 
quantities of siker brought to Lintin for many years past, 
to be exchanged for opium and exported to India, prove that 
there must be abundant sources in the empire. Silver is 
not obtained in any part of Africa. 

Gold and silver appear lo have been in reque8t from the 
earliest ages. Abraham was rich in siWer and in gold. 
He bought a field for a burial-plaee, for which he paid 400 
shekels of silver, delivered * by weight, according to the 
currency of the merchants.* {Genesis, xxii., 14-16.) 
Joseph, his great-grandson, was sold by his brethren for 
twenty piec^s of silver (Genesis, xxxviii., 29) ; and when 
aftewardsthey went to Egypt to purchase corn, they brought 
• silver in their sacks' mouth.' {Genesis, xlv., 22.) In 
the book of Job (xlii., 11-12), we read of silter passing 
from hand to hand as money. The writer of that book 
was acouainted with the fact that silver was found in veins 
and gold in particles, though the country in which he lived 
did not produce the precious metals. It is said (1 Kings, 
X.) that in the days of Soloraon &ilver was nothing ac- 
counted of, and that ' the king made silver to be as stones 
in Jerusalem.' Darius Hystaspes, king of Persia, annually 
collected 9880 talents of silver, besides gold, as tribute from 
Asia and Africa ; 8ubsequently tribute came in also from 
the islands of the Mediterranean and from Europe as far 
west as Thessaly. Herodotus states (iii. 96) that the gold 
and 8ilver were melt^d and poured into earthen ve8sels, 
and that the earthen vessels were then rcmoved, which left 
the metal in a solid mass : when any was wanted, a piece 
was broken off as the occasion required. SiWer was coined 
at Rome 266 b.c, before gold had been so employed. [Coin.] 

For further information on the production and uses of 
the precious metals, the reader may refer to Mr. Jaoob'8 
elaborate ' History of the Consumption of the Precious 
Metals,' 2 vols. (1831). Chapter ii. contains an account of 
the mines of the antients, and their modes of mining and 
smelting. Chapter x. is an inquiry into the production of 
the precious metals during the middle ages, from the disso- 
lution of the Western Empire to the discovery of America. 
Another chaptcr is on the produce of the mines at the epoch 
of this di8Covery ; also one Irom this period to the opening 
of the mines of Poto8i, in 1564; and two other chapters, 
on« on the produce of gold and siWer ftom 1700 to 1809, 

and the other extending tbe inquiryfi'om 1809 to 1829» 
complete this part of the subject. The investigati^ns of 
Humboldt, and the nersonal inquiries of Mr. H. G. Ward 
{Mexico in 1827), with thescattered notices of other writers, 
are collected and arranged by Mr. Jacob, whose work must 
always be valuable for reference in all question8 relating to 
the history of prices. Several chapters of the work are de- 
voted to this topic in connection with the increased supply 
of the precious metala after tbe discovery of America, and 
the rise of prices which occurred in Europe in the siiteenth 
centur)'. The gold and silver coin in Europe, in 1492, Mr. 
Jacob estimates at 34,000,000/., which was increased in the 
oourse of the next 112 years by 138.000,000/., making the 
total gold and siWer currency in.l599,aUowing for abrasion, 
&c., 1 72,000,000/. In bpok i.. chapter xi., of the < Wealth of 
Nations,' there is a * Digression conoerning the Yariations 
in the Yalue of Silrer during the oourse of the Four last 

The proportional value of gold to siWer was 12 and 10 to 1 
from the Anglo-Saxon timea to the discovery of America : 
it is at present 14*28 to 1. In antient Greece the propor- 
tion varied from 15 and 10 to 1, and in Rome from 12 and 
7 to I. Herodotus (iii. 95) estimates it at 13 to 1. Since 
the di8covery of America the proportion throu^hout the 
world bas been 17 and 14 to 1. (Kelly's Cambist,) 

Mr. Jacob gives the amount of siWer coined in each 
reign irom the time of James I. : — 

Jamesl. • • (22 years) 1,807,277 

Charles I. and the 

Commonwealth . (35 years) 9,776,544 

CharlesII. . . (22 years) 3,722.180 

JamesIL . . ( 4 years) 2,115,115* 

William and Mary, 

and William IIL (12years) 7.093.074 

Anne • • . (13 years) 618,212 

George I. . • (13 years) 233,045 

George II. . . (33 years) 304,360 

George III. from 

1760 to 1809 . (49 years) 63,419 

1809 to 1820 . (11 years) 6,933,346 

The last new siWer ooinage for the Uuited Kingdom waa 
commenced in 1816,since which time the quantity of silver 
coined in each year has been as follow8 : — 

YMn. AmouDt Ooined. Ycmrs. Amou&t Ooined. 

1816 £1,805,251 1829 108,259 

1817 2,436,297 1830 151 

1818 676,279 1831 83,696 

1819 1,672,272 1832 145 

1820 847,717 1833 145 

1821 433,686 1834 432,775 

1822 31,430 1835 146,665 

1823 285,271 1836 497,719 

1824 282,070 1837 75,385 

1825 417,535 1838 174,042 

1826 608,605 1839 390,654 

1827 33,019 1840 207,900 

1828 16.288 

Total £11,108,265 
The weight of silver coined^ and the number and deno- 

mination of each coin issued from 1816 to 1840 inclusive, 

were as follows, according to a parliamentary paper {Sess, 


Weight; Namber. Yalue. 

IbB. £ 

Crowns • 140,144 1,849.905 462,476 

Hair-crowns . 1,190,876 31.438»434 3,929.804 
Shillings . 1,540,080 101,645,280 5,082,264 
Sixpences . 441,852 58,324,595 1,458,114 
Pourpences . 52,140 10,325,320 177,062 

Maunday money;— 

Pourpences . , 306 60.720 1,012 

Threepencea . 270 71.368 892 

Twopences • 225 89,100 742 

Penoe . 272 215,424 897 , 

The seignorage, or the difference between the price vtt, 
which buUion is purcbased and the mint price of the coin 
at 5«. 6c/. an ounce, amounted to 616.747/. on theaboYe. 
The Maunday money is coined for the purpose of bein^ 
distributed by the liord Almoner in Whitehall Chapel on. 
Maunday Thursday. 

When 8ilver is issued for coin, it is always alloyed witliL 

• Incladin« i61.696,799 but. money^ 

Digitized by 

MOhied for Irelud, 

S I L 


S I L 



: » 

S 1 


copp«r : the maximum oP hardnets is produoed hy one-fifth 
of copper. One Ih. of standard 8ilver of the English coin- 
age contains 11 02. 1S dwts. of pure silver and 18 dwts. alloy, 
or 925 parts of pure siWer in 1000 parte of standard silver. 
{MoNEY.] For purposes connected with the manufacture of 
various articles of use and oniament the alloy is });reater. At 
Birmingham rolled sheets are made which do not contain 
iuore than 3 or 4 dwts. of siWer to each Ib. of the inferior 

The rolling of siWer in contact with the inferior metals is 
performed hy powerful llatting-mills. A bar ot copper is 
tnnde quite smooth and clear on one of its surraces, and is 
thcn sprinkled over with glass of borax, and there is laid 
upon it a plate of fine siWer, and the twoare carefully bound 
togelher by wire. The mass is then exposed to a fu]l red 
heat, which melts the borax and causes the silver to adhere 
to the copper. The ingot is now passed through a rolling- 
press and formed into a plate, both the silver and co^i^per 
«xtendiog uniformly during the whole process, at the con- 
clusion of whicb they are inseparably joined.. The art of 
silvei^p1ating was introdueed at Sheffield about the middle 
of the last century. Another mode of plating is called ' sil- 
Tering/ when an amalgam of siWer and mercury is well 
rubb^ upon the surface of the copper; by the application 
of heat the mercury is driven off, and the silver remains 
behind, adhering Armly to the copper, and capable of being 
highly polished. 

Mr. Jacob estimates the annual consumption of siWer in 
the United Kingdom at 3,282,046 oz., valued at 820,521/. 
The consumption for watch-cases is about 506,000 oz. 
annualW : 100,000, each weighing on an average 2^oz., are 
stamped annually at the London Assay-office ; 60,000, each 
weighing 2 oz., are stamped at Birmingham ; and 80,000, of 
thesamc weight, are stamped at the other as8ay-offices in the 
kingdom. About 900,000 oz. are used by coach-makers, 
harnesa-makers, and saddlers' ironmongers. In articles of 
small 8ize, such as thimbles, of which hundreds of thou- 
lands are annually made ; chains for watch-guards, pencil- 
cases, Decks of smelling-bottles, locks of pocket-books, in- 
strument cases, and portfolios, and small portions to handles 
of penknives and razors, the siWer used is under the 
weight which subjects it to the stamp-duty of U, Sd. an oz., 
but a Tcry considerable quantity of siWer is employed in 
these minor objects. Leaf-silver for gilding is made two 
and a half times thinner than gold, and the gold-beaters 
reqttixe a considerable quantity of the metal for this pur- 
pose. Some articles are ' washed* with siWer. Mr. Jacob 
dislributes the total consumption as fol]ows: — 

That paying duty . . . 1,275,316 oz. 
That used in watch-cases . . 506,740 

That used in plating . . 900,000 

That for other minor purposes • 500>000 

The value of the stock of siWer in the hands of the ma- 
nufactucers and dealers is estimated by the same authority 
at 3,280.000/. The value of ornaments and utensils of the 
precious metals in Europe and America, if brought to the 
crucible, Mr. Jacob values at 400,000,000/., or one:fourth 
mare than the value of the coined metals. The annual con- 
sumption of gold and siWer in Europe and America for or- 
namental purposes he states to be nearly 6,000,000/., that of 
Great Britain being valued at 2,457,000/. In M*Culloch*s 
'Dictionary of Commerce,' it is stated that Mr. JacoVs cal- 
culations are generally too high. SiWer forms by far the 
largest proportion of the value of domestic utensils in which 
dther of the two preoious metals are used. In Eugland the 
gold currency is of much higher relative value tiiau that 
of siWer [Currsncy] ; but in most other countries this is 
not the case. The coinage of siWer and gold in Prance is 
estimated at 100,000,000/., a very large proportion of which 
is of aiWer. Sinoe the peaoe, the number of siWersmiths 
and persons engaged in working siWer and gold into articles 
of ornament and use has greatly increased on the Continent ; 
and the increase of the same class is probably also con- 
siderable in the United Kingdom. See the articles Andes, 
Cbils. Mbxigo, Pkru, Potobi, for an accountof the South 
American mines; Austria, Hunoary, Saxony» &c, for 
those of Buropa. 

(Jacob*8 Inguiry into ihe Ptodueiion and ConsumpHon 
o/ihe Precious MetalSy 2 vols., London, 1831 ; Humboldt's 
New 8pain; Personal Researches, &c.; Ward's Memco, 

P. C, No. 1362. 

SILYER, Medical Properiies o/, In a purely metallic 
state siWer bas no action on the animal frame, and the only 
salt much used is tho nitrate, termed also iunar causiic, 
This is always fused in proper moulds, from wbich it is 
turned out in the form of cylinders, about three inches long, 
and the eighth of an inch in diameter. They are at first 
white. but quickly become of a dark grey or black colour, 
from combining with organic matter in the air. To prevent 
this the cylinders are generally wrapped up in blue paper. 
When nitrate of siWer is brought in contact with any part 
of the human frame, it causes Arat a white mark, which 
gradually changes to blue, purple, and at last toblack. This 
occurs more rapidly if moisturebe present; and is owing to 
a chemical oombination of the metal with the albumen and 
fibrin of the animal tissues. If the part be wetted, and tho 
caustic applied several times at short intervals, vesication 
results. Nitrate of silvcr acts therefore locally as an irri- 
tant and corrosive, When taken intenially iu small doses 
for a considerable time, such as six or tweWe months, it is 
absorbed and deposited in various parts of the body, and 
when it is deposited in the rete mucosum of the skin it 
causes discolorations, which in most cases prove permanent. 
It has been employed frequently with success, but often 
with fai1ure, in the treatment of epilepsy, chorea, and some 
forms of angina pectoris, as well as morbid sensibility of 
the stomach. Larger doses can be borne when it is admi- 
nistered in the form of pill than in solution. The pills 
should be made with mucilage and sugar, but not with 
bread-crumb, as the common salt, or chloride of sodium, de- 
composes the nitrate and renders it inert. In cases of poi- 
soning by nitrate of siWer, common salt is a ready and 
effectual remedy. The liability of nitrate of siWer to pro- 
duoe discolorations of the skin in persons taking it inter- 
nally constitutes a serious objection to its employment, and 
there appe&rs little necessity for giving it, since any case of 
epilepsy likely to be beneAted by it will generally receive 
eoual good firom the use of oxide of annc, without the risk 
01 stains or other ineonvenience. It has been suggested 
that the use of nitric acid internally as well as esternally 
may remove the discolorations ; but it is bietter not to incur 
the chance of causing them, tban trust to the remote chanca 
of removing them by such an expedient. 

The extemal employment of this agent is not hable to 
any objection when used cautiously, while its advantages 
are very great. It is the most powerful direet antiphlogisiic 
agent known. All subacute intlammations in any part to 
which it can be immediately applied will subside under its 
intluence. In inAammationa not merely of the skih, but of 
mucous membranes when they occur in parts which are 
accessible, its inAuence is great, and speedily maniiested. 
Many of the cases of croup which in an advanced stage aro 
unmanageable, begin in the back part of the throat (fauces), 
and if these parts are freely touched with a pencil dipped in 
a strong solution of nitrate of siWer, the farther downward 
progress of the intlammation may be arrested. The same 
treatment is applicable to the erythematous inAammation 
which frequent1y begins either externally, and spreads 
through the mouth or nose to the fauces, and thence down 
the oesophagus, or originates in the lauces, leading to very 
serious results. Erysipelatous indammation occurring in 
any part of the body may be effectually limited by nrtrate 
of siWer. For this purpose a complete circle should be 
formed round the intlamed part, but on the sound skin. 
For this case the solid cylinder, moistened at the end, is 
best The circle must be perfect, or the morbid action 
may extend, escaping at the smallest breach. Chronic 
inAammation, and even ulceration of the eyes, may be re- 
moved by nitrate of siWer applied in different form8. Old 
indolent ulcers are stimulated to a healtby action by its use ; 
and many cutaneous diseases removed by it. Recent burns 
have the severe pain often very much mitigated by it ; but 
it must not in any of these cases be applied to too large a 
surface at once, as ill effects have followed such a practice. 
To specify all the uses of nitrate of siWer would be impos- 
sible here, but one more deserves to be extensive1y known. 
It is the best application to chilblains, especialiyat first; 
but even after t]iey break, it disposes tlaem to heal. 

When a solution of nitrate of siWer is made, distilled 
water should invariably be used. The neglect of this rule 
causes many of the solutions applied to the eye to be not 
only useless, but hurtful. Oxide of siWer has been recently 
strongly recommended as an antispasmodic, and not liablo 
to the objections which attach to the nitrate. 



Digitized b\ 

S I M 


S I M 

SILYER, GERMAN. [Tutenag.] 

SILV£R-6RAIN. In making a horiiontal section of 
the trunk of auy tree» a number of straight lines will be seen 
radiating from the central pith (hrougb the wood to the 
hark. Tbese i*ays are called by botanists meduDary rays ur 
plates, and hy pei*sons wbo work on wood siher-grain. 
They are composed entirely of cellular tissue, which is of a 
compressed form, and thence called muriform, and ofien do 
not consist of more than a single layer of cells, allhoagh in 
some trees, as Aristolochias, tlie layers are very nu- 
merous. In longitudinal sections of the stem they give it a 
remarkable satiny lustre, which constitutes the great beauty 
of some woods, as the plane and the sycamore. The great 
variety that is seen in the character of different woods ap- 
pears to depend on the nature of the silver-grain, for tbe 
woody and vascular tissues do not present sufficieut dif- 
ference to consUtute any obvious pecuUarity. Thus in the 
cultivated cherry the plates are thin. and theu: adhesion to the 
hark slight,so thata sectionof thiswood has a pale,smooth, 
honaogeneous appearance : but in the wild cherry the silver- 
grain is much tnicker ; it adheres closely to the bark, and 
is arranged with great irregularity, so that this wood when 
cut has a deeper colour, and a twisted, knotted, irregular 
appearance. In the two species of oak the same kind of 
ditterences are observahle. In Quercus sessilitlora the rays 
are thin and distant from each other, so that when a wedge 
is driven into the end of the trunk the plates of wood do not 
readily break into each other; but in Quercus pedunculata 
the rays are hard, and are so close togeiher that the wood 
may be split up without aiiy ditHculty. [Stem.] 

SILYIC ACID, a substance which with pinic acid 
[PiNic Acid] constitutes the greater portion of colophooy, 
or common rosin. When this substance is digested in eold 
alcohol of specidc gravity 0*833, the pinic acid dissohes, 
but the silvic acid remains insoluble in alcohol until it is 
hoilcd ; on cooling, it separates in crystals of considerable 
8i2e, the form of which, according to Unverdorben, is a 
rhombic prism terminated hy four facet8, butLaurent repre- 
sents it as an acute rhomboid, the edges of*which are usually 

SiWicacid raelts below 212°; is insoluble in water, but 
dissolves readity in hot alcohol and in selher, and is prece- 
pitated by water; it is soluble also in all nroportions in the 
volatile and fixed oils. Concentrated sulphuric acid dis> 
8olves and water precipitates it from the acid ; by the action 
of nitric acid it is eonverted into another resinous acid when 
it has been precipitated from alcobol by water; ammonia 
dissoWes this acid readily, and ihe silvate of ammonia 
formed, as well as that of potash and of soda, is soluble 
in water; most siWates are however insoluble in it, but 
many of them are dissolved by alcohol and by oether ; the 
siWate of magnesia especially is taken up by alcohol ; the 
sihates of siWer and lead are colourless and insoluble in 

Silvic acid may be regarded as an oxide of oil of turpeii- 
tine; its composition, as stated by the chemists above 
named, is as follows : it will be observed that there is no 
great difference between them, but they do not agree as to 
its constitutiou :— 

Laurent. Eqnivnlent8. 
97 or 40 . . = 40 
79*7 „ 52 . . = 312 
10-6 „ 5 . . = 40 

Carbou . 
Oxygen . 

. 10-36 
. 79*28 
. 10*36 


100* 100- 392 loa- 

SIMARU'BA is the hark of the root of the Simarnba 
amara (Aublet)»S. othcinalis (of Dec. aiui * Pharm. Lond.'), 
a tall tree, native of Guayana, and also of Jamaica, if 
the tree found in that island be not a distinet species. 
It is imporled in bales containing pteees a foot or more in 
lcngth, tolerably broad, and generally formed into roUs the 
whole length of the piece. Externally it is rough, warty, 
and has a dirty-yellow euticle marked with transverae 
ridges; the epidermis below tbis is of a whitish-yeliow 
colour. Internally smooth, with agreyish yellow colour. It 
isdcvoid of odour.but intensely bitter. Itschiefoonstituents 
are guassiie, resin, a volatile oil haviug an odour like ben- 
zoin. ulmin, mucilage, and some salts. It is tonic and de- 
raulcent iu sraall doses, and therefore useful in the later 
stiages of dysonlery, but in largcr doses it is emetic. The 
bark of the root of Simaruba versicolor (St. Hilaire) is very 
like that above describe<l, and is used externally by the 
Brazilian8 as a wash to ill-conditioned ulcers, and to destix)y 

vermin ; but if taken intemally it causes stupor and other 
narcotic symptoms; it should therefore be carefully distin- 
guished froin the former. 

SIMARUBA^CEiE, a natural order of plants beloneing 
to the gynobasic group of polypetalous £xogens. Tbe 
plants of this order are trees o** shrubs, with aliernate ex- 
stipulate usually corapound leave8, and mostly without dots. 
The tiowers are whitish-green or purple, on axillary or 
terminal peduncles,hermaphrodite, or occasionally unisexual. 
The calyx is 4 or 5 parted ; petals four to five, twisted in 
8Bstivation ; stamens twice as many as the petals, arising 
Trom the back of an hypogynous scale ; ovary 4 to 5 lobed ; 
style simple ; stigma 4 or 5 lobed ; fruit a drupe ; seeds 
pendulous, exalbummous, with a superior short radicle 
drawn baok within thick cotyledons. With oue exception 
tbey are all native8 of Africa, India, and tropical America. 
This order was formerly iucluded under Rutaceee, but their 
differenoes from that order appear to many of sufficient 
importance to constitute a separate family. A. de Jussieu 
says, 'Theyare known from all Rutaceous plants by the 
coexistence of these characters, namely, ovaries wilh hut one 
ovule, indehiscent drupes, exalbumiuou8 seeds, a memhra- 
nous integument of the embryo, and by the radicle being 
retracted within thick cotyledons.' 

The plants of this order are all intensely bitter. The 
Quassia on this account is used in medicine. [Quassia«] 
Simaruba versicolor is so biUer that no insects will attack 
it; and when all other specimens of plants in dried col- 
lections have been attacked by Plinit S&c., specimens of 
this plant have been kft untouched. 1 he Brazilians use 
an iufu8ion of this plant in brandy as a remedy against the 
bites of serpents. 

Quauia amara. 

a. brauck, diowln^ Aowpts aud compouBd lcaves: 6, Aower; c, ttaai«Bs 
separatod. sttachpd to hyiHigynous scale ) d, stjimcus surrounding ovary ; 0, 
ovary seated on a stalk, to which the stamcns are attached. 

SIMBIRSK, a government of Asiatic Russia, is situated 
between 52° and 57** N. lat., and between 42°20'and 50** 
20' E. long. It is bounded on the uorth by Kasan, on the 
east by Orenburg, on the south by Saratow and Pensa, and 
bn the west by Nischnei Novgorod, The area is 24,000 
8quare miles. The surface is in general an undulating 
plain, but on the right bank of Ihe Yolga there is a range 
of hills, composed of clay, marl, limestone, and freestone, 
whioh rise^to the height of 400 feet. The principal river 
of this government is the Voiga, which enters it from Ka- 
san, about the middle of the northern frontier, and runs in 
a direction nearly south to Stavropol, where it turns to the 
east ; and there, after being joined by the Sok, coming 
from Orenburg, it makes a scmicircular hend, and at Sa- 
mara turns due west, in which direction it proceeds as far 
as the town of Sysran, when it again turns to the south. It 
is at this hend that the eminences on the Yolga are highest, 
though they accompany the river in its whole course from 
north to south. Beyond the bend the 8urface of the country 

S I M 


S I M 

beeomes flat, and assumes a charactei* resembling that of 
the Stcppe. All the rivers belong to the system of the 
Yolga, wUich receives on the right the Ousa and the Sys- 
ran, and on the left the Tcheremchan, ihe Sok after its 
junction vith the Kandoustcba, and the Samara. The 
Sviaga, running parallel to the Yolga from south to 
north, joins that river in the goternment of Kasan ; and 
theSoura, which is narigable in spring, coming from Pensa, 
trayerses the western part of the government, and joins the 
Yolga in ihe government of Nischnei Novgorod. The 
lakes and rivers are 560 in number, but they are all small. 
The climate is generally healthy ; but the winter is very cold, 
and the summer very hot. The Yolga is usually frozen for 
five months in the year. 

The soil ia generally foi*tile, eonsisting of a good black 
mould, which requires no manure. It is pretty carefully 
cuUivated, and produces more corn than is wantcd for the 
home consumption : the principal species of grain are rye, 
wbeat, and spelt ; but there are likewise oats, barley, millet, 
and buckwheat. The inhabitants cuUivate also the poppy, 
peas, lentils, flax, much hemp, tobacco, and some potatoes. 
Horticulture is in a very backward state: none but the 
most ordinary kinds of culinary regetables are grown, and 
the truit is of bad quality. In the northern parts of the 
government there are extensive ^rests ; but in the south 
they scarcely suihce for the supnly of the inhabitants. 
Though there are good pastures, the breeding of cattle is 
uot much attended to, except among the Calmucks, in the 
steppe of the cirele of Slavrepel. The rich Calmucks have 
one hundred horses, as many oxen, and four hundred sheep. 
The Tartars apply to agricuUure with great success. Game 
is pretty abundant, but the fur-bearing animals are scarce. 
The Asheries of yarious kinds in the Vo1ga are productive. 
Ttie minerals are alabaster, sulphur, and Itmestone; but 
neither salt nor metaU, exoept some iron. 

Tbe population amounts to 1,200,000, of whom about 
1,080,000, are Russians and Cossacks: thc memainder may 
be estimated as, Tartars 60,000, Tcheremisses 40,000, 
Mordwios 4000, Tchuswasches 5000, Calmucks 8000, and 
Kissilbasches 2000. Theee numbers are of course only 
approxiiDative. Not only the RussiauB, but most of the 
I^heremisses, the Tchuswasehes, and the Mordwms, profe5S 
theGreek religion : some few we still adherenta to Shaman- 
km. and the Tartars and Kissilbasches are Mohammedans. 

Though agricuUure is the chief occupation of the in- 
habitants, there are some manufactures, both in the country 
acd in the towns ; they are woollen cloths, blankets, carpets, 
sail-cloth, leather, and eome of silk and nankeen. Glass- 
waree, soap, and candles are also manufactured; and there 
are many brandy-distilleries. A great improvement in the 
manuCactures has been madc of late years. Tbe exportB 
eonsist of horses» oxen, hemp, apples, water-melons, in good 
y<eafs oorn, fish, tallow, leather, raw ludes, and minstone& 
Tbe principal trading towns are Simbii*sk and Samara. 
The sehools in this government are under the uni^ersity of 
Kasan ; but they are very few, and only a small proportion 
of the inhabitants receiTe any education. The goYernment 
endeavours to remedy this want by establishing every year 
some new 8cho<^s. 

SiHBiitsK, the capital of the goyernment, is situated 

near the junction of the Syiaga and the Yolga, on the right 

bank of the latter river. It stands on an eniinence which 

eommauds a ine yiew of the Volga and over an immense 

extent of country uninterrupted by forests. The town is not 

regularly built, but there are some broad and straight streets. 

Almostall the houses are of wood, but neat and convenient 

within. The churchos, 16 in number, are all of stone, 

except one, which is of wood, There are two monasteries^ 

a gymnasium, and manufactories of candles and soap, and 

some tanneries. The town is in a very fertile plain, and on 

one side there are gardens and orchards. The population 

amounts to 13,500, who are in general in easy circum- 

stances ; but even the higher chisses are without intellectual 

resouroes. Of the other towns the most considerable are 

the following:— 1, Sysran, on the river of the samo nanae, 

not ihr from its conflux with the Volga, has 7000 inhabit- 

ants (Schnitzler says 9800) ; 2, Samara, on the Volga, be- 

yond the bend which it makes here, is a trading town, with 

5000 inhabitants, which was built in 1591 as a detence 

against the Calmucks ; 3, Stavropol, the chief town of the 

Calmucks, on the right bank of the Volga, was built ex- 

pressly foT these people, on their conversion to Christianity, 

about the year 1737. Xn the ccntre is a kind of fort, sur- 

rounded with palisades, which is the residenco of the chief 
of the Calmucks. The Russian or Cossack garrison is in 
the upper town. The merchants reside together in a slobod, 
and tbe ciiizens in thc lower town. 

SIMEON STYLITES. [Monachism.] 

SIMEON SETH (2i;B€a)v 2ii0), or SIMEON SETHUS, 
or Simeon the Son of Seth, the author of several Greek 
works still extant, lived at Constantinople towards tho end 
of the eleventh century. He held there the otiice of wpwTO' 
^t(TTapxtK> or • Master of the Wardrobe,' in the palace of 
Antiochus, from whence originated his title Magister An- 
tiockiae^ and this gave occasion to the false opinion that he 
was born at Antioch. His office appeai's to have giveu him 
the charge of the imperial jewels, which were kept in the 
palace named after the Eunuch Antiochus, who was consnl 
A.D. 431. (Du Cange, Glossar. Med. et Inf, Greecit, tom. 
i., p. 194, ed. Lugd., 1688, and Constaniinop. Christ., lib. ii., 
cap. 16, } 5, p. 168, ed Lutet. Paris., 1680.) Having taken 
the part of the unfortunate patrician Dalassenus agamst the 
usurper Michael of Paphlagonia, the laller banished him 
from Constantinople, a.d. 1038. He retired to Thrace, and 
founded on Mount Olympus a monastery, in which he com- 
posed several works, and peaceably ended his days. (Georg. 
Cedreni Histor. Compend., p. 737, ed. Paris, 1647.) Some- 
time after the ibundation of this monastery, Miehael Dukas 
having ascended the Ihrone, a.d. 1071, Simcon Seth dedi- 
cated to him his work entitled ^(nrraypta mpl Tpo^y Awa- 
/i««v, • Syntagma de Cibariorum Pacultate.^ This contains 
an alphabetical list of eatable things and their properties, 
according to the opinions of Greek, Persian, Agarenian (or 
Arabian), and Indian physicians ; and is the more valuab]e 
as at that time the trade with the East, and the seeking artcr 
foreign and cestly articles of food at Constantinople, were very 
extensive. It is compiled chietly from thetreatiseof Michael 
Psellus on the same subject, and shows us that the Greeks 
were beginning already to learn Materia Medica from the 
Arabians, to whom in return they imparted their theories. 
Simeon Seth also goes through the medicines then in use 
in alphabetical order, and he explain8 their mode of aciion 
aocording to the elementary qualities of Galen, and their 
di^erent degrees. He says that Asparagus had been for 
some time introduced as au article of food (p. 6, ed. Gyrald,), 
and that it possesses great medicinal virtue8. He is the 
Arst who speaksof yellow Amber ( j/itrap) which comesfrom 
a town in India, and which is the best; and also of Amber- 
gris, which is an animal production, coming from fish (p. 8). 
Apricots (PiptKOKKa), he says, are indigestible and produce 
poorness of blood (p. 9). His work contains the flrst descrip- 
tion of Camphor, which he says is the resin of a very large 
Indian tree ; that it is cold and dry in the third degree ; and 
that it is used with much advantage in acute diseases, espe- 
cially in intlammations (p. 35). He is also the Arst wlio 
speaks of Musk, of which the best is of a yellow colour, 
and comes from a town to the east of Khorasan ; the black 
musk comes from India: the properties attributed to this 
medicine are the same as tbose given to it in the present 
day (p. 41). The best Cinnamon comes from Mosul (p. 32). 
This work was first published, Basil., 1538, Gr. and Lat., 
8vo., ed. Lilius Greg. Gyraldus, ap. Mich. Isingrinium. The 
Latin translation was iraproved and published 'separately, 
Basil., 1561, 8vo., ed. Domin. Monthesaurus, ap. Pet. Per- 
Abm. The last and best edition was publishetl Paris, 1658, 
Gr. and Lat, 8vo., ed. Mart. Bogdan, ap. Dion. Beohet et 
Lud. Billanium. 

Another of his works, entitled * S^o>(/ec Kal *Afr6vei<rfia 
^wiKCty T£ Koi ^iKotro^aty Aoy^arwy,' 'Compendium et F4ores 
Naturalium et Philosophorum Placitorum,' isstill in MS. 
in 8everal European libraries. A long account of it (ex- 
traoted from Allatius, * De Simeonum Scriptis*) is given 
by Pabricius {Bildioth. Gr., tom. xi..p. 323-326, ed. Harles). 

But Simeon Seth is belter known in the history of 
literature than in that of medicine, as having translated 
from the Arahic into Greek the work knewn under the 
name of * Pilpay'8 Pables/ in which ' fifteen moral and 
political sentenoes' (says Gibben, Decline and Fall, 
ohap. 42) 'are illustrated in a series of apologues; but 
the composition is intricate, the narrative prolix, and the 
precept obrious and barren.' An account of the history, 
translations, and editions of this antient and ourious work 
is given under Bidpai. (See also Pabricius, iOM dt. ; and 
Milman*s note to Gibbon, vol. vii., pw 310.) He is also 
said to haTe translated from the Persian a fabulous his* 
tcny of Alexander tlM Greek» whlch at present exists, says 
Digitized b'^ ^ ^ 

ĕ I M 


S I M 

Warton (Hist, of En^lUh Poett-y, rol. i., p. 129), under 
ihe adopled name of Callisihenes, and is no unconimon 
manuscript jn good libraries. It is entilled Bcog 'AXt5av- 
^pov Tov MaK££ovoc cai Il/ia^ctc, * De Yita et Rebus Gestis 
Alexandri Macedonis;' and a long passage from the begin- 
ning of the work is quoted by Abr. Berltel in the noles to 
Stephanus Bvzantinus (m v. Bow«^(iX«a), and by Fabri- 
cius, Biblioth. Gr., tom. xiv.. p. 148-150 (ed. Vet.). This 
fabulou8 narrative is full (as might be expected) of pro- 
digies and extravagancies, some specimens of which are 
given by Warton. Of all the romances on the subject 
of Alexander the Great, this by Simeon Seth was for 
some centuries the best known and the most esteemed; 
and it was most probably (says lie) very soon af- 
terwards translated from tbe Greek into Latin, and at 
length from thence into French, Italian, and German. The 
Latin translation was printed at Golon. Argentorat., 1489 ; 
pcrhaps beibre, for in the Bodleian Library there is an 
edition in 4to., without date, supposed to have been printed 
at Oxford, by Fred. CorselUs, al>out the year 1 468. It is 
said to have been made by one iEsopus, or by Julius Vale- 
rius ; supposititious names, which seem to 'have been forged 
by the artifice or introduced through the ignorance of 
scribes and librarians. This Latin translation however is of 
bigh aotiquity in the raiddle age of learning; for it is 
quoted by Gyraldus Cambrensis, who tlourished about the 
year 1190. It was translated into German by John Hart- 
iieb Moller, a Grerman physician, at the command of Albert, 
duke of Bavaria, and published at August. Vindel., fol., 
1478. Scaligeralso mentions {Ejnst, ad Casattbon.^ 113, 
115) a translation from the Latin into Hebrew by one who 
adopted the name of Joseph Gorionides, called Pseudo Go- 

SIMEON 0F DURHAM, an English hUtorical writer 
who lived about the beginning of the eleventh century. 
He was a teaclier of mathematics at Oxford, and was after- 
wards precentor in Durham cathedral. He wrote a his- 
tory of the kings of England from 616 to 1130, for which 
he was al great pains to collect materials, especially in the 
North of England, where the Danes had cstablished them- 
seWes. The work was continued to 1 156 by John, prior of 
Hexham. Simeon of Durham is supposed to have died 
soon after 1 130, when his history terminates. This work is 
included in Twysden's ' AnglicanoB H istorise Scriptores 
Decem.* Simeon also wrote a history of Durham cathe- 
dral, which was published in 1732: 'Historia Ecclesise 
Dunhelmensis, cui prsmittitur T. R. Disquisitio de Auctore 
huius Libelli ; edidit T. Bedford,' Lond., 1732, 8vo. 

SIMFEROPOL, the seat of the Russian government of 
Taurida, is situated in 45° 12' N. lat. and 24° 8' E. long., on 
an elevated plateau on the river Salgir. Simforopol is 
a modern town. There was indced on this spot, in the 
tirne of the Khans, a place called Akmctschet (the white 
church), and sometimes called Sultan Serai, but it was of 
little importance, and nowforms a small part of Simferopol, 
under the name of the Tartar quarter. The antient capital 
of the Khans was Baktschiserai, but it is contlned to a small 
space m a rocky valley. Tbe Russians, who iove everything 
spacious and open, lefc that town to the Tartars, and built at 
Simferopol a capital according to their own taste, with im- 
mensely long and broad streets, in which horse-races might 
be held without interrupting the usual traSic. Being near the 
centre of tbe peninsula, it is well calculated for the seat of 
govemment. There are many pretty houses, with iron roofs 
painted green and adorned with many columns, like all the 
new Russian towns. Besides the govemment oAiices there 
are a Russian church, a pretty German church, one Greek 
and one Armenian oburch, four Tartar chapels, a gymna- 
sium, and a seminary for Tartar schoolmasters. The popu- 
lation, about 6000 inhabitants, is a medley of Russians, Tar- 
tars, Armenians, Greeks, and 40 or 50 German families. 
There is here a very good botanic garden, or more properly 
speaking, a nursery where all kinds of useful plants, shrubs, 
and trees are cultivated, and sent to variouR parts of the 
empire. The town has no manufacture8, and has only an 
iiioonsiderable trade by land, and scarcely any by sea. The 
immediate vicinity of the town does not proauce much 
fVuit or cuUnary vegetables. During the hot season fevers 
are very prevalent, and the water is very indifrerent. Use- 
woloiski (as quoted by Hassel in 1821) makes the number 
of inhabitants 20,000; we imagine this is a misprint for 
2000, hr Stein in the same year gives 1800, and no sub- 
8equent account that we have seen states it above 6000. 

(Hassel ; Horschelmann ; Kohl, Reise in Siid Ruisland, 

SI'MIADiE, tlie name of a quadrumanous ramily of 
mammals. [Ape ; Ateles ; Baboon ; Cheiropoda ; Chim- 
panzee; Hylobates; La60thrix; Mycetes; Nasalis; 
Orano-Utan; Quadrumana; Sakis; Sapajous; Sem- 
nopithscus, &c.] 

These animals were known at a very early period. The 
Kophim of the Scriptures (1 KingSy x. 22.; 2 Chron,^ 
ix. 21), the Ceph of the Ethiopians, the Keibi and Kubbi 
of the Persians, the jrqCoc of the Greeks, and Cephi of the 
Romans, were clearly apes. They are to be traced in some- 
of the earliest paintings of the Egyptians. (Rosellini, &c.> 

In the garden of the Zoological Society of London, among 
a great variety of the Simiad^, three of ihe forms which ap 
proach nearest to the human raco may now (Sept., 1841 > 
be studied ; for three Chirapanzees (two males and a female>. 
an Orang-Utan, and a Gibbon {Hvlobaies agilis)—ihe tw» 
latter females— are all Iiving at the menagerie in the Re- 
gent's Park. 

The Cephi exhibited by Ponapey (Pliny, Nat» Histy v>iL 
19), as well as tbose shown by (isBsar, appear to have becn 
Ethiopian apes; and in the Grcek name inscribed near the 
quadrumanous animals, in the PrsDnestine pavement, the 
oriental origin of the word is apparent. It is reraarkablo 
that the name Cebus [Sapajous] ia applied by modern 
zooIogists to a genus of monkevs which could not have been 
known to the antients; for the Cebi of our present cata- 
logues are exclusively American. 

Possil Simiada. 
Remains of Simiadte have been disco^ered and desck-tbctl 
from the tertiary formations of India, Prance, Englanc^. and 
Brazil. These fo&sils are illustrative of four of the ejustini^ 
types of ouadrumanous, or rather Simious form. Thus 
we have Semnnpitheeus from India; Hylobates frooi tho 
south of France; Macacus from SuATolk; and CallithriXp 
peculiar to America, found in Brazil. Nor is it unworthy 
of remark, that we here have evidenoe that so higb a uua- 
drumanous forra as the Gibbon, a genus in which the skuU 
is even more approximated to tbat of man than it is in the 
Chimpanzee, was living upon our globe with the PalsBothere, 
Elephants, and other Pachyderms. We say that the skulli 
of the Gibbon comes nearest to that of man; because,. 
though the cranium of the young Chimpanzee approachcs 
that of the human subject, it is far removed from it when 
the permanent teeth are developed. 

From these evidence3 we have also proof that Simiada^ 
lived in our island during the Eocene period ; whilst the- 
presence of fossil vegetables, abundant in the London clay 
at Sheppy, and the remains of serpents in the same locality» 
shoV the degree of heat that must have prevailed her& 
during that period, when SimiadUB were co-existent witU 
tropical fruits and Boa Constrictors. 

But Dr. Lund's observations relating to the extinct ouadru' 
manous form detailed in his ' Yiew of the Fauna of Bra^il/ 
previous to the last geological revolution, require special 
notice. He states that it is certain that tbe family of Si- 
miadce was in cxistence in those antient times to which the 
foasil8 described by him belong ; and he found an animal of 
that faroily of gigantic size, a character belonging to th» 
organization of the period which he illustrates. He describe» 
it as considerably exceeding the largest Oran-Utan or 
Chimpanzee yet seen ; from these, as well as from the long- 
armed apes {Hylobates), he holds it to ha^-e been generically 
distinct. As it equally differs from the Simiadee now liring 
in the locality where it was discovered, he proposes a generic- 
distinction for it under the name of Proiopithecus, and tho 
speciAc appellation of Protopithecus Brasiliensis, 

As connected with this discovery, Dr. Lund records a tra- 
dition exi8ting vei7 generally over a considerable extent ot 
the interior highlands, especially in the northern and 
westem portions of the provinc6 of S. Paul and the Sert&O' 
of S. Francisco. Accoiding to this tradition, that district 
is still inhabited by a very large ape, to which the Indians» 
from whom the report comes, have given the name of Cay- 
pore, or Dweller in tha Wood, This Caypore is said to be 
of man*s stature, but with the whole body and nart of 
its face covered with lons curly hair ; its colour orown^ 
with the exceptiou of a white mark on the belly irame- 
diately above the navel. It is represented as climbing; 
trees with great facility, but most frequently going oft 
the ground, where it walks upright like a man. In youUi 
it is heid to be aquiet inoffensive auimal, living upoA Cciiits, 

S I M 


S I M 

Oti which it feed8 with teeth fornied like those of the human 
race ; but as it advances in age, its cbaracter is dcnounced 
as rapacious and blood-thirsty. Tben it chooses birds aud 
small quadrupeds ; large canine teeth i^roject frora its moutb, 
and it becomes formidable lo man. Its skin is supposed to 
be impenctrttble to ball, wilb ibe exception of tbe wbile 
mark on the belly. It is an object of dread to tbe natives, 
who shun its baunts, which are betrayed by the Caypore^s 
extraordinarv footmark ending in a heel both before and 
behind, so that it is impossible to know in what direction 
the animal is gone. 

Upon this tradition Dr. Lund remarks, that it is easy to 
trace in it the childish embellisbments of a sayage race ; and 
he finds in tbe alleged double beel the meaning tbat the 
forcpart of the foot is not broader than tbe hind nnd that 
the impressions of the toes are not distinguishable. As to 
the white spot in tbe belly, he remarks, tbat all tbe long- 
haired apea now found in Brazil bave tbe central part of 
the belly very thinly covered with hair, so that when the 
hair is of a dark colour and the skin light, an effect is pro- 
daced during the act of respiration as il' there were a wuite 
spot on the stomach. The impenelrability of its hide, he 
observes, mav seem fabulou8, but he states tbat he is ac- 
quainted witb a species of this family, the Ouigo {Myceies 
cnnicaudust Lund), which has this property Tbis unde- 
scribed animal, he adds (which constitutes a remarkable 
]ink between Myceiee and Cebus, inasmuch as it combines 
the vocal organs of the former with tbe perfectly bairy tail 
of the latter), is provided with a skin clothed with such lotie 
and felted hair as to be 8hot-proof on the bacU and sides. It 
would seem, says Dr. Lund, to be well aware of its shield ; 
for inatead of seeking safety in Aigbt, like other SimiadcPt 
wben danger approacbes it rolls itself up in a ball, so as to 
oover the least protected part, and thus defies tbe shot of 
the hunter. 

Dr. Lund fUrther remarks that he has introduced this 
tradition, less on account of its zoological interest, than for 
tbe striking coincidence it displays in many poinls with the 
stories related of the Pongo of Borneo. He oaks, if no such 
animal esists in the district where the tradition is current, 
wbence did it take its origin T Did the Indians receive it 
from Iheir forefatlier8 ? May this tradition be considered 
one more testimony in favour of the Asiatic origin of the 
ilrst inhabitants of America? In Ihe Sert^ of S. Prancisco 
the tradition is eoupled with additions which though, he 
remarks» they weaken its ^oological interest, impart to it 
another, as betraying the only trace he had met with in that 
district of a belief in fairy existence. According to the na- 
tire of Sert&o, the Caypore is lord of tbe wild hogs, and 
when one of them has been shot, his enraged Yo^ce may be 
heard in the distance, when the bunter quits his game to 
save himself by Aigbt The Caypore is said to have been 
beheld in tbe centre of a herd of swine ridine on the 
largest, and indeed has been described as an ape above and 
a hog below. 

larity, resemblance, or likencss, means samcness in some, 
if not in all, particulars. In geometry, tbo word refer8 to a 
aaroeness of one particular kind. Tbe two most important 
notions which tbe view of a Agure will give, are tliose of 
size and shape, idcas wbicb have no conneciion whatsoever 
with each other. Pigures of diAerent sizes may have the 
same shape, and Agures of different shapes may have thc 
aame size. In tbe latter case they are called by Euclid 
^^olt in the former similar (similar ilgures, S/xoia o^W^Ta). 
Tlie drst term [Equal; Relation], in Euclid's first use of 
it, includea united sameness, both of 8ize and shape ; but 
be soon drops the former notion, and, reserving equal to 
signify sameness of size only, introduces the word similar to 
denote sameness of form : so that the equality of the funda- 
mental deSnition is the 8ubsequent combined equality and 
iimilarity of the 8ixth book. 

Similarity of form, or, as we shall now technically say, simi- 
larity, is a eonception which is better defined by tbings than 
by words ; being in fact one of our fundamental ideas of 
Hgure. A drawing, a map, a model, severally appeal to a 
known idea of similarity, derived from, it maybe,or at least 
nourished by, tbe constant occurrenco in nature and art 
of objects which bave a general, though not a perfect1y 
mathematical, similarity. The rudest nations understand a 
picture or a map almost instantly. It is not uecessary to do 
more in the way of dofinition, and we must proceed to point 
out the mathematical tests of similarity. \Ve may observe 

indeed that errors or monstrosities of 8ize are always more 
bearable than those of form, so much more do our coucep- 
tions of objecu depend upon the latter than the fonncr. A 
painter is even obliged to diminish the size of the minor 
parts of bis picture a little, to give room for the more im- 
porlant objects : but no one ever thought of making a cbange 
of forra, bowever slight, in one object, for the sake of its 
eAiBct on any olher. The giant of Rabelais, with whole 
nations carrying on the business of life inside his mouth, is 
not 80 monstrous as it would have been to take the ground 
on which a nation might dwell, England, Prance, or Spain, 
invest it with the intellect and habits of a human being, 
and make it move, talk, and reason : the more tasteful Aclion 
of Swift is not only bearable and conceivable, but bas actu- 
ally made many a simple person tbink it was meant to bo 
taken as a true bistory. 

Granting then a perfect notion of similarity, we now ask 
in what way it is to be ascertained wbether two figurcs are 
similar or not. To simplify the question, let them be plane 
Agurcs, say two maps of England of different 8izes, but 
made on tbe same projection. It is obvious, in the first 
place, that tbe lines of one figure must not only be related 
to one another in length in tbe sarae manner as in the other, 
but also in position. Let us drop for the present all tbe 
cun'ed lines of the coast, &c., and consider only tho dots 
which represent the towus. Join everysuch pair of dots by 
strai^ht lines: then it is plain that similarity of form 
requires thal any two lines in tbe first should not only be in 
the same proportion, as to length, with tbe two correspond- 
ing lines in the second, but tbat the first pair should incline 
at the 8ame angle to each other as tbe second. Tbus, 
if LY be the line whicb join8 London and York, and FG 
that which joins Palmouth and Cbester, it is requisite that 
LY should be to FC in the same proportion in the one map 
that it is in the other ; and if FC produced meet LY pro< 
duced in O, the angle CO Y in one map must be tbe same 
as in tbe other. Hence, if there sbould be 100 towns, which 
are therefore joined two and two by^49S0 strai^bt lines, 
giving about 12 millions and a quarter of pairs of linos, it is 
clear that we must have the means of verifying 12^ milHuns 
of proportions, and as many angular agreements. But if it 
be only assumed that similarity is a possible thing, it is 
easilyshown that tbis large number i8 reducible to twice 98. 
For let it be granted that / y on the smaller map is to re- 
present LY on the larger. Lay down/and c in tbeir pro- 
per places on the smaller map, each witb reference to / and 
y, by comparison witb tbc larger map: then/and c are in 
their proper places with reference to each otber. For if not. 
one of them at least must bo altered, which would disturb 
the correctness of it witb rcspect to / and y, Either tben 
there is no such thing as perfect similarity, or else it-may be 
entirely obtained by comparison with / and y only. 

We nave bitberto supposed that both circumstances must 
be looked to ; proper lenglhs and proper angles ; truth of 
linear proportion and truth of relative direction. But it is 
one of the fir8t things whicb the student of geometry learns 
(in reference to this subject), that tbe attainment oP correct- 
ness in either secures that of the other. If the smaller map 
be made true in all its relative lengths, it must be true in 
all its directions; if it be made true in all its directions, it 
must be true in all its relative lengths. The foundation of 
tbis BimpUfying theorem rests on three propositions of the 
sixth book of Euclid, as fo11ows : — 

1. The angles of a triangle (any two, of course) alone are 
enough to determine its form : or, as Euclid wuuld exprcss 
it, two triangles wbich have two angles of the one equal to 
two angles of the other, each to eacb, have tbe third anglcs 
equal, and all tbe sides of one in the same proporlion lo 
the corresponding sides of the otber. 

2. The proportions of the sides of a triangle (those of two 
of them to the third) are alone enough to deterraine its furm : 
or if t\To triangles have tbe ratios of two sides to the third 
in one» tbe same as the corresponding ratios in the otber, the 
angles of the one are severally tbe same as those of tho 

3. One angle and the proportion of the conlaining sides 
are 8ufficieut to determine the form of a triangle: or, if two 
triangles bave one angle of the fir8t equal to one of the 
second, and the sides about those angles proportional, the 
remaining angles are equal, each to eacb, and the sides 
about equal angles are proportional. 

From tbese propositions it is easy to show tbe truth of all 
that has been asserted about the conditions of similarity, 

S I M 


S 1 M 

and the reault is, that any number of points arc placed 
«imilarly wilh any olher niimber of points, when, any two 
being taken in the first, and Ihe corresponding two in Ihe 
•econd, say A, B. and a, 6, any ihird point C of tbe first 
giyes a triangle ABC, which is related to the corresponding 
triangle abc of the second, in the manner described in either 
of the three preceding propositions. For instance, let tbere 
be five points in each Agure : 


In the tciangles BAE and bae, let the angles AEB and 
EBA be severally equal to aeb and eba. In the triansles 
ADB and adb let DA : AB : : rfa : ab, and DB : BA : : rfft : 
ba, In the triangles ACB and acb let the angles ABC and 
abc be equal, and AB : BC :: ab i bc. These conditions 
oeing fuirilled, it can be shown that the iigures are similar 
in furm. There is no angle in one but is equal to its corre- 
sponding angle in the other ; no proportion of any two lines 
in one but is the same as that of the corresponding line in 
the other. Every conception necesr-ary to ihe complete 
notion of similarity is formed, and thc one figure, in commou 
language, is thc same.^ the other m figure,\)\xi perhaps on 
a ditTerent scale. 

The number of ways in wkich the conditions of similarity 
can be cxpres8ed might be varied almost witbout limit; if 
there be n poinls, they are twice (n — 2) in number. It 
would be most natural to take either a sufficient number of 
ratios, or clse of angles : perhaps the latter would be best. 
Euclid confinea himself to neither, in which be is guided by 
the followiog consideralion :— He uses only salient or coii- 
yex figures, and his lengths. or sides. are only those lines 
which form tbe external contour. The internal lines or 
diagonals he rarely consideri}, except in the four-sided 
figiire. He lays it down as tke definition of similarity, that 
all the angles of the one figure (meaning only angles made 
by tbe sides of the contour) are equal to those of the other, 
each to eacb, and that ihe sides about those angles are pro- 
portional. This gives 2n conditions in an n-sided figure, and 
consequently four redundancies, two of which are easily de- 
tected. In the above pentagons, for instance, if the angles 
at A, E, D, C, be severally equal to these at a, €y d, Ct there 
is uo occasioD to say that that at B must be eaual to that at 
b, for it is a necessary consequence : also, if B A : AE :: ba: 
ae, and so on up to DC : CB : : dc : cb, there is no occasion to 
lay it down as a condition that CB : BA \: cb: ba, for it is 
again a consequence. These noints being noted, the defini- 
tion of Euclid is admirably aaapted for his object, which is, 
in this as in every otber case, to proceed straight to the 
«stablishraent of his propositions, without casting one 
thought upon the connection of his preliminaries witb na- 
tural geometry. 

Let us now suppose two similar curvilinear figures, and 
to 8implify the question, take two arcs AB and ab. Having 
already detected the test of similaritji of position with refer- 


ence to any nuraber of points, it will be casy to settle the 
conditions under which the arc AB is altogether similar to 
ab, By hypothesis, A and B are the points corresponding 
to a and b. Join A, B, and a, b ; and in the arc AB take 
any point P. Make the angle bap equal to BAP, and abp 
equal lo ABP ; and let ap and bp meet in p. Then, if the 
curves be similar, p must be on ihe arc ab ; for every point 
on AB is to have a corresponding point on ab. Hence the 
definition of similarity is as foIlows : — Two curves are simi- 
lar when for every polygon which can be inscribed in the 
first, a similar polygon can be inscribed in the second. 

It is easily shown that if on two lines, A and a. be de- 
scribed a first pair of polygons, P and p, and a second pair, 
Q and q, the proportion of Ihe first and second pairs is the 
same, or P : p : : Q : g. The simplest similar polygons are 
Bquarcs ; consequently, any similar polygons described on A 
and a are to one anothcr in the proportion of the square8 on 
A and a. Tliis is also Crue if for the polygons we substitute 
similar curves ; and it must be proved by the method of 

exhaustions [Geometry, p. 154], or by the theory of limits 
applied to the proposition, that any curve may be approached 
in magnitude by a polygon within any degree of nearness. 

The theory of similar solids resembles that of similar poly- 
gons, but it is necessary to commence with three points in- 
stead of two. I^t A, B, C, and a, 6, c, be two sets of three 
points each, and let the triangles ABC and abc be similar : 
let them also be placed so that the sides of one arc parallel 
to those of the other. If then any number of similar pyra- 
mids be described on ABC and abc, the rertices of these 
pyramids will be the comers of similar solids. If P and p 
be the Ycrtices of one pair, then tlie pyramids PABC and 
pabe are similar if the vertices P and p be on the same side 
of ABC and abc [Symmetry], and one of the triangles, say 
PAB, be slmilar to its corresponding triangle pab, and so 
placed that the angle of the planes PAB and CAB is the 
same as that of the planes pab and cab, The simplest 
similar solids are cubes ; and any similar solids described on 
two strais^ht hnes are in the same proportion as the cubes 
on those lines. Similar curve 8urfaces are those whicb are 
such that every solid which can be inscribed in one has an- 
other similar to it, capable of being inscribed in the other. 

It is worthy of notice that the great contested point of 
geometry [Parallels] would lose that character if it were 
agreed that the notion of form being independent of size, is 
as necessary as that of two straight iines being incapable of 
enclosing a space ; so that whatever form can exifit of any 
one size, a similar form must exist of every other. There 
can be no question that this universal idea of similarity in- 
yolves as much as this, and no more ; that in the passage 
from one size to another, all lines alter their lengths in thc 
same proportion. and all angles remain the same. It is the 
8ubsequent mathematical treatment of these conditions 
which first points out that either of them follow8 fi-om thc 
othcr. If tbe whole of this notion be admissible, so in any 
thing less ; that is, the admission implies it to be grantcd 
that whatever figure may be dcscribed upon any one line, 
another figure having thc same angles may be described 
upon any other line. If then we take a triangle ABC, and 
any other line ab, there can be drawn upon ab a triangle 
having angles equal to those of a^. This can only bo done 
by drawing two lines from a and b, making anglcs with ab 
equal to BAC and ABC. These two lines must then meet 
in some point c, and the angle acb will be equal to ACB. 
If then two triangles have two angles of one equal to two 
angles of the other, each to each, the third angle of the one 
must be equa1 to the third ancle of the other'; and this 
much being established, it is well known that the ordinary 
theory of parallels fo11ow8. The preceding assumption is 
not without resemblance to that required in the methods of 
Legendre. [Parallels.] 

SPMILE is admirably defined by Johnson to be * a com- 
parison by which anything is illustrated or aggrandised,' a 
definition which has been often neglected by poets. A Me- 
taphor diSers from a Simile in expres8ion, inasmuch as a 
metaphor is a comparison without the words indicating the 
resemblance, and a simile is a comparison where the objects 
compared are kept as distinct in expression as in thought. 
Dr. Thomas Brown has well said, * The metaphor exprcsses 
with rapidity the analogy as it rises in immediate sugges- 
tion, and identides it, as it were, with the object or emotion 
which it describes; the simile presents not the analogy 
merely, but tho two analogous objects, and traces their 
resemblances to each other with the formality of rcp;ular 
comparison. The metaphor, therefore, is the figure of pas- 
sion; the simile the figure of calm description.' (Leciures, 
XXXV.) The metaphor is only a bolder and more elliptical 
simile. When we speak of the rudeness of a man, and say 
' Mr. Jones is as rude as a bear,* we use a simile, for the 
rudeness of the two are kept distinct but likened ;*when we 
say * that bear Mr. Jones,' we use a metaphor, the points of 
resemblance being confounded in the identification of rude- 
ness with a bear. So, ' brave as a lion' is a simile — the 
* lion Achilles* a metaphor. Where the resemblance is ob- 
vious, it may be more forcibly and as ihtelligibly expressed 
by a simple metaphor ; but when the resemblance is not so 
obvious, it requircs f\iller elucidation, and then it must be 
expressed by a simile. Similes therefore. from their tcn- 
dency to detail, are usually misplaced in passionate poetry, 
but metaphors constitute the very language of passion; for 
the mind, when moved, catches at every slight association 
to express itself, but never dwells on them with the delibe- 
Irateness ofa comparison. ^ t 

Digitized by V:iOOQIC 

S I M 


S 1 M 

Poets should never forget that siroiles are not used for 
their own sake, but for the sake of * illustrating or aggran- 
disiDg' the object or emotion thoy would e^press : hence an 
importaot but overlooked cauon of criticism. Melaphors 
may be indefinite, for they are themselves tho expressions 
of strong but iadefinite emotions ; but similes must be uni- 
ibnniy definite, clear» and correct, otherwise they are use- 
kss; for the simile is used to illustmtti, by a known object, 
one unknowu or indescribable : hence the necessity for its 
beiBg iutelligible. MoreoTer, images addressed to the eye 
must be such as are visuaUy clear. These rules are conti- 
Bually yiolated by minor poets, but there are few cases of 
sucb ▼iolation in the greater poets, and even there the ex- 
cepiions prove the rule. 

<Brown*s Leciures on the Philosopliy of the Mind; 
Kames^a Eiemenis qfCriticism; Bishop Lowth^s Leciures 
on Hebrew Poetry ; Hegers Vorleiungen iiber die jEsihe- 
tik; So\gefh jEsthetik,} 


SI^MMIAS was a native of Thebes, and is said to have 
been a disciple of Philolaus. He was a friend of Socrates 
(PiaU* CriiOt p. 45, B), and is introduced by Plato as one of 
tho speakers in his 'Pliiedon.' (Diogenes Laertius (ii. 16, 
124) mentions the titles of twenty-threo dialogues wbich 
were in bis time attributed to Simmias (Suidas» v. XififiiaQ), 
bat none of his works have come down to us. 

A secoud SiMMiAS» a grammarian, was a native of Rhodes, 
ind probably lived about the year 300 b.c. He is said to 
have written a work on languages, cousisting of three books, 
and a collection of miscellaneous poems« consisting of fuur 
booka. (Suidas, V. St^i/Aiac ; Strabo, xiv., p. 655.) Some 
of his poems* which however are of little value, are contained 
in the * Anthologia Graeca.' ((Dompare Athen., vii., p. 327 ; 
xL, p. 472 and491.) 

A third Simmias, who lived about the commencement of 
tbe Oiympiads, wrote a work called *Apxoio\oyia twv Sa|(ia>i/, 
of which nothing has come down to us. Suidas confounds 
this historian witli Simmias the grammarian. 


SI'MOIS, River. [Troad.] 

Thasi, was the second son of Mattathias, aud brother of 
Jadas Maccabaeus and Jonathan Apphus. Mattathias, 
wbea dying, recommended him to his brethren as their 
ooaosellor (1 Macc., ii. 3). He distinguished himself on 
teveral occasions during the lives of Judas and Jonathan. 
(1 Maec^ T. 17 ; x. 74 ; 2 Macc^ viii. 22 ; xiv. 17). Under 
the lauer he was made, by Antiochus Theos, governor over 
tfae coast of the Mediterranean from Tyre to the frontier of 
Sgjpt (1 Macc.t xi. 59) ; and here he took the fortified towns 
of Beihsur and Joppa, and founded Adida, in the plain of 
Sephela. ( 1 il/occ., xi. 65 ; xii. 33, 38.) 

Aiter tbe treacherous seizure of Jonathan by Trypho 
[JoNATHAN Apphus], Simon was chosen by the peoplo as 
tbeir chief (1 Macc xiii.); and, according to Josephus 
{Amiq^ xiiL 6, 6), as high-pricst also. Afler pultiug Jeru- 
lalem in a state of defence, be marched out to mcet Trypho, 
who did not venture to give him batilo, and who was soon 
after compelled to retreat into winter-quarter8 in Gilead, 
where be murdered Jonathan and his two sons. Simon 
reooTered his brother*s corpse, and interred it in his falher*s 
sepulcbre at Modin, and built over it a mQgnificent mauso- 
leum, which was standing in the time of Eusebius. About 
ihis time (b.c. 143) Trypho had murdered Antiochus, and 
proclaimed himself king. Simoa immediately declared for 
liis competitor, Demetrius Nicator, with whom he made a 
very favourable treaty, whereby Simon was recognised 
prinoe and high-priest of the Jews, all claims upon whom 
fi>r tribute Demetrius relinquished, and consented to bury 
in oblivion their oSences against him. Thus tbe Jcws be- 
eame once more free and independent, and they began to 
reckou from tbis periodC170 Aer. Seleuc; 143-142, b.c.) a 
new civil sra, which is used on the coins of Simon as weli 
as by Josephus and the author of the Fint Book qf Macca-, 
beee (1 Macc^ xiiL 41.). The last remains of their bondage 
to tha Syrians were removed in the ne\t year by the 
sunrender of the Syrian garrison in tlio citadel of Jeru- 

The succeeding period of peace was employcd by Simon 
in extending and consolidatint^ his power, and improving 
the coudition of his people. He made a harbour at Joppa, 
establi:>hed magazines and armouries, improved the laws atid 
admiustered them with vigour, rebtorcd the religious rites, 

and renewed tho treaties of alliance which Jonalhan had 
made with the Romans and Spartans. (1 Macc.^ xiv., xv.) 
In the year 141 b.c., the people met at Jerusalem, and 
registered a public act recounting the 8^vices of the house 
of Mattathias, and recognising Simon and his heirs as per- 
petual priuce and high-priest of the Jews : and tbis act was 
afterwards confirmed by Demetriua. (1 Macc, xiv. 35.) 
After the capture of Demetrius by the Parthians, his suc- 
cessor Antiochus Sidetes renewed the trcaty with Simou, 
allowed him to coin money. and declared Jerusalem a free 
and holy city. Soon aflerwards however Antiochus not 
ouly refused to ratify tbis treaty, but demanded of Simon 
the surrender of several fartified places, including the citadel 
on Mount Zion, or .the payment of 1000 talents. Simon 
reriised these demands, and Antiochus sent a large army 
intoPulestine, which was soon however drivenback byJohn 
Hyrcanus and Judas, the sons of Simon (b.c. 139-8). For 
the next thrce years the Jews again enjoyed a season of 
tranquillitj, during which Simon occupied himself in in- 
specting and improving the state of the country. In the 
course of his tour he visited his son-in-law Ptolemy, at his 
castle of Doc, where he and his two sons Mattaihias and 
Judas wei-e treacherously put to dealh by Ptolemy, who 
aimed at tho principality of Judroa (b.c. 135). He was suc- 
cecded by his surviving son John Hyrcanus. [Hyrcanus, 
John; Asmonaeans; Maccabees.] 

Tbe coinage of Simon is the first of which we have any 
historical accouut among the Jews. [Shekel.] 

(Josephus, Antiq. ; Prideaux's Connection ; Jahn's /5fo- 
hrew Commonwealth ; Winer's Biblisches Realworterbuch.) 
SIMON MAGUS, that is, the magician, is mentioned in 
the Acts qfthe Aposties as having imposed upon the pcople 
of Samaria by magical practices. When Philip the Deacon 
prcached the gospel at Samaria, Simon was among those 
who received baptism at his hauds. But when Peter and 
John came down to Samaria, and Simon perceived that the 
Holy Ghost was rcceived by those upon whjm they laid their 
hands, he otTered thcm money if thcy would give him the 
same power. Peter vehemently rcbuked him, and be showed 
some appearance of penitence (Acis, viii. 9-24) ; but the 
early Christian writers represent him as afterwards becom- 
ing one of the chief opponents of Christianity. According to 
them he was the founder of tbe Gnostic heresy, and was ad- 
dicted to magical praclices and to abominable vices, After 
travelling through several proyinces, endeavouring as he went 
to spread his errors and to damage Chrislianily as much as 
possible, he came to Rome, where it is said that he worked 
miracles which gained him manyfollowers, andobtained for 
him the favour of Nero, At last, as he was exhibiting in 
the emperors presenco the fcat of fiying through the air in 
a fiery chariot, which he was enabled to perform by the aid 
of dsomons, tbe united prayers of Peter and Paul, who were 
present on the occasion, prevailed asainst him, and the dtn^ 
mons threw him to the ground. There are also other mar- 
velIous stories about his life and doctrines. 

(Calmets Diciionary; Winer*8 Biblisches Realworter- 
buch; L.ardner'8 Credibility,) 

SIMON MATTHES. [Simon Maccabaeus.] 
SIMON, RICHARD. was born al Dieppe, in Normandy, 
May 13, 1638. Afler he had anished his studies, heentcrcd 
into the Congregation of the Oratory, and becauie lecturer on 
philosophy at tbe CoIIege of Juilly. Being summoned by 
his superiors to Paris, he applied himself to the study of 
divinity, and made great progress in oriental learning. 
There being a valtiable collection of oricntal manuscripts in 
theOratory of Rue St. Honorĕ, Simou wasdirected to make 
a catalogue of them,which he did with great skill. In 1668 
he returned to Juilly, and resumed his lectures on pbilo- 
sophy, and two years after publishcd his defence of a Jew 
whom the parliament of Metz tondemned to be burned on 
the charge of having murdered a Christian child : ' Pactum 
pour le Juif de Metz,' &c. Paris, 1670. In the follo\ving > ear, 
with a view to show that the opinions of the Greek church 
are not materially diSerent from those of the Church of 
Rome with respect to the Sacramcnt, » he publisbed his 
* Fides Ecclesia) Orientalis,' Paris, 1671, 8vo., and 16S2, 
4to. This work, which is a translation of one of the tracts 
of Gabriel, metropolitan of Philadelphia, with notes, Simon 
gave as a supplement to the first voIume of the * Perpetuity 
of the Faith respecting the Kucharist,' whose authors he 
accused of having committed many gross eiTors, anrl not 
haviug 8ufficiently answered the objections raised by thiO 
Protestant miuister Jean Claude, in his *Reponse au Traite 

S I M 


S I M 

de la Perpĕtuit6 de la Foi sur rEucbaristie.' [Cladde.] 
This iRVolved him in a controversy with the wrilers of Port- 
Royal, and laid the foundation of that opposition which ho 
afterwards niet with from the learned of hisown communion. 
His next publication, which came out under tbe assumed 
name of Recared Simeou, was a Prench translation of the 
work of Leo of Modena: *C6rĕmonies et Coutumes qui 
8*ob8ervent aujourd'hui parmi les Juifs/ Paris, 1674, 12mo. 
A second editiun appeared in 1681, under the name of the 
Sieur de Simonville, containing also a supplement respect- 
ing the Caraites and the Samaritans, and a comparison be- 
tween the ceremonies of the Jews and the discipline of the 
Church. In 1 6 75 he published the ' Yoyage de Mont Liban,' 
ffo:n cheltaliau of Dandini, with notes, and about the same 
cime his * Factum du Prince de Neubourg, abb6 de Fes- 
champs, contre les Religieux de cette Abbaye,' in which work, 
as was usual with him, he took an opportunity to attack 
the Benedictines. But the work which rendered him most 
famous is his ' Histoire Critique du Vieux Testament,' which 
immediately after its publication (Paris, 1678, 8vo.) was sup- 
pressed on the sround that it contained doctrines dangerous 
to religion and the Church. «The work however was so 
much Mimired for its learning and criticism, that it was re- 
printed the year after, and translated into Latin at Am- 
sterdam, 1681, and into English at London, 1682, 4to., by 
John Hampden. After the publication of his * Histoire 
Critique.' Simon Ieft the Congregation of the Oratory, and 
repaired to BeUeville, a village near Caux, where he held a 
curacy ; but in 1682 he resigned his office and removed to 
Dieppe, and thence to Paris to renew his studies and make 
arrangements for the publication of other works. In 1684 
he published at Frankfort, ' Histoire de TOrigine et du Pro- 
grĕs des ReTenues £ccl68iastiques,* under the name of 
Jerome k Costa, of which a second edition appeared at the 
same place in 1709, in 2 toIs. 8vo. In the same year (1684) 
he printed in London his ' Disquisitiones Critice de variis 
per diversa Loca et Tempora Bibliorum Editionibus,' which 
was immediately translated into English. In 1688 he pub- 
lished at Frankfort, under the name of John Reuctilin, 
* Dissertation Critique sur la NouTelle Biblioth6que des 
Auteurs Eccl6siastiques par Du Pin,* in whicli he defends 
some opinions contained in his * Histoire Critique,' which 
had been controverted by Du Pin. His next publication 
was 'Histoire Critiaue du NouTcau Testament,' Rotter- 
dam, 1689, 4to., an English version of which appeared the 
same year at London. Besides the above, Simon was the 
author or editor of many other works. Qe was unquestion- 
ably a man of profound learning and great acuteness, and 
he contributed in no small degree to lesaen the authority 
of his own church ; but a Iove of contro^ersy, in all its bit- 
terness, and too great a propensity to depreciate and abuse 
lho8e who happened not to acquiesce in his opinions, ren- 
dered him equally obnoxious to Protestants and Roman 
Catholics. He died at Dieppe, in April, 1 7 12, in the seTenty- 
fourth year of his age. 

SIMONIDES was a naliTe of lulis, in the island of 
Ceos, and was born about b.c. 556. His father'8 name was 
Leoprepes, and his grandfather*s Simonides, who was also a 

Simonides is said to haTe obtained great fame as a poet 
at an early age. He appears to haTe remained in Ceos till 
about B.c. 525, when he removed to Athens, where he was 
honourably receiTed by Hipparchus, and became acquainted 
with Anacreon and Lasus (Plato, Htpparch., p. 228 ; Aelian, 
Var. Hist., Tiii. 2). After the murder of Hipmirchus, he took 
refuge with the Aleuadae and Scopadae in Thessaly, whose 
praises hecelebrated in some of his poems (Theocrit., XTi. 34, 
&c., with the Schol. ; compare Plato, Protagor., p. 333). How 
long Simonides remained inThessaly is not known ; but after 
the battle of Marathon (b.c. 490) we find him again at 
Athens. For the next ten years he appears to have liTed 
chieAy at Athens, and to have bcen actively engaged in the 
pursuit of his art. After the banishment of Themistocles 
and the death of Pausanias, with both of whom he lived.on 
intimate terms, he retired to Hieron*s court at Syracuse 
(Aelian, Var. Hist, ix. 1 ; iv. 15), where he died, b.c. 467, in 
his ninetieth year. 

Most of the poems of Simonides are lost ; but enough 
haTe come down to us to enable us to form some opinion of 
the merits of his poetry, and to justify the panegyrics which 
the antient writers bestow upon him. He was one of the 
most distinguished of the elegiac poets, and particularly ex- 
celled in the patbetic, as we see in his 'Lament of Danae* and 

in other remains of his poetry. He is stated to have had 
the superiority over Aeschylus in au clegy which he com- 
posed in honour of those who died at Marathon, when the 
Athenians instituted a contest of (he chief poets. But some 
of Simonides^s best poems are epigrams, which spedes of 
poetry he carried to greater perfection than any of his pre- 
decessors. The Persian war gave constant employment to 
this muse, as he was frequently employed by the different 
states of Greece to adorn witn inscriptions the tombs of 
those who fell, and the Totive offerings which were dodi- 
cated in the Tarious temples. We still possess 8everal of his 
epigrams belonging to this period. Of these one of the 
most celebrated is upon the Spartans who fell at Thermo- 
pylis : * Stranger, tell the Lacewmonians that we are lying 
here in obedience to their laws;' and another upon the 
Athenians who fell at Marathon : ' Fighting in the van of 
the Greeks, the Athenians at Marathon destroyed the power 
of the glittering Medians.* Simonides also celeblated the 
sea-fight8 of Artemisium and Salamis in two larger poems, 
which are oflen referred to by antient writers, but of which 
no fragment8 have come down to us. 

The remains of the poems of Simonides have been pub- 
lished by Schneidewin, under the the title of ' Simonidis 
Carminum Reliqui8D,* Bruns., 1835, 8to. The Greek letters 
X, "¥, Q, are said to have been invenled by Simonides, who 
is also stated to have converted the sign of the aspirate H 
into a long e. 

Simonides of Ceos must not be confounded with Simo- 
nides of Amorgus, which is an island not fBr from Paros. 
The latter was a contemporary of Archilochus, and fiourished 
from B.c. 693 to 662. He wrote iambics, in which he at- 
Hicked private persons, and of which a few fragments have 
come down to us. He also wrote a satirical poem upon 
women in the iambic metre, which is still extant. The 
fragmeuts of his poems have been published by Welcker* 
Borin, 1835. 

(Miiller^s Hisiory o/ tke Literature qf Greece, p. 125, 
8cc., 140; Bode's Geschichte der Lyrischen Dichtkwist der 
Hellenen, voI. i., p. 318, &c.; voI. ii., p. 122, &c.) 

SIMONY is the buying or selling for money or other 
corrupt considcration any ecclesiastic^ benelice, dignity, or 
preferment, or the causing a clerk to obtain or to relin^uisk 
such benefice or preferment for coirupt c^nsideration. Tbe 
word is derived from Simon, who is mentioned in the ' Acts 
3f the Apostles' (viii., 18-24) as haTing offered money to 
Peter and John in order that he might obtain from them 
apostolical powers. 

Whether Simony was an offence at common law is at 
least doubtful. Lord Coke, it is true, repeatedly says that 
the common law doth abhor Simony, and adduces as eTidence 
of this repugnance the fact that a patron of a living could not 
by tbe common law recover a pecuniary compensation for 
being impeded in his presentation. It is certain that Simony 
is a great ecclesiastical offence by the canouB both of the 
Roman Catholic and of the Anglican church. The 40ih 
canon of the latter (ii.D. 1603), ' to aToid the detestable crime 
of Simony,' and because the buying and selling of spiritual 
and ecclesiastical function8, &c. * is execrable before God,* 
prescribes an oath to be ministered to every person assum- 
ing wch oAices, by which he denies that he has made any 
Simoniacal payment, contract, or promise, directly or indi- 
rectly, for procuring such ecclesiastical office, or that he 
will perform any such contract made on his behalf without 
his knowledge. 

But the offence now depends on the statute 31 Elizabeth, 
c. 6, although the word Simony is uot mentioned in the act. 
By that statute any person presenting to a benefice for 
profit or ' any such corrupt cause ' forfeits to the crown that 
presentation and double the value of one year^s proAt of the 
benefice, and the person paying the price is rendered in- 
capable of holding that benefice (§ 5). Any person so cor- 
ruptly admitting or instituting another is subjcct to the 
like pecuniary penalty, and the benefice is ' e^tsoons merely 
Toid,' and the presentation revert8 to the patron as though 
the party so admitted were dead ($ 6). An incumbent 
resigning or exohangin|^ a benefice with cure of souU for 
profit, and the person withwhom tbe bargain ia made, both 
forfeit double the price, together with two years' profit of 
the beneSce (§ 8). Any person obtaining for such corrupt 
consideration the ordaining of a mimster, forfeits 40/., and 
the minister so corruptly ordained forfeit8 10/. and is in- 
capable of holding any eoclesiastical preferment for seTen 
years. The modifications which that enaotment has under- 

Digitized b^ 


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gontt liy snbte^nent statntes and deeisions wQl be found 
wder Uie head Bbnbpicb (p. 223-6). 

The indignation of ecclesiastical authorities against 
Sinoay, exoeptinK in so fiur as relates to the admission of 
penoBs into the ministry, seems somewhat unreasonable, 
lad is eertainly inefficacious, for the trafficking in ecclesias- 
liBBl preierment it extensively pursued. Provided that tbe 
qaaliliaition of persons for holy orders is carefully in- 
yrstiyted belbre their admission to the ministry, and that 
tiie discipline of the church can be strictly and easily en- 
teeed by the bishops and other ecclesiastical authorities, the 
nsioa wby a minister who has been adroitted to a benelice 
iw a pecuniary consideration should be di8qualified for his 
sffioe is not very obviou8, especially in a country where 
adrowioDS are bylaw a marketable oommodity, and the 
legislaiuie reeognises a bargain for compelling a minister 
t» reaigB e benefice in favour of another person, provided 
fkt latter is withtn oertain degrees of consanguinity to the 

(Rageri*8 Eedesioitical Law ; Baoon*s Ahridgment, 'Si- 

"a^OOM. [Samibli.] 

8IMPLS BODIES. [Atomic Thbort.] 

SIMPLE CONTRACT debts are those which are con- 
Wseted without any engasement under the 8ealof the debtor 
««f his ancestor, and which are not of reoord by any judg^ 
■sii of a court Money due for goods bought by the debtor 
k Ike most usual of simple oontract debts ; and the declara- 
liaB acainst a defendant, in an action for goods sold, usually 
sikges tbat the defendant undertook (or contraeted) to pay 
di8)daiBtiff the sum due. Simple contract debts are the last 
vkieh are payahle out of a deceased person^s estate, when 
tbe sssets are insufficient. [Exbgutor.] 

SIMPLI'CIUS, a natiTO of Tibur, succeeded Hilarius as 
Wmd of Rome, aj>. 467. He had a controver8y with 
Acaetsi^ Patriarch of Constantinople, about precedence. 
Saipl«liisdedicated8everal churches at Rome to particular 
aista, makd he also Aramed several regulations conoerning 
ihe dieeiaiine of the dergy of Rome. He died A.Db 483. 

aiMPU^CIUS was a native of Cilicia, and lived in the 
liigB of Justinian. He had been trained in the study of 
|ftflose|^y by Ammonius, and appears to have been engaged 
m trsdif"Fg aft Athens when Justinian issued the decree which 
iapoaed perpetual silenoe on the few yet remairiing votaries 
sC heathen scienee aod superstition in that city. Simplieius 
iodaaeC his philosophic (^iends, who were resoWed not to 
ibsiidoo the religion of their forefathers, left Athens» to seek 
iss Ateign land the freedom which was denied to them at 
ksM. They went to Persia, where Chosroes then rsigned* 
apeoCins to flnd all their hopes realised; but when they 
mw the actual stato of affairs in the East, they repentod of 
the stepa which they had taken, and declared that they 
«oold rather die on the bordera of the empire than enjoy 
Iks favours and the wealth which the barbarian monarch 
■igibt bestow opon them. They returned to their country ; 
aad Chosroes, in a treaty which he at the time concluded 
>nih tha Greek emperor, nobly stipulated that the seven 
pttoeophers who had visited his oourt should be eiempt 
tm the penal laws which Justinian enacted against his 
psgsn soligects. Simplicius and his friend8, after their 
oiBBa, lived in peaoe and retirement at Athens, where they 
dssaLed the remainder of their lives to the study of philo- 
sapiiy, eDJoying the reputation of being wise and virtuous 

SimpliGins wrote Commentaries on Aristotle^s Catego- 
CPriSb raysica, De Coelo, and De Anima. One of his objecU 
is thoe commentaries is to reconcile the Platonic and Stoic 
^items with the Peripatetic school, to which he himsel^ be- 
ksged. They are the most valuable of all the extant Greek 
csamentaries on Aristotle ; for Simplioius possessed a pro- 
tNiod knowledge of his author, as well as of other philoso- 
1^1 writers of antiquity ; and as he frequently quotes the 
•pBioos of antient phttosophers whose works are no longer 
etiaat» his oommentaries are a fruiiful source for those who 
«iih to study the history of antient philoeophy. His com- 
tteataries are printed in some of the early editions of Aris- 
lale; they are also contained in'Scholia in Aristotelem, 
ottegit Ch. A. Brandis,' Berlin, 1836, &c 

Simplicitts also wrote a Commentary on the Enchiridion 
of Bpietetus, which for its pure aud noble principles of mo- 
tality has commanded the admiration of all ages. The best 
Mparate edition of thia commentary is that by Schweig- 
kHiier, with a Latin translation, iu 2 vols., Leipaig, 1800. 
P. U No. 1363. 

It has been translated into English by Dr. 6. Stanhopd, 
London, 1704, 8vo. ; intoPrench by Dacier, Paris, \7\bi^ 
and into Germau by Schulthess, Zurich, 1778. 


SIMPSON, THOMAS. a distinguished English mathe- 
matician, was born at MarketpBosworth in Leicestershhe, 
August 20, 1710. He appearBeven in his boyhood to have 
had a strong indination for acciuiring information by read- 
ing and oon^ersation ; but his father, who was a weaver, 
intending that he should follow that occupation, endea* 
voured to divert him from a pursuit which interrered with 
the labour of his hands. The impulse of genius however 
prevailed over tbe remonstranoes of ths parent, and the 
youth, having quitted his father^ house, went to reside 
at Nuneaton, where, in the OKeroise of his trade, he ob- 
tained the means of subsisting, and during the intervals 
of leisure he indulged his taste f(x the acquisition of know-. 

Young Simpson was led to the study of mathematics by 
having aocidentally obtained possession of a copy of Cocker*8 
* Arithmetic' to which was annexed a short treatise on 
algebra ; and, similarly to what is related of Tycho Brahĕ, 
it is said that he applied himself to astroiiomy from admi- 
ration of the science in oonse^uence of the occurrence (in 
1724) of a great eclipse of the sun at the time, which had 
been predicled. It is added that an itinerant pedlar and 
fortune-teller instructed him at the same time in the n^ys- 
teries of judicial astiology, and thisart he occasionally prao- 
tised during 8everal years. 

While yet a stripling he married a woman about fifty 
years of age, the widow of a tailor and the mother of two 
children, of whom the younger was his senior by two years : 
all the ihmily however appearto have lived together in har- 
mony, Simpson working at his trade by day, and increasing 
his income by keeping a private school in the eventngs. In 
1733 he went to reside at Derby, where he continued to fol- 
low the united avocations of weaver and schoolmaster, and 
where he found means to increase his knowledge of mathe- 
matics. With arithmetic, geometry, and algebra he was 
already acquainted; and now, having obtained a loan of 
Stone'8 translation of the Marquis de THdpitars ' Analyse 
des InAnimens Petits,' he was enabled bv tbe force of 
genins and unremitting application to make nimsel^ master 
of the direct and in^erse method of fluxion8. Being thus 
qualified, he began in or before the year 1735 to wrrte 
answers to the mathematical ^uestions in tbe 'Ladies' 
Diary,' and even to propose question8 for solution in that 
work. Some of tbe ^uestions have a certain degree of 
intricacy, and they afford evidence that, at this time, the 
scientiAc attainments of Simpson, oonsidering his means, 
must have been very exten8ive. 

In the year 1735 or 1736 Simpson came to London and 
took lodgings in SpitalAelds, where at first he both worked 
at the loom and gave instruction, as he had done in the 
country;,but his great abilities becoming known to tbe 
world, and being perhaps more conspicuous from the ob- 
scurity of his situation, he was enabled to give up his trade 
and devote himself wholly to science. Having brought his 
family to the melropolis, he establislied himself there as a 
teacher of the mathematics, aud employed his leisure hours 
iu extending his researches into the bighest branches of the 

On the death of Dr. Derham, Mr. Simpaon was, in 
1743, appointed profe8sor of mathematics in the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich; and this post he held 
during nearly all the rest of his life. He is said to have 
been suoces8ful in acquiring the friendship and esteem of 
his pupils; and while exerting himsel^ dihgently in fulfil- 
liug his public duties, he found time to compose numerous 
works on the most abstruse points in the mathematical aud 
physical sciences. 

In 1746 he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, 
and on account of the mediocrity of his circumstauces he 
was excused the payment of the admission fee and the an- 
nual subscriptions : severalof his mathematicai papers were 
printed in tne * Transactions,' but most of thera were after- 
wards republished in the volumes of his works. In 1760, 
when tbe present bridge at Blackfriar8 was about to be 
built, Mr. Simpson was consulted with other mathemati- 
cians conceming the form which would be most advan- 
taffeous for the arcbes ; he appears in consequence to have 
taken some pains in inve8tigating the conditions of the sta- 
bility of vaultflfe and to have giveu the preference to those 

VoL. XXIL-F (> 

S I M 


S I M 

of a hemi-cylindrical form, but be did not \ive to oompliste 
the work, and the results of his researches have never been 
made public. 

As Mr. Simpson advanced in life, he became gradually 
a prey to melancholy, which appears to have been in- 
creased by tbe inHuence of bad habits ; his mental facnUies 
were at length so far impaired that he became incapable of 
peribrming the duties of his proiessorship, and in the be- 
gioning of tiie year 1761 he was prevailed on to retire to 
his native town. The fatigueH of the journey increased his 
disorder, and he died May 14, in that year, in the fifty-first 
year df his age. 

Considering the circumstances attending Srmpson's early 
life, and the laborious occupation in which he was after^ 
wards engaged, it is not without surprise that we contem- 
plate the number of works which he wrote, and the pro- 
iound research those works display. His first publioation, 
which carae out in 1737, was entitled * A New Treatise of 
Fluxions,' in which the direct and inverae methods, as they 
were callod, are demonstrated with considerable precision 
and perspicuity, and agreeably to the manner of Newton ; 
the work also contains several usefbl applicationsof tbe cal- 
culus to subjects in natural philosophy and astronomy. 
Thirteen years afterwards, that is, in 1750, he published 
'The Doctrine and Applications of Fluxion8/ whieh he 
dedicated to the earl of Maoclestield, and which, though it 
embraces the same subjects as Ibrm the body of the *Trea- 
tise,' must, iirom the numerous improvements it oontains, be 
considered as a separate work. 

In 1740 Simpson published ' A Treatise on the Nature 
and Laws of Chance/ besides ' Essays ou aeveral subjects 
in pure and mixed Mathematics ;' and two years afterwards 
'The Doctrine of Annuities and Re^ersions,' with tables 
showing the values of single and joint live8. These works 
were followed, in 1 743, by * Mathematioal Dissertations on 
Physical and Analylical Subjecls.* among which will be 
found an investigation of the figure of a planet revolving 
on its axis, and of the force of attraclion at the surface8 of 
bodies which are nearly spherical; also a theory of the 
tides and of astronomioal refractions. These dissertations 
were dedicated to Martin Polkes, Esq., the president of the 
Royal Society. 

* An Elementary Treatise on Algebra' was published in 
1745; •The Elements of Geometiy,' in 1747; and in the 
next year • A Tract on Plane and Spherical Trigonometry,' 
^vith the 'Theory of Logarithms.' With the elemenU of 
geometry are given notes in which are suggested improve- 
ments on some of the demonstrations of iSuclid; but in 
making occasional observation8 on the notes given in the 
first edition of Dr. Robert Simson's * Euclid,' for example 
on the note to the first proposition of the eleventh book, he 
has fallen into some Blight inaccuracies which have been 
remarked on in thesucceeding editions of the latter work. 
AsecoT^d edition of Thomas Simpson'» 'Geometry' was pub- 
lished in 1760. 

In the year 1752 he published 'Select Exerctse8 in Ma- 
thematics,' in which are given many geometrical and 
algebraical problems with their solutions, and a theory of 
gunnery; but his last and most valuable work was that 
which is entitled • Miscellaneous Tracts* (1754). This 
consists' of eight separate papers, four of which relate to 

?ure mathematics, and the others to physical astronomy. 
'he first paper contains investigations for determining the 
precession of the equiuoxes and tbe nutations of the earth*s 
axis ; the second contains equations for correcting the place 
of a planet in its orbit on the hypotheses of Bullialdus and 
Seth Ward ; and the third is on the manner of transferring 
the motion of a comet from a parabolical to an elliptical 
orbit. In the fourth paper are explained the advantage8, in 
point of accuracy, which arise from using a mean of several 
astronomical observations instead of one single observation. 
The fifth contains tbe determination of certain ^uents ; the 
sixth, the resolution of algebraic equations by means of 
surd divisors ; and the seventh, a general rule for the reso- 
lution of isoperimetrical propositions. The eighth paper 
contains the resolution of some important problems in 
astronomy; the propositions in the third and ninth sec- 
tions of the first book of Newton's *Principia* are demon- 
strated, and the general equations are applied to the deter- 
mination of the lunar orbit. 

In order that the merit of this last paper may be rightly 
appreciated, it is necessary to observe that about the year 
1749 th0 modem anabrsis ^m fiiBt appli^ to the determi* 

nation of the elements of the orbita of the earth, moon, and 
planets: these bodies beiog supposed to perturbate each 
other's motions by their mutual attractions, as well as to be 
subject to the general attraction of the sun. In the prose- 
cutron of the research, the mathematicians Clairaut, 
D'Alembert, and Euler particularly investigaled the effect 
of the 8un'8 attraction in causing a progression of theapogee 
of the moon'8 orbit, which progi-ession, being a remarkable 
consequence of perturbation, was considered as a tesC of the 
correctneas of the general principle and law of attraction 
whtch had been assumed by Newton. The fir8t eSbrts of 
M. Clairdut showed an amount of progression in the period 
of a revolution of the moon about the earth, equal to about 
half only of that which had been determined from astrono- 
mical ob8ervationa (' M^moires de TAcadĕmie,' 1 747) ; and it 
is remarkable that both D'Alembert and Euier obtained at 
the 8ame time a like erroneous re8ult This eiroumstance 
at Arst caused some doubts to be entertained of tbe truth of 
Newton's hypothesis, that the force of attraction varies in- 
versely as the 8quare of the dislance : but the process em- 
ployed by the three mathematicians being one of succes8ive 
approximations only, it wasafterward8di80overed by Clairaut 
that, on continuing the process, the second step in the 
approximation produced a quantity nearly equal to that 
which had been obtained by the first step ; and thus the 
computed progression waa found to coincide with the results 
of observation. Now Simpson, employing a difierential 
equation of motion like that which had been used by the 
foreign mathematicians, obtained the values of its terros by 
means of indeterminate coeAicients ; a method which en- 
tirely avoided the inaocuracy resulting from the species of 
approximation which they had adopted ; and thus he arrived 
at once at the true value of the progression. 

The *Traots' were not published till 8even years after 
CIairaut'8 *Mtooire' came out, and it appears that, in tbe 
interval, that matheroatician during a visit to England had 
an interview with Simpson ; the latter states however, in 
theprefaceto his 'Tracts,* that previou8ly to having had 
any communication with M. Clairaut, he had discovered 
that the movement of the moon*sapogee could be accounted 
for on the Newtonian law of gravitation. There is there- 
fore no reason to doqbt that Simpson had tbe merit of 
arriving at a determination which served to confirm the 
truth of that law by a process entirely his own: the whole 
investigation exhibits profound mathematical skill» and fully 
entitles him to the character of having been one of the 
ablest analysts, for all the purposes of practical science, of 
which the country can boast. 

Mr. Simpson continued during the whole of his Iife his 
contributions to the ' Ladies' Diary,' of whioh work he was 
the editor from 1 754 to 1 760. 

SIMSON, ROBERT, one of the many mathematicians 
who bave given a lustre to the universities of Scotland, was 
a son of Mr. John Simson, of Kirton Hall in Ayrshire, and 
was born in October, 1687. About the year 1701 he was 
sent to the university of Glasgow, where he acquired that 
proAciency in the leamed languages which he retained dur- 
mg all his life, and at the same time he made considerable 
progress in moral philosophy and theology, being destined 
by his father for the church. Young Simson sbon however 
found a pursoit more congenial to hia taste in the study of 
mathematics, and chietly of the antient georaetry : to this 
subject he applied himself at fir8t as a reltef from what he 
considered as a more laborious occupation, and it became at 
length almost the sole employment of his life. 

In 1710 Mr. Simson made a ^isit to London, where be 
remained about a year, and where he became acquainted 
with Dr. Halley, Mr. Caswell, Dr. Jurin, and Mr. Ditton ; 
from the conversation of the last gentleman, who was then 
mathematical masterof Christ's Hospital, he gained, not as 
a pupil, but as a friend, a considerable accession to his 
knowledge of science. 

On the resignation of Dr. Robert Sinclair, Mr. Siroson 
was appointed, in 171 1, to succeed him as professor of ma- 
thematics in the univer8ity of Glasgow. He then appHed 
himself to the duties of his office, and regularly gave lee- 
tures on five days in each week during the session of seyen 
months. This practice he continued for nearly fifty yeara ; 
but in 1758, being then 8eventy-one years of age, he was 
obliged to employ an assistant, and three years afterwards 
the Rev. Dr. Williamson, who had been one of his pupils» 
was appointed his successor. 

In 1795 Dr. Simson publishedin 4to. a 'Treatiie on Ooiiie 

S I N 


S I N 

Seetions»' and a seoond editioa in 1750 : in this vork tho 
iDTestigations are conducted agreeably to the spirit of the 
antient geometry, and propositions are introduoed espressly 
that it might 8erve as an introduction to the treatise of 
Apollonius on the same subject 

By tbe advice, it is said, of Dr. Halley, Simson early di- 
rected his attention to a restoration oi the works of the 
Greek geometers, and his tirst effbrt was made on the 
porisms of Euclid : a branch of the antient analysis which 
ia only known from the short account in the works of Pap- 
pus. In tbis difficult task however he succeeded, but his 
'Tract* on the subject was not published till after his 
deatb. Having Qcquired a sort of k^ to that analysis, 
he undertook a restoration of the * loci plani' of ApoUonius» 
and this he oompleted about the year 1738. The work was 
first published in 1746. and Dr. Sirason acquired by it the 
reputation of being one of tbe most elegaht geometera of 
the age. Another subject Qr\ which the peculiar talents of 
^ Dr. Simson were exercised, was the * seotio determinata * of 
Apollonius, and this also he was so fortunate as to restore. 
The work appears to have been oommenced at an early pe- 
riod of his life, but it was only published, along with the 
Porisms, after his death. 

A perfect edition of the principal part of Euclid*s ' £le- 
ments' was the next object of Dr. Simson's labours. Nu- 
meroua errors were knotwn to ^%IL in tlie Greek oopies» and 
the correction of these was a task worthy of a scholar who 
had made the antient geomepry almost exclusively his 
study. An edition of the * Eleraents' and of the * Data' was 
published in 4to. ahout 1758, and the work has always en-» 
joyed a bigh character both ft>r precision in the deAnitions 
and accuracy in the demonatrations. It ia probable that the 
Brttish mathematician has even oorrected errors whioh 
existed in the original text, though his high regard for 
Eoclid baa led him to assume that all those whicb he bas 
disooTered have arisen from the negligence or unskilful« 
neia of the antient editors or copyists. Having heen very 
generally used for the purposes of elementary instruction* 
maoy editions of this work have sinoe been published. 

Afier his retirement Dr.Simaanemployed himseU' ohieAy 
in correeting his mathematioal writincrs ; but though he 
bad 8everal works nearly flt for publication, he printed 
none ext»pt a new edition of Euclid*s *Data.' He was 
seriously ill only during a few weeka previously to his death. 
which took plaoe Ootober 1, 1768, in the eighty-Arst year of 
his age. 

In 1776 Earl Stanhope published, at his own e^pense, 
and for private circulation, the above-mentioned restora- 
tiona cf Euclid^s books of Porisms, and of the two books of 
Apolloaius ' De Sectione Determinata :' together with these 
works the aame nobleman published a tract on the limits 
of ratios and another on logarithms, both of whioh had also 
been written by Dr. Simson. An edition of the works.of 
Pappna va8 found among the Doctor^s MSS., and was sent 
by his executOTS to the University of Oxford. 

Dr. Simson, .tbough devoted to geometry, was well ao- 
qiiainted with.the raodern analysi:», and the latter waa 
ooeasionaliy the subjeot of bis cotlege leetures ; it is bow* 
oTer to be regretted tbat so muoh of bis time was spent in 
tbe effort to restore the preeise works of the antients, wben 
it migbt have been more profitably employed in forming a 
connected aystem of their analysis, and in abowmg ita appli* 
cation to tbe solution of problems relating to physical 
seienee. He was nerer married, and the greater part of 
his long life was spent within the walls of the ooilege ; his 
boars of study,-his eserotsee, and even his amusements be- 
ing regulated wtth great preoision. In his disposition he 
was cheerfol «nd aoeiable; and his eonversation, whioh 
waa aniroated, abonnded with literary aneodote and good 
buroour, thougb be was subject, when in company, to ocoa- 
sbnal flu of abeenee. He was a man of strict integrity and 
pure morals, and he appears to bave had just impressions 
of religion, though be never allowed thesubjeet to be intro** 
dnced in mixed aociety. 

SiN. One of the few passages of Scripture in wbieh we 
liave sometbtng which approaohes to the character of a 
deAnitton roiates to tbis word: * Sin is tbe transgression of 
the law.' (l Jokn^ iii. 4.) Witbin this deAnition would be 
eomprebendBd all actual sins, when the word law is inter- 
preied to mean tbe Christian law, the rule by which the 
minds of all who profess Christianity are bound ; and not 
merely open palpabie otTbnoes against the law, suoh as mur- 
dar» tbeH^ lyip& Md tba \ikfit bat sinAil omisaions of duty^ 

andtboBesina wbicSi araonly tbose of oontemplation and 
thought: since the Christian rule commands us not to 
neglect the performanoe of our duties, and to keep a watob 
over the thoughu as well as over the aotions and wortls. 

It was this comprehensive and most exoellent law whiob 
was in tbe mind of the Apostle when be said that ' sin wag 
transgression of the lew,' or at least that other divine law 
which bound the conscience of the Jews. But the eipres- 
sion may be taken to express mOre generally any law whicb 
a person hohls in his conscience to be binding upon bim, 
whelher it be a hiw of nature only, or a law in which the 
natural perception of right and wrong is modified by and 
mixed with wbat is received as the wiU of God concerning 
us by direct revelation froro bim. 

Wben the word sin is however applied to any act, it is 
always, among correct writers or speakers, used with refer- 
ence, either expressed or implied, to religious obligation, 
and to the responsibility in which we stand to Grod, and the 
hability in which we are to future punisbment. ' To do 
wrong' would expre8s tbe same act as ' to commit sin ;' but 
we use the forraer pbrase without thinking of the oAence 
which is done against God in any aot of the kind ; not so 
when we use the other phrase. 

Under thia definition it is evident that there may be 
degrees in sin: and we mention tbis to remove whatwe 
deem an erroneous opinion on this subject, which goes the 
length of saying that there is really no difference between 
the slightest violation of any moral obligation and the moro 
heinous transgressions. The error on this point arises out of 
one of the oommonest roistakes in respeot of language— con- 
foundiDg words in tbeir abstract with words in their eoncrete 
state. I( is true that sin in the abstract is one and indi^isi- 
ble, aud tbere are no degrees in it; it expres8es that whioh 
is moat offensive in the sight of a pure, boly, and judging 
God. But when we say * a sin,' we then refer to some par- 
ticular act ; and common sense tells us that in all acts in 
whicb the law is transgressed there is not the same amount 
of moral turpitude, the same amount of deAanoe to the 
Divine Power, tbe same injury to society or to our neigh- 
bour, and consequently not tbe same amount of olTence in 
tbe sigbt of God. At the same time it cannot be too strongly 
inculcated upon all to keep a watchful guard upon them- 
selToa lest tbey oommit even the smailer oAences; for 
noihing is roore certain in tlie philosophy of mind, than that 
small offences iead imperceptibly to the toleration of 
greater, so that the man wbo thinks little of small otTences 
may become, before he ia aware, guiliy of those of tbe most 
heinous nature. 

There is also wbat divines call Ori^inal Sin ; a pbrase 
wbieh is diiferently interpreted by different persons. By 
some it is considered as being the act of sin committed by 
our firBt parents when they transgressed the law whieh had 
bound them not to eat of the fruit of a certain tree ; and 
tbis act of sin is regarded as partaken in by all the posterity 
of Adam, who were, as it were, existent in him their com- 
mon father, and as fixing upon all the guilt of his sin, and 
expo8iDg them to punishment which would be indicted for 
this particular sin, to say nothing of tbeir own sin, but for 
tbe great redemption. There are many modifications of 
tbis notion and many intermediate shades of opinion till we 
arrive at the yiew of original sin which represents the 
nature of man as changed by the transgression in this par- 
ticular of our common aocestor ; so that a nature previousIy 
perfectly innocent and free from tbe least tendency to sin, 
became changed into one in which the disposition to sin is 
inherent and the repugnance to the Divine will strong and 
univerteal. There are some classes of profes8ing Cbristians 
who do not use the phrase original sin, though they admit 
the proneness of man to sin, attributing it to his ignorance 
and hnperfection, to the violence of his appetites and pas- 
sions, and in general referring it to that state of probation in 
which it seems to them to have been the intention of their 
Maker to place us. 

SINAI, MOUNT. [ARABiA.p.213.] 

SINATIS, the name of a genus of plants belonging to 
tbe natural order Cracifer8B or Brassicacese. AU the speoies 
are known by the name of mustard, a word derived frora 
mmtum ardens, in alluston to their hot and biting charao- 
ter. The genus is known by its siliquose fruit, which ia 
rather terele with nerved valves ; small, short, acute style ; 
subglobose seeds disposed in one row in eaoh cell, and spread- 
ing calvx. The leayes are of various form8, ly^te or deeply 
toothe<i« The AowerB yellow, arranged on terminal bractlese 

Digitizedb\ F2 iC 

S I N 


S I N 

raeetttes. Thev are chieAy natiTes of the 'temperate parta 
of both hemispheres of the old world. Between 40 and 50 
species of this genuB are enumerated. Of these two species 
are well known and mucb cultivated in this country, Sina- 
pff nigra and S. alba^ the black and white roustard. 

S. ni£rra, the black mustard, is known by its smooth, even, 
somewhat tetragonal siliques closely pressed to the pe- 
duncle ; lyrate lower leaves, and lanceolate upper leaves. 
It is round in cultirated fields, waste grounds, and road- 
sides throughout Europe. The young plants orboth black 
and white mustard are eaten as salao, and are both culti- 
vated for this purpose. Tbe black however diATers from the 
white mustard in the Aowers and seed being much smaller, 
and in the latter Iteing black. Bot the great purpose fi>r 
which the black mustard is grown is for the seeds, which 
wben ripened and powdered form the well-known condi- 
ment mustard. 'To raise the seed for tlour of mustard and 
other officinal occasions, sow either in March or April in an 
open compartment, or large sowings in fields, where designed 
for public supply. Sow moderateW thick, either in drills six 
or twelve inches asunder, or broad-cast, after theground has 
been properly ploughed and harrowed, and rake or harrow 
in the seed. When the plants are two or three inches high, 
hoe or thin them moderately where too thick, and clear 
them from weeds. They wilL soon run up to stalks, and in 
July, August, or September return a cron of seed ripe for 
gathering ; being tied up in sheayes ana left three or four 
days on the stubble.' (Don's Miller.) Rain damages the 
crop very much. Black mustard exhausta the soil rapidly. 
It is cultivated to a great extent in the county of Durham. 
'When once grown it is difficuU to extirpate on account of 
the great vttality of the seeds, which, if buried at almost 
any depth and for any length of time, will germinate when 
brougbt to the sur&ce. In preparing the tiour of mustard 
in this country, the black husk of the seed is separated bv 
delicate sifling. This prooess, which ia not rone througti 
on the Continent, makes the British mustard of so much 
lighter and more agreeable 'oolour. The mustard on the 
CSntinent however is stronger, aa the greater proportion of 
tiie volatile oil on whieh the strength of the mustard depends 
resides in the testa, or husk of the seed, which in this ooun- 
try is thrown away. 

S. alba, white mustard : silique8 hispid, apreading, rather 
narrower than the ensiform beak ; leave8 lyrate, smoothish ; 
stem smooth. It is a native of Britain and most countries 
in the south of Europe. It is frequently cultivated, and when 
young is eaten as a salad. Its seeds are white, and by ex- 
pression yield a bland insipid oil perfectly free from acri- 
mony, but leaving behind a cake more pungent than the 
seeds themseWes. In the culture of this plant for salad the 
seed should be sown once a week or fortnight, in dry warm 
aituations, in February and March, and in shady borders in 
the heat of summer. They are best sown in shallow Hat drills, 
trom three to six inches apart The aeeds should be put in 
thick and regular, and covered with not more than a quar- 
ter of an inch of mould. In winter or early spring it may 
be p^rown under a hand-glass, or in hotbeds ana stove8. 

SINAPIS. Two species of this genus are used in this 
country to yield the mustard of commeroe, S. alba and S. 
nigra, or white mustard and black mustard. Both are 
annuals, the latter extensively cultivated in Yorkshire and 
Durham. Of the former the seeds are large, smooth, not 
Teined or reticulated, and when bruised and mixed with 
water, do not evolve a pungent odour. The integument or 
akin is also thin, and the quantity of fixed oil obtained 
from it is less than from that of the black mustard. White 
mustard is of a light colour externally (but one varietv is 
blackish), and when reduced to powder, is of a light yellow 

The seeds of black mustard are about the si2e of the 
head of a common pin, ovato-globose, of a reddish-brown, 
beautifully veined, mternally yellow, oily, and yielding a 
yellowish-green powder. The chemical constitution of the 
two is essentially diATerent, as it is only the black mustard 
which evolve8, when bruised and mixed with water, the 
pungent principle which irritates the eyes, nostrils, and 
akin. The white mustard poseesses a non-Tolatile principle, 
which is developed by the addition of water. It is the 
young plants from thia species which are eaten with cress 
as a sakd. 

The chemical constitution of black mustard seems to be 
of the most complex kind* Acoording to Dr. IPereira, it 
contains myronate of potasb, iiiyrpsyne, fixed oil, a pearly 

fat matter, gnmmy matter, sngar, colonring matter, imis* 
pisin, free aeid, peculiar green matter, and some salta^ 
chieAy sulphate and phosphate of lime. The vo]atiIe ofl 
does not pre-exist in the mustard, but is formed, when water 
is added, *by the mutual action of the contained myrosyne 
and myronate of potash (sinapisin ?).' It may be obtained 
by distilling one part of the mare {i.e. the cake of bruised 
mustard-seeds wbich remains after the fixed oil has been 
expressed) with ftoxn flve to eight parts of water. It is ao- 
luble in alcohol and sether, and also, what is very singular» 
in water, requiring however flve hundred parts for tts solu- 
tion. Water in wnich it is dissolTod is a nowerfuI Tesicsnt 
and rubefacient. It bas been recommended as a counter'» 
irritant in the same cases as sinapisms or mustnrd-poultices 
are employed. It possesses the advantage of extreme ra- 
pidity of action ; and when used in cases of torpor or coma, 
if on the return of sensibility the patient complains cf naiii 
from the application, this can be immediately removea hj 
washing the part with sulphurio OBther, a property no other 
rubefacient agent possesses, and which entitles it to a pre- 
ference in many cases. It is the only volatile oil of indi* 
genous origin which is heavier than water, its speeiAe 
gravity being 1*015 at 68^ of Fahr. It possesses the same 
power as otber voIatile oils in preventing the developmeni 
of fungi. 

The fixed oil is perfectly bland, like that of o1ive or rape^ 
which last it greatly resembles. It exists to the extent of 
20 per cent in white, and about 28 per oent in blaek mua- 
tard-seed. To obtain it the seeds are crushed in a mill or 
between roUers, and the skins should be subjected to prea- 
sure as well as the farina or llour. The cake may then be 
sifted and reduced to a fine powder, as it retains all tbe 
pungent properties. In Prance the oil is generally left in 
the seeds, which renders them very difficult to powder, and 
makes it expen8ive. It is also less potent than Bnglish 
mustard in eauivalent quantity. The maro or cake is 
Bometimes used as manure, but this is a waste. The oil ia 
Taluable for burning, especially as it does not Areece, exeept 
at a temperature below zero. It also forms, with an alkali, 
a firm good soap. It has been supposed to be anthelmintie 
as well as purgative, but its medioinal propertiea are insig- 

FIour of mustard, mixed with water, forms tbe well- 
known condiment so moch used with all the more indi- 
gestible articles of food, the solution of which it seems to 
favour by rousing the powers of the stomach. A table- 
spoonful of nuistard in a tumbler of water form8 a ready and 
usefu1 emetic in many cases of poisoning, especially when 
narcotic noisons have been takeii. Added to foot-batb8, 
mustard has a reTu1sive action, which is often serviceable 
in the commencement of colds, and when gout has seiied 
the stomacb or hrain*; also when cutaneous diseases bave 
suddenly receded. 

Sinapisms are generally directed to be made witb Tinegar» 
but water of the temperature of about 100*^ Fahr. is pre- 
ferable, and less expen8ive. French mustard for the table 
is often prepared with vinegar. Some years ago, the seeda 
of white mustard, taken whole, in the dose of a table- 
spoonfuI, were recommended as a cure for many complaints. 
This was only an old practice roTiTed, and not me iVom 
dan^er, as the seeds have been known to lodge in tbe in- 
testines and cause death. See Cullen*s * Materia Medica,' 
Tol. ii., p. 1 70. Respecting the mustard-plant of Scripture. 
see *Trans. of Linnean Society of London,' toI. xvii., p. 449. 


SINCLAIR, SIR JOHN, Bart, third son of G. Sin- 
clair. Esq., heritable sheriiT of Caitbness, was born at Tburso 
castle, in the county of Caithness, in the year 1754. 

He embraced the profe8sion of the law, and was called to 
the English bar in 1 782, having been admitted a member 
of the raculty of advocate8 in Scotland in the year 1775. 

In 1780 he waa cbosen member for his native countTp 
and sat in the house during seTeral suocessiye parliamenta, 
sometimes for Caitbness, sometimes for other places. He 
was created a baronet in 1786, and in 1810 waa bonoured 
witb a seat at the board of priTy oouncil. He was likewise 
a member of seTeral learned sooieties, and became exten- 
8ively known by hia writinga, which, for roore than fifty 
years, issued rapidly from tbe press. His death took plaee 
at Edinburgh, on December 21, 1835, in tbe 82nd year of 
his age. 

Sir J. Sindair did mucb for the improToment of hia 
oountry. He eatabltahed a Tery aae^ul aociety in SooUaad 

Digitized b^ 


S I N 


S I N 

in 1 791 for improTing wool, and his exertions lod to tbe for- 
matioD of the Board of Agriculture in 1793, of which he was 
Ibe flrst presideut. Among the most important of his nu< 
merous works may be mentioned his ' Statistical Account 
of Sootland ;' 'Hiatory of the Revenue of Great Britain ;' 
and * Acoount of the Northem Disthcts of Scotland.' The 
irst of tbese ia an extraordinary work, and displays an 
aloKist ineredible amount of labonr and research. 


SINDI A. FAMILY OF. The ori{;in of this celebrated 
&OBily of Mahratta chie& and princes is comparatively mo- 
dern. The family were sudras, of tbe peaceful tribe of 
koombee, or eultivators. The first who distinguished him- 
self as a soldier was 

Ranojss Sindia, who was originally a potail, or head 
man of a village. The Paishwa Bsyerow, wbo suoceeded 
his fiither Biswanath Row in 1720, appointed Ranojee to 
the humble ofiice of bearer of his slippers. A circumstance 
which seemed to show his Adelity and attachroent to his 
raaster is said to have led to his promotion. Bajerow one 
day found him asleep on bis back, with the slippers firmly 
ciasped to his breast, and was so much pleased as to ap- 
potnt him immediately to a station in his body-guard. Ra- 
nojee Sindia was active and enterprising, and he was rapidly 
promoted. In 1 743 he had risen to the highest rank of 
Mahratta chiefs ; for when Bajerow came into Malwa in 
tbat year, Ranojeesigned abond which was required by the 
cmpeior of Delhi, Mahomed Shah, as a surely for thegood 
oonduct of hismaster tbe Paishwa. Before Ranojee died he 
faad obtained tbe hereditary govemment of one-half of the 
esteh8ive province of Malwa. By^his wife, who belonged to 
his own tribe, he bad three sons, Jeypah, I>uttagee, and 
Juttabah ; and b^ a Rajpoot woman he had two sons, Tu- 
kaiee and Madhajee, of whom 

Madhajbb SiNDiA became the head of the family. The 
date of his birth is uncertain; it was probably about 1743 ; 
be was present at the battle of Paniput in 1761, when the 
Mahrattas were defeatedby Ahmed Shah Abdallah and bis 
A^bans» in union with the Rajpoot and Mohammedan 
princes of northern Hindustan. In this disastrous battle 
ooe-half of the Mahratta army, which amounted to 200,000 
men, are said to have been slain. Madhajee Sindia was 
mirsued by an Afghan borseman fbr many miles, who at 
Wngth oTertook him, and left him for dead in a diteb, afler 
«aving wounded him with his battle-axe in the knee in 
s«db a manner aa to render him lame for life. The Sindia 
&aily. as well as tbe otber Mahratta chiefs, were for a time 
dqnTed of all their possessions in Malwa and Hindustan 
proper; but this was notof long continuance. Tbe Paishwa 
oajerow died in 1761, and was succeeded by his son Mad- 
hoo Row, under whom, on the death of Mulhar Row Holkar 
in 1 764» Madhajee Slndia became the most powerful of the 
Mahratta ohie&. Besides being the principal leader of the 
boaaehold-borse of the Paishwa, he had a large army of his 
own; and the return of Abmed Shah to Cabul, and the 
eontests among the Mohammedan princes under the weak 
emperor Shah Alim II^ in a few years affbrded opportunity 
to bim and his brotber Tukajee Sindia to reoover tbeir 
£>nner hereditary govemment and possessions in Malwa 
and northern Hindustan. 

In 1 770, on the invitation of Nujeeb ud Dowlab, who was 
the ministerof ShahAlim,Madhajee8india, Bassajee Row, 
and Tukajee Holkar entered Hindustan proper with their 
arroies, for the purpose of expelling the Sikhs, who had in- 
Yaded tbe emperor's territories. Tbis was soon aooom- 
plislied; and on the death of Nujeeb ud Dowlah in 1771, 
Madbajee Sindia obtained possession of Deihi, whither he 
invited Shah Alim to return from Allababad, where he had 
been living under the protection of the British sinoe 1 755. 
In Deoember tbe same year the emperor was crowned with 
great pomp in his capital. He was not however the less in 
sttbjection. Madbajee compelled him to sign a commission 
by which he appointed the Paishwa vicegerent of the em- 
nire; and tbe Paishwa* by a like commission, appointed 
Madhajee his deputy. 

In 1772, and again in 1773, with his two coUea^ues 
Bassajee and Holkar, Sindia invaded and ravaged Rohil- 
cnnd, and was preparing to cross the Ganges, wben the 
murderof the young Paishwa Narrain Row, tbe usurpation 
of the office by his uncle Ragoba, and the appearance of tbe 
British and the nabob of Oude, wbo had been invited to 
assist the Rohillas, caused him to retum to Pooua. A con- 
federation of Mahratta cbiefo was got up agaiiut Ragoba, 

wbo, after a reign of a few months, was compelled to fly. 
Sevajee Madhoo, the postbumous son of Narrain Row, was 
appointed Paishwa, and Ballajee Pundit, better known as 
Nana Furnavese, was elected dewan, or minister. The 
British, on the condition of his ceding to them certain ter- 
ritories, came to the assistance of Ragoba, which oocaiioned 
a war between them and the Mahrattas. lliis war, twice 
interrupted by treaties which were not completed, con 
tinued till 1 782, when the treaty of Salbhye was concluded, 
by which Madbajee Sindia was confirmed in all his posses 
sions, the places taken from him by the Britisb were re 
stored, and he was recognised by them as an independent 

Madhajee Sindia had now iime and opportunity to nrose 
cute his plans of aggrandisement In 1785 heagamap 
peared at Delhi, and by the murder of two of the imperial 
ministers once more got the emperor into his po¥rer i he 
also conquered Agra and Alyghur, and obtained possession 
of nearly the whole of tbe Do«b About this time be en 
gaged in his 8ervice a Prenobman, De Boigne, who beeame 
of tbe most essential senrice to bim ; for by bis assistance he 
formed an army consisting of troops regularly diseiplined; 
he fougbt pitcbed battles, besieged fortresse8 previouslv 
deemed impregnable, gradually subjected raja after raja to 
contribution,iind added district after district tobisposses 
sions, till hebecame master of neaily all the territory south 
west from the banks of the Ganges to the Nerbudda. The 
battle of Meerta, gained by De Boigne in 1 790 over the col 
lected force8 of Joudpoor, had made Sindia master of that 
principality, as well as of tbe weaker state of Odeypoor $ tn 
these conquests was added soon after that of Jypoor, whicb 
was folIowed in 1792 by the defeat of the troops of Junka 
jee Holkar, wben fbur corps of regular infantrv belongmg 
to Holkar*s army, wbich were commanded by a Prench 
offioer, were almost utterly destroyed Sindia btmself had 
returoed to Poona in 1791, where he died in 1794. 

Madhajee Sindia*s life was one of inoessant aotivUy ^ be 
was engaged in a series of contests in wbich he displayed 
great talent and untiring energy, and by which his powei 
and possessions were gradually extended, consolidated, and 
oonArmed. Hb habits throughout the wbole nf his oareer 
were thoee of a plain soldier ; he was never seduced bv 
luxury, and he despised the trapnings of state. Though 
oecasionally guilty of yiolence ana oppression, bis life was 
for the most part unstained by cmelty; his disposition 
was mild, and he was desirous of improving the countries 
which he oonquered. Towards the British and tbose states 
which were unoonnected with the Mahratta government 
he oonduoted bimsel^ as an independent prince, but in mat- 
ters relating to the Paishwa he paid the most sorupulons 
attention to all the form8 of humility, of whioh he made a 
curious display when Sevajee Ma^hoo Row, at the termina- 
tion of his minority in 1791, entered upon the duties of bis 
office, and Sindta oame to Poona to pay his respeots to him. 
Sir John Malcolm tbus relates it : ' The actual 80vereign of 
Hindustan from tbe Sutleje to Agra, the oonqueror of the 
prinoes of K^pootana, the commander of an army composed 
of 8ixteen battalions of regular infantry, 500 pieces or can- 
non, and 14)0,000 borse, tbe possesaor of two thirds of 
Malwa, and some of the Snest provinoe8 in the Deckan, 
when he went to pay his respeets to a youth wbo then held 
tbe office of Paisnwa, dismounted from his elephant at the 
gates of Poona ; plao^ himaelf in tbe great hall of audience 
below all the mankarries, or hereditary nobles of the state, 
and when the Paishwa came intothe room,and desired him 
to be seated with otbers, be objeoted on the ground of be- 
ing unwortby of tbe honour, and, untying a bundle that he 
oarried under his arm, produced a pair of slippers, which 
he placed before Madhoo Row, saying, ^This is my oocupa- 
tion ; it was that of my father.' Madhajee, at the moment 
he said tbis, took tbe old siippers tbe Paishwa bad in use, 
which he wrapped up carefully, and continued to hold them 
under bis arm ; after which, though with apparenl reluct- 
ance, he allowed himself to be prevailed upon to sit down. 
It bas been supposed tbat by this affected humility be 
aimed at obtaining the situation of dewan to the Paishwa ; 
if suoh however was his object, he was firu8trated in it, fbr 
Nana Furaavese still retained it 

Madhajee Sindia had no sons. His brother Tukajee bad 
three, of whom the youngest, Anund Row, beeame the 
favourite of his uncle, wbo adopted Dowlut RowSindia, the 
son of Anund Row, as his heir. • 

DowLUT Row SiNoiA, %i tho death o^his grsnd-unole^ 

Digitized by VJ 

S I N 


S I N 

wa8 only thirteen years of age. He was opposed by tbe 
widows of Madbajee, who set up anotber prinoe in oppo- 
sition to him, and be was not establisbed in his power till 
after seYeral battles had been fought. He married» aoon afler 
his accession, the daughter of Siijee Row Gatkia, aa artful 
and wickod raan, who became his minister, to wbom is doubt- 
less to be ascribed much of the rapacity and cruelty which 
marked the early part of Dowlut Row's reign. The 8eizure 
and imprisonmentof Nana Furnavese, the murderof several 
Brahiiiins, the plundering of Poona and tbe neigbbouring 
places under pretence of paying the expen8es of bis mar- 
riage ; and the aidin<; of Casee Row Holkar in the murder of 
his brotber Mulhar Row, are among his early atrocities; in 
addition to which it should be mentioned, tbat wben Sirjee 
Row Gatkia defeated Jeswunt Row Holkar in 1801, he plun- 
dcred the city of Indore, set fire to the best bouses, and mur- 
dered many of tbe inbabitants ; in 1802 bowever Holkar de- 
feated Sindia, and re-establisbed bimself in Malwa. But tbe 
interferencc of the Britisb at lengtb put astopto tbis career 
of spoliation and bloodsbed. Tbe Paishwa Bajerow, baving 
been defeated by Jeswunt Row Holkar inl802, tled toBassein, 
and placed himself under the protection of tbe Britisb, by a 
treaty, the chief conditionsof wnicb were, tbat be should cede 
to them tbe island or Salsette, and tbey sbould restore bim 
to the oAlice of Paishwa. After many /ruHless negociations 
with Sindia and tbe Raja of Berar, tbe British resident Ieft tbe 
court of Sindia, August 3, 1803, and war was commenoed 
on the 8tb by an attack on tbe fortress of Ahmednugghur by 
Major-General Wellesley, wbich he soon look, and fdllowed 
up q^i the 25th of Septcmber, 1803, by the battle of Assaye, 
when he gained a complete victory over tbe confederated 
forces of Sindia aud the Raja of Berar, which were under the 
command of the Prencb general Pĕron, and greatly more 
- numerous than his own. In Hindustaa Proper, General 
Lake, on the 29th of August, 1803, defeated Sindia's forces 
in the Doab, took tbe strong fort of Alygbur, and a^terwards 
the cities of Delhi and Agra. In the short period of five 
months was included a series of the most brilliaat and deci- 
8ive victories ; tbe battles of Delbi and Laswaree, of Assaye 
aud Argbaum, the reduction of tbe strong fort8 of Abmed- 
nugghur, Aly^hur, Agra, Gwalior, ABserghur, and Cuttack, 
besides a number of inferior conquest8. The two Mahratta 
cbiefs were compelled to sue for peace separately. Sindia'8 
brigades, which had been trained under De Boigne and 
P6ron, and which amounted to at least 40,000 well-dis- 
ciplined infantry, were destroyed; 500 guns, cast in tbe 
foundries which Madliajee bad established, were taken; luad 
by the treaty of Deoember, 1803, be. was compelled to cede 
to the Britisb tbe Upper Doab, Delbi, Agra, Saharuapoor, 
Meerut, Alygbur, Etawah, Cuttack, Balasore, tbe fort and 
territory of Baroach, &c., amounting altogether to more 
than 50,000 square miles. By a treaty of def^n8ive alliance, 
February 27, 1 804, be engaged to receive a Britisb auxiliary 
force in tbose dominions whicb be was. suAered to retain, 
which were stiU large, and wbicb were oonsiderably io- 
creased, after the subjugation of Holkar,.by the territoiy of 
Gohud and the strong fort of Gwalior, which were given 
up to him by tbeXreatv of Muttra, November 23, 1805, one of 
the conditions of whiclk treaty was, tbat bis father-in-law Sir- 
jee Row Gatkia sbould be for ever excluded from hia councilB. 

Dowlut Row Sipdia, thougb he retained for a consider- 
able time no friendly fee1ing towards hia British alUies, by 
whom be had been 8o 8everely bumbled, never again ven- 
tured into a direct contest witb tbem ; and after he was freed 
from the inltuence of his fotber-in-law, he beoame by de- 
grees better diaposed towards tbem ; so that in Uie war of 
1818, by which tbe Mabratta power was entirely destroyed, 
he prudently kept aloof, tbougb the Paiabw^ tirgentlycaUed 
upon bim for bis assistanoe. The conse^uenoe was tbat be 
retained his territories, and continued on friendly terms 
with theBritisb tiU hia death, wbicb took place Marcb 21, 
1827. He left an army of about 14,000 infantry, 10,000 
cavalry, and 250 pieces of ordnance, witb territories wortb 
about ],250,OOU/. perannum. 

Janko Row SiNDiA, the present Raja of Gwalior, was 
elected by the widow of Dowlut Row, Baisa Bai. She was ex- 
peUed from bis territorieB in 1833 by Janko Row, who is 
now (1841) about 19 years of age. 

(Malcolm'8 Political History of India ; Malcolm'8 Ceniral 
Iwba ; Miirs British India; Biographie Universelle ; Art 
de vcnfier les Dates,) 

SINE and COSINE. We separateilrom the articloTRi- 
OONOMBTRY tbe .mero description and propeittes of theBe 

fundamental terms, wbicb, tbougb originaUy derived from 
simple trigonometry, are now among tbo most U8eful foun- 
dations of matbematical expres5ion. For what we bave to 
say on tbeir history, we refer to the article just cited. 

Accprding to the antient system of trigonometry, tbe sine 
andcosine are only names given to the abscissaand ordinate 
of a point, not with reference to the positiouof that point in 
space, but to the radius vector of that point and its angle. 
Thus, measuring angles from the line ON, nnd in tbe di- 
rection of the arrow, the angle N O P bas an inftnite number 
of sines and cosines. With reference to the radius O P, 

PN is tbe sineand ON the cx)sine of Z N OP; but wttb 
reference to theradiusOQ, QR is tbe sine and OR the 
cosine. The fundame[^al relation 

(stne ©)■ + (cosine ©)• = (radius)^ 
is obviou8 enough. 

The student alwaya began trifronometry witb tbis multi- 
plicity of deAnitions, and with tiie idea of aome particular 
radius being necessary to the complete definition of the sine 
and cosine. But as be proceeded, be was always taugbt to 
aiippoae tbe radius a unit ; that is, always to adopt that line 
as a radtua which was agreed upon to be represented by 1. 
Hence he gradually learned to forget bia Arst deSnition ; 
and, passing from geometry to arithmetic, to use the follow- 
ing: PO being unity, the sine of NOP is PN, which is 
tber^ore in aritbmetic the fraction whicb PN i8of PO; 
and the cosine is the fraction whicb O N is of PO. If Q O 
bad been used as a unit, tbe result would bave been the 
same ; for by similar triangles, RQ is the aame fraction of 

In tbe most modem trigonometry, and for oogent reasons, 
tb« student is never for a moment allowed to imagine that 
tbe sine and cosine are in any manner representative8 of 
lines. In a practical point of yiew, tbe flnal deAnition of 
tbe old trigonometry ooincidea exactly with that of the new ; 
but tbe latter bas this advantage, that all 8ub8equent geo- 
metrical formulsB are seen to be honiogeneous in a much 
more distinct manner. The deSnitioi^ ia tbis : The sine of 
N O P is not N P. nor any number to represent N P ; it ia 
tbe fraction which N P is of P O, conaidered as an abstract 
number. Thus if O N, N P, P O, be in the proportion of 
3, 4, and 5, PN is I of OP: tbis \ is the 8ineof NOP, not 
} of any line, nor any line considered as } of a unit ; bot 
simply \ four-fiftb8 of an abstract unit. Similarly tbe cosine 
is the fraction wbich O N is of O P. In just tbe same 
manner tbe abstract number ir» or 3*14159 .. ., is not styled 
(aa it used to be) the circumference of a circle wboee di- 
ameter is a unit, but the proportion of the circumference to 
the diaraeter, the number of times wbich any circumference 
contains its diameter. We cannot too strongly recommend 
the univer8al adoption of tbis change of style, a slight 
matter with referenoe to mere calculation of resulta, but 
one of considerable importance to a correct underatanding 
of tbe meaning of formul». 

The line OP being considered as positive [Sion], the 
signs of PN and NO determine tbose of the sine and 
oosine ; and the manner in which the values of these funo- 
tions are determined when tbe angle is nothing, or one, two, 
or tbree right angles, ia easy enough. The ibllowing sbort 
table embraces all tbe results of sisrn : — > 

o I iriii IV 

Sine 0+1+0-1 - 
Cosine i-i-o-l-O + 1. 
Read this as follow8 :— When the angle =0, the Btne ==D ; 
from thence to a right angle the sine is positive : at the right 
angle the sine is +1 ; from thence to two light angles tbe 
sine is poaitive, &o. 

Tbe fundamental tbeorems of tbe sine and cosine, from 
wbich all tbeir properttes may be derived, are, 
ain (a+6) = sin a cos 6 + cos a sin b 
sin (a— 6) = sin a cos b — cos a sin 6 
eos (a+^l^ s cos a 008 6 — sin a sin b 
008 ia^b) = co8 a 008 ^ + sin a sin ^ j 

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aU which theorems are in fact contained in any one of them, 
as Boon as that one is shown to be uniyenally true. It fre- 
quently happens howeTer that the student is allowed to 
atsume the universal truth of these theorems upon too 
slight a foundation of previous proof : drawing a Agure for 
instance in whioh both angles are less than a right angle. 
We give,as an instance, the proof of the Arst formula when 
both angles are greater than two right angles. Let X0 P 
=a» P O Q cs 6, both angles being measured in the direction 
of revoIution indicated by the arrow. The sum is four right 
angles +XOQ, which has the same sine and cosine as 

X0 Q. From anv point Q in O Q draw perpendiculars on 
OXand OP, and complete tha figure as shown. Then 
sin ia+b) is positive, and is the fr^tion which Q M is of 
Q0, or QM : Q0; QM and Q0 being espressed in num- 
bers. But 




By similar triangles = po Q0 + PO Q0- 

Now, remembering the magnitudes of a and b, aud the 
rule of sigds established, we have 

PT OT . ^ QN 

sin a = — pQ, cos a= - pQ, sm 6 == - -qq, 

eos ^ = — 


hud subatitution immediately give8 the flrst fonnu]a. We 
shail not here dwell on the minor conse^uences of these 
fbnnulBB,but shall refer tothe collection in Trigonohbtry. 
Theoonnectionof thesine andangledepends in great part 
upon the foUowing theorem : — if « may be made os small 
as we please, nnx: x may be made as near to unity as we 
please. Obsenre that this theorem, supposes the angle x to 
be measored by the theoretical unit [AnoleI, or the angle 
I to be the angle of whieh the arc and radius are equal. 
The proof depends upon the assumption that in the adjoining 
obviou8 ilgure the aro AB is less than its containing (u>ntour 
AC 4- G B. If the radius O B be r, we see that x miist be 
arc AB : r, or AB = ra?. Also B M = r sin ar, B C = 
AM = r^rofaXf by deHnition* Now the arc AB is greater 

O M A 

than BM, and less than BM + MA, or rx lies between 
r sin X and r sin «+ r-^r cos x, or x lies between sin x and 
5inar-f l — cosop; 


or between sui x and sin x + r-j ; 


* ,. • , . sin a? 
whence -: — lies between 1 and*l + 7-; • 

Uence, x diminishing without limit, the diSerence be- 
tween 1 and j? : sin o; diminishes without limit, and lherefore 
that between 1 and %iiix:xi which was to be proved. 
From hence it foUows that 1 — cosd? and ^ approach to a 
ratio of equality, as may be readily provedfrom the equation 

1 ^cos «=— . ( 

2 V 

sin g?V 

14-cos jp 

in which the second and third factors have unity for their 
limiL Hence then, when x is very small, x and 1— ^:b* 
are Tery near representatives of the sine and cosine ; and 
the goodnesa of the representation may be increased lo any 
extent by diminishing x. 

The complete theory of the sine and cosine, from and 
afUr the two theorems just established, depends upon the 
mtiodiietioa of the 8qaare root of the negative quantity. If 

we take ordinary algebra only [as in Neoatiye, &o. Quan- 
TiTiES» p. 134, col. 2], in which the impossible auantity is 
unexplained, we have the most common mode 01 proceed- 
ing. The explanations afterwards given would make this 
theory the most slmple imaginable, to a student who had 
learned algebra from the begiuning in the manner pointed 
out. To take the middle course, let us assume the rules of 
algebra [Opbration] independently of the meanings of the 
symbols. Let sin x and cos x be deAued as ' such func- 
tions of X that sin (^+y) gi^oB sin x. cos y-f eos x, sin y, and 
cos (jr+y)=ooa x. cos y— sin x. stn y/ Ohserve that we do 
not in thus defining say there are such ^unctions ; we only 
say, ff there be such, let them have these names. Then, as 
in Nbgatiyb» &c. cited above, we see that if ^x^ 
cos a7+V— ItSin o?, the relation ^(x+y)=0a?X0y fol- 
lows ; whence [Binouial Theorbm] <I>x can be nothing 
but K«, where K is independent of x, Let 07=1, whencĕ 
^(1)=K, or we have 

cosa:+V— 1.8iha?=(cos 1 + V— l.sin 1)* , 
and similarly it is shown that 

cosa?— V — 1 .sina?=(cos 1 — V— 1 .sin 1)* , 
From these we get, by multiplication, 

cos" a?+sin* a:=(cos* 1+sin* I)*: (3) 
if it be possible, let cos* I+sin* 1 = 1, tlien cos* a;+sin* x is 
always =1, or at least [Root] we may always take one 
pair of forms satisfying this condition. Hence, making 

cos l+V-~l.un l=e» we have cos 1— V— 1 .sin l=e" , 
and the two equationa give 




e +e 


which will be found to 8atisfy all the oonditions used in 
defining them, namely, 

e +e e +e e — e e — e 

2 2 " 2V-1 2V-1 

ev — e 




- "lij-i 2 "^ 2 

To determine what algebraical formula e must ^«e, (ake tno 
universal formula 

e =l+log e . a?+(log e)» y+dog «)* 273+ 

whence we easily get from (4) 
log e ^ (lop e)' a?* 




(log e)» 

V-l 2.3^ V-l 

X +(loge)* — + (loge)* 

2 . 3 . 4 . d 


2.3.4 ^ 

Now e, as fiir as our definitions have yet extended, is 
whoUy undetermined, every value of e being applicable. 
Let us add to our conditions that sin ar : a? shall approach 
to unity as a:r is diminished without limit : but sin a? : x op- 
proaehes to log e: V-l; therefore log e=V-l. or 

e = € 

The preceding is nurely symbolical ; we merely ask how 
are previous symbols, used under oertain laws, to be put 
together so as to represent certain new symbols which are 
to have certain properties. Let us now take the real geo- 
metrical meaning of sin x and cos a?, and the complete sys- 
tem of algebra, in which V— 1 is expiained [Nboatiyb, 
&c. QuANTiTiEs]. In tbat system, if a line equal to the 
unit-line be inclined to it at an angle X, it is obviously 
represented by cos x-\- V— 1 . sin ap, and aoy power of it, 
whole or fractional, can be obtained by changing x into mXy 
so that 

cos m^^ V— 1 . sin map=(co8 a?+ V— l . sin a?)* 

is an immediate consequence of defiuition; and making 
a:=I, the equalion 

cos m+V— 1 .sinm=(cos ' -r V— 1 «sin 1) 

follow8 at once. To prove that e^ and cos 1 + V— l 
sin ) are identical, in the most logical manner, requires a 
preyious .definition of an exponeQtial quantity, in a sense 
80 general, that exponent8 of the form a+6 v -~ 1' shall be 

S I Jf 


S I N 

incladed : without tbia, tbe new algebra just refenred to is 
not fr«e from the results of Ihterpretatiow. 

However we may proceed» tbe aeries above given for the 
slne and cosine of x become 


coeapssl— • 

2 ^ 2.3.4 ' 
and thete teries are alwaya convergent Their present form 
depends entirely on the unit cboeen ; if however by x wc 
mean «*, a/, or a?", we must write 

a» j^ . a^x* 

a* a^ a* a?* 
co9Jf=l-— +2-X4" 

wbere [ Anole, p. 23] a ia -01 745.32925 ..... -00029,08882, 

'00000,48481, accordingas x meansa number of degrees, 

of minutes, or of secondi. 

Tbe preoeding is enougb on the fundamental meanings 
of these terms, and on their connection with algebra. Some 
applications will be seen in Trioonometrt. 

8INE and COSINE, CURVES 0F. By the curve of 
sines is meant that whicb has the equation y=:sin :r, and 
by the eurve of oosines, that which has the equation y^ 
oos :r : it beins understood that x stands for as many &ngu- 
lar units as tbere are linear units in the abscissa. The 
undulatory forms of tbese curves are easily established : and 
if the ordinate of a ourve consist of several of them, as in 
y=a sin 0?+^ cos ar+c sin 2s, the several parts of the com- 
pound ordinate may be put together in the same manner as 
that in which the simple undulations are compounded in 
AcousTics, p. 92. Except as expressing the most simple 
form of undulating curves, these equations are of no particu- 
lar use in geometry. 

SINE-CURE. Sine-cures are ecclesiastical benefices 
witbout cure of souls, and are of three sorts :— 1. Where the 
benefice is a donative [6bneficb, p. 220], and is com- 
mitted to the incumbent by the patron expressly witbout 
cure of soulk the cure either not existing or being entrusted 
to a vicar ; this is the strictest sine-cure. 2. Certain cathe- 
dral oAlices, viz. the canonries and prebends, and, aocording 
to some autborities, the deanery. 3. Where a parish is desti- 
tute, by some accident, of parisbioners ; this last kind has 
been oalled depopulations, rather than sine-cures. 

Rectors of a parish in which vicars were likewise esta- 
blished witb cure of souls bave often by degrees exempted 
themseWes from their ecclesiastical funotions, and so have 
obtained sine-cures ; but this is ratber by abuse than legiti- 

Sine-cures are exempt from the statute of pluralities. 
(Bum*s Eccleiiasiieal Law,) 

8INEW. [Tbndon.] 

8INGAP0RE is a Britisb settlement in the Eastlndies, 
aituated at the most southem extremity of the Malay Penin- 
sula. Tt consists of the island of Singapore, and about flfty 
islets dispersed in the sea soutb and east of the principal 
island, or in what is oalled the Straits of Singapore. The 
territories of this settlement embrace a circumference of 
about a hundred miles, including the seas and straits within 
ten miles of the coast of tbe island of Singapore, and they 
lie between 1"* 8' and l"" 32^ N. lat., and between 103'' 30' 
and lO^"* 10' E. long. 

The island of Singapore occupies about balf tbespace be- 
tween the two capes with which the Malay Peninsula ter- 
minates on the south, Capes Buru and Ramiliiia (commonly 
called Romania). It has an elliptioal form, and is about 25 
miles in its greatest length from east to west, and 1 5 in its 
greatest width. It contains an estimated area of about 275 
souare miles, and is about one-tbird larger than tbe Isle of 
Wight It is divided from the oontinent of Asia by a long 
and narrow strait called Salat Tabrao, or tbe old strait of 
Singapore. This strait is nearly forty miles long, and varies 
in width between two miles and a ouarter of a mile. At its 
western extremity, near tbe islana of Marambong, it bas 
only a depth of 2^ fsthoms, but farther east it is nowbere 
less tban five fathoms deep. This strait was formerly navi* 
gated by vessels bound for tbe China Seas ; but the advan- 
tages whicb the Straits of Singapore offer Ibr a speedy 
«nd safe navieation are so great, that the Salat Tabrao bas 
uot been used since the Straits of Singapore bave beoome 

known. The last-mentioned strait extends along the south- 
ern coast of tbe idand of Singapore, and the most navigable 
part lies witbin the British possessions. It is the high road 
between the eastera and western portions of maritime Asia. 
The surfiace of tbe island is gently undulating, here and 
there rising into low rounded hills of inconsiderable elevation. 
The higber ground rises in general not more tban a bun* 
dred feet abovethe sea; the bighest hill, called Bukit Tima, 
which is nortb-west of the town, but nearer tbe northern 
than the southern shores of the island, does not attain 
200 feet The shores of the island are mostly low, and 
surrounded by mangrove-trees. In a few isolated places low 
rocks approach the sea, cbieAy along the Salat Tabrao. In 
several places however tbe coast is indented by salt creeks, 
whioh soraetimes penetrate into the land three and even rive 
or six miles. When the island was first occupied by the Bri- 
tish it was entirely, and is still for the greater part, covered 
with a forest composed of different lunds of trees, five or 
six of whicb are well adapted for every object of house- 
building. Tbe soil of the interior is composed of sand and 
of clay iron-stone, mixed up with a large portion of vegetable 
matter, which gives it a very black appearance. There is a 
general tendency to the formation of swamps. Rivulet8 are 
numerous, but they are of incohsidei*abIe size. Their 
waters are almost always of a black colour, disagreeable 
taste, and peculiar odour, properties which they appear to 
dertve from the peculiar nature of the superScial soil over 
whicb they pass, which in many parts resembles peat-moss. 
The water bowever drawn from wellswhich are sunk lower 
than the sandy base is less sensibly marked by these dis- 
agreeable qualities. 

The climate of SinKapore is hot, but equable, the seasona 
varying very little. The atmosphere tbrougbout the year 
is serene. The smootb expanse of the sea is scarcely ruffled 
by a wind. The destructive typhons of the China Sea, and 
the scarely less furious tempests which occur on the coasts 
of Hindustan, are not known. The tempests of the China 
Sea bowever sometimes occasion a considerable swell in the 
sea, and a similar but less retnarkable effect is produced by 
a tempest in the Bay of Bengal. It is only in this way, and 
as it were by propagation, that tbe sea is affected by remote 
tempests, and their effeets are particularly remarkable in 
the irregularily of tbe tides, wnich at times run in one 
direction for several days sucoessiveIy, and with great ra- 
pidity. In the numerous narrow chanuels wbich divide tbe 
smaller islands, their rapidity is somotimes so great tbat tt 
resembles water issuing through a sluice. Tbe regular and 
periodical inAuence of the monsoons is slightly felt, the 
winds partaking more of tbe nature of land and seabreezes. 
To tbese circumstances must be attributed tbe great uni- 
formity of the temperature, the absence of a proper oon- 
tinual and periodical rainy season, and the more frequent 
fall of showers. Few days elapse witbout the occurrence 
of rain. According to an average of four years, tbe uum- 
ber of rainy days was 185, and that of dry only 180. Tlie 
greatest quantity of rain ialls in December and January, 
and the smallest in April and May. These frequent rains 
keep tbe island in a state of perpetual verdure. 

Tbe thermometer ranges during the year between 72° 
and 88^ The mean annual temperature is 807^ of Fah- 
renheit. In the four months succeeding Pebruary it rises to 
82*50°, andinthefourmonths succeeding October it sinks to 
79^ The daily range of the tbermometer never e^ceeds 
teu degrees. Crawfurd states that the climate of Singa- 
pore is remarkably healthy, which he attributes to the free 
ventiIation that prevails, and to tbe almost entire absence 
of chilling land-winds, but Newbold thinks that it is not so 
healthy as Malacca, and he ascribes this to the less regular 
alternations of tbe land and sea breeies. 

Singspore is not ricb in agricultural productions. No 
part of it wasHsultivated when the Britisb took possession of 
the place, and at first the soil was considered ill adapted for 
agricultural purposes. But it now appears that consider- 
able tracts near Ihe town have been cleared by the Chinese, 
and that this indiistrious people bave suoceeded in culti- 
vating different kinds of fruits and vegetables, rice, cof«- 
fee, sugar, cotton, and especially pepper and tbe betel- 
vine {Piper siriboa). Only the summits of the bigher 
grounds are barren, but on their slopes and in the depres- 
sions between them the soil frequently has a oonsiderable 
degree of fertility. Tropical fruits siicceed very well, such 
as the mangusteen, pine-apple, cocoa-nut, orange, and 
mango, Tbe mango is founa wild in the foresto. TThetro- 
Digitizedb^, ^^'-^ 

S I N 


S I N 

pieal Tegetables» ag tbe egg-plant, dilTerent kindt of pnUe» 
the yam. the batata, different varieties of cucumber, and 
some others, grow ^ery well, but the climate is too hot for 
inost European vegetab1es. The produoe of tbe paddy- 
tields, as wetl as of the orchards, is far from being suAScient 
for home oonsumption, and accordingly large ouantities of 
rice are imported from Sumatra and Java, and Aruits from 

The animals of Europe have been introduced, but most of 
them are few in number, as pasture-grounds are scarce. 
The Chinese however keep a great number of hogs. None 
of tbe large quadrupeds of the continent of Asia, sucb as 
elephants, rhinoceroses, tigers, and leopards, are met with on 
the issland, but there are several kinds of monkeys, bats, and 
•quirrel8 ; also the Iciides, the porcupine, the sloth KBrady- 
pus (Hdaciylush the pangolin, the wild hog, and two species 
of deer, tbe Mosehus pygmaeus^ which is smaller than an 
Bnglish hare, and the ludian roe {Cenms muf^). Some- 
times the dugong {Halicora dugong) is taken in the straiu.- 
It is ten or tweWe feet long, and the Hesb is considered for 
flavour and delicacy not inferior to beef : the skin is as 
strong as that of the bippopotamus. Birds are numerous, 
especially different kinds of passeres, climbers, and waders, 
particularly the ilrst, which are remarkable for their no- 
velty and beauty. Tortoises are common. The coral reeft 
and shoals in the vicinity of Singapore furnish that delicate 
fern-Itke sea-weed called aggar-aggar {Fueus Saccharinus) 
in abundance, and it forms an artiole of considerable export 
to China, where it is used in thin glues and ^arnishes. It 
is made into a very fine jelly by Europeans and the native 
Portuguese. The average annual produce is 6000 peculs, or 
7980 cwt., and it is sold at three doUars the pecul. 

In 1819, when the British took possession of the islands, 
the population amounted to about 1 50 individuals, mostly 
iUhermen and pirates, who ]ived in a few miserable huts ; 
abont thirty of these were Chinese, the remainder Malays. 
Tbe first census waa taken in 1824, and tben tbe population 
amomited to 10,683 individua1s. Since that period it has 
oonstantly been increasing, and at the censusor 1836 it was 
/oond to amount to 29,984 individual8. More than half of 
tbe population were settled in the town of Singapore, 
wbich oontained 16,148 individuals, of whom there were 
12,748 males and 3400 female8. West of the town only 
a few settlements occur along the southem shores of the 
island, and on some of the small islands near the ooast. 
These settlements constitute the district of Singapore town, 
and contained in 1836 only 4184 individuals, viz. 2338 Chi- 
nese, of wbom forty-one only were female8, and 1755 
Malaya, of whom 759 were females ; and the remainder, 
with a triAing exception, Klings and Bugis. The country 
east of the town, whicb is named the District of Kampong 
Glam^ contains a greater number of settlements, and they 
extend to the shores of the Salat Tabrao. and the islands of 
Tekong and Pulo Ubin, which lie within tbe strait In 
tbis district there were 9652 individual^ viz. 4288 Malays, 
of whom 2050 were female8; 3178 Chinese, of whom 72 
ouly were females; 1515 Bugi8,of whom 672 were female8 ; 
and the remainder 67 1 were made upof Ja^anese, Balinese, 
and a few Bengalees and Klings. The islands of Tekong 
and Ubin contained 1901 inhabitants. 

The populatior^ is composcd of nearly all the nations of 
Southern Asia and the Indian Archipelago, among whom 
a small number of individuals of European origin have set- 
tled, as appears from the following table, which also shows 
tbe increase of the population in two years, and the dispro- 
portion between males and females:— 

Popuiation ofihe Island of Singapore in 1834 and 1836. 

NatioBseoiwtiliiliDgth0 18J4. 183a 


Europeans» nearly all 

Indo-Britons . 
Native Christians, 

mostly Portuguese . 
Armenians • 
Malays . 

Chinese . • • 
Natives of tbe Coast 

of Coromandel, Chu- 

liahs, and Klings 


P.Cn No. 1364. 








Female«. Males. lfeiiMles. 



Males. Fem«1ef. 

Malet. Fema:eft 

439 155 

427 155 

400 269 

580 323 

,346 1,018 

1,032 930 

37 25 

17 24 

• • • • 

2 1 

• . • . 














69 2,246 







NatioDS eonititnting the 

Natives of Hiudustan 


Bugis and Balinese • 

Caffre8 • 

Siamese • 

Parsees . 

19,432 0,897 22,755 7,229 

These censuses do not include the military, their fo11ow- 
ers, nor the convict8, as Singapore is a place of banishment 
from Calcutta and other parts of Hindustan. The number 
of these classes of inhabitants may be estimated at about 
1200. The Europeans and Chinese constitute the wealUiier 
classes. The Europeans are for the most part merchants» 
shopkeepers, and agents for mercantile houses in Eorope. 
Most of the artisans, labourers, agricullurists, and sbop- 
keepers are Chinese. The Malays are chiefiy occupied in 
Ashing, collecting sea-weed, and cutting timber. ana many 
of them are employed as boatmen and sailors. The Bugis 
are almost invariably engaged in commerce, and the natiYos 
of India as petty shopkeepers, boatmen, and servant8. The 
Chuliahs and Klings are dailv labourers, artisans, and petty 
traders. The Caffres are tne descendants of slaves, who 
have been brought by tbe Arabs from the Arabian and 
Abyssinian coasts. The most useful are the Cbinese set- 
tlers. A common Chinese labourer gets from four to six 
Spanish dollars a month, a Kling from three to four and a 
half, and a Malay from two and a half to four and a half. 
A Chinese carpenter will earn about flfteen doUars a 
month, a Kling eight, and a Malay only flve. The immi- 
gration of the Chinese is much favoured by circumstances. 
Among the dense population of China there are many pau- 
pers, who are a buruen to the state, and the government 
connive8 at the poorer classes quitting the country, though 
it is contrary to their antient laws. The poor Cbinese 
leayes his country without a penny, and agrees with the 
captain of the junk to pay fh)m eight to twelve dollars fur 
the passage. On landing he enters into one of the secret 
societies, which are always formed by the Chineae, and the 
sooiety pays the passage-money and engages his seryices. 
In three months he has generally paid his debt» and tben 
he begins to make his fortune. The Chinese emigrants at 
Stn^apore and Penang are mostly from Canton, Macao, or 
Pokien. Many of those of Pokien become mercbants, and 
show a strong propensity to speculate largely. The Cantou 
emigrants are the best miners and artisans. 

It is very probable that the population of the settlement 
now (1841)amount8 to more than 36,000 individuals, which 
giyes more than 130 individual8 to a square mile, which is 
a considerable population even in a country that has been 
settled for ceuturies, and is certainly a very surpri^ing 
population in a country wbich twenty years ago was a 

The town of Singapore stands on the soutbern sboies of 
the island, in 1* 17^ 22" N. lat. and 103'' 51' 45" E. long., 
on a level and low plain of inconsiderable width, fronfing 
the harbour. It extendA about two miles along the shore, 
but only a tbousand yards inland, where it is enclosed by 
bills from 100 to 150 feet high. The commercial portion of 
the town occupies the most western extremity, and is se- 
parated from tue other parts by a salt creek, called the Sin- 
gapore river, which is navigable for small craft A good 
wooden bridge connects it with the eascern part» which con- 
tains the dwellings of the Europeans, the public oASces, and 
the military cantonments. Contiguous to this portion of 
tbe town is the government-bouse, wbich is built on a hill. 
The most eastern part is occupied by the sultan of Johore, 
the MalaYS, and Bugis. The whole of the warebouses, and 
all the dwelling-houses in the principal streets in their 
vicinir.y, are builtof brick and lime, and roofed with red tiles. 
The more distant dwelling-bouses are built of wood, but 
roofed with tiles. It is only on tbe distant outskirts of the 
town that there aro huts with thatched roof8. The Malays 
and Bugis live in huts. Tbe population (16,148 individual8) 
consisted, in 1836, of 8233 Chinese, 3617 Malays, 2157 Chu- 
liahs and Klings, and the remainder was made up by Java- 
nese, Bengalees, Bugis, native Christiansp and Buropeans. 
Ships lie in the roads of Singapore at the distance of fh>m 
one to two miles from the town, according to their draught. 
With the assistance of lighters, cargoes are disoharged and 
takenin with scarcely any interruption throughout the year. 

Voi..XXII.— G e 

S I N 


S I N 

The lighters convey the goods to the mer of Singapore» 
where they discharge Uiem at a convenient quay, and at the 
door of the principal warehoused. There is no want of com- 
mon artisans. The Chinesetbllow the occupations of shoe- 
makers, hakers, hutchers, hlacksmiths, gunsmiths, gold- 
smiths, and carpenters ; they also manufacture pearl sago 
on an extensive scale, for the European market, the mate- 
rial heing obtained from the island of Sumatra* They also 
employ a great number of forges, in which native arms 
ana domestic and agricuUural implements are made. Thcse 
latter articles are mostly sent to the settlements of the 
Chinese on the different islands of the Indian Archipe- 

Tbe principal public huildings at Singapore are the go- 
vernraent-house, a court-house, a gaol, custom-house, Mis- 
sion chapel, and the Singapore Institution. Sir Stamford 
Raffles formed a very extensive plan for this institution, 
which however has not been carried into effect. At present 
it consists of three schools, English, Malay. and Tamul, and 
the nuraber of scholars amounts lo upwards of seventy. A 
Chinese school on a large scale was contemplated in 1837, 
and has probably been opened. Some Chinese youths are 
to be admitted as students. to reside at the institution, and 
to receive instruction both in English and Chinese for a term 
of four or five years. There are several native schools in the 

If the comraerce of Singapore were limited to the pro- 
duce of tho place, it would hardly give employment to two 
or three vessels. Besldes the pearl sago and the iron im- 
plements, it export8 only a small quantity of pepper and 
gambier, and perhaps at present coffee of ils own growth, 
together with a large quantity of aggar-aggar. But Sinca- 
pore has become the London of Southern Asia and the In- 
dian Archipelago. AU the nations that inhabit the countries 
bordering on Ihe Indian Ocean resort to it with the produce 
of their agriculture and manufacturing industry, and take 
in exchange such goods as are not grown or produced in 
their own countries. AU of them find there a ready market, 
which at the sarae time is weU stocked with European 
goods. This effect has partly been produced by the wise 
policy of declaring the harbour of Singapore a free port, in 
which no export or import dulies, nor any anchorage, har- 
hour, nor lighthouse fees are levied. The effect of this 
policy was evident even at the beginning of the settlement, 
In the first year the exports and imports by native boats 
alone exceeded four miUions of doUars, and during the first 
year and a half no less than 2889 vessels entered and 
cleared from the port, of which 383 were owned and com- 
manded hy Europeans, and 2506 by natives : their united 
• tonnage amounted to 161,000 tons. In 1822 the tonnage 
umounted to 130,689 tons, and the total value of export8 
and iraports to upwards of eight raillions of doUars. 

Number and tormage o/sauare-rigged vesseU which entered 
into and cleared at ihe port (/ Singapore in 1835 and 



from and lo. 

1S3S. { 












(;r«>at Briuia . . 









OoiiiiD«Dtal Earope 





. 6 



America .... 








Maaritms . . . 








Buurbou .... 









Chiaa .... 









ManillA .... 









Calouika . . . 








Ma<lra8 and Coast 









Bomhay and (3oast 








Arabia . . . . 


448 1 






Moulmein • . . 


203, 3 







Cevlou . . . . 
Malaoea. . . . 










Penaog . . ' • • 









Java . • • • • 









Sumatra . • . 









Rhio. • • . . 
















Co6hin Chlna . . 









N»w South Wnlei 








Cape of Good Hope 



Borneo . . • . 









Trin^anu and the 

other neighboariug 

porU .... 









Bally and Eastern 

lalaiids. . • . 
















5831 166,417 

Acoording to this BtatemeDt the Dumber of yesBels «hich 
entered the port in 1836 exceeded tbe number in 1635 by 
22, and by 9540 tons ; and the number of \wwls which 
cleared out in the first-mentioned year 0xoeeded that of the 
precediug year by 16, and by 9443 tons. This statement 
however does not include the nalive craft, which are largely 
used in the intercourse with Sumatra, the Malay Penin- 
sula, Rhio, Borneo, and the neighbouring islands, and which 
in 1836 amounted to 1484, of 37,521 tons. If these are 
added, the bhipping that entered the port in 1836 amounted 
to 203,574 tons. 

The commerce of the newly established colony increased 
at first wiih incredible rapidity. In the year 1824, ouly 
five years after its foundation, the imports amounted to 
6,914.536 Spanish dollars, and the export8 to 6,604.601. In 
the following year however it suAered some slight diminu- 
tion, and it may be said that it has beei^ nearly stationary 
since that period ; for in 1835 the imports amouuted only to 
6,6 1 1,778 doUars, and the exports to 6,238,131. In the for- 
mer account howeyer the export8 to and the imports from 
Malacca and Penang probably were included, whilst they 
were not taken into account in 1836. In this year goods to 
the value of 160,970 dollars were imported firom Malacca, aud 
oihers amounting to 168,867 doUars exported to that settle- 
ment. The commercial interoourse with Penang was much 
more important ; the goods imported from that settlement 
were to the value of 426,176 dollars ; and those tbat were 
exported rose to 544,640 dollars. If these sums are added, 
the export8 in 1835 amountod to 7,325,285 dollars, and the 
imports to 6,825,277 ; and the whole commerce exceeded 
that of 1824 by 631,425 doUars. From 1835 an increase 
both in imports and exports took place ; for in the jear end- 
ing with the 30th of AprU, 1837, the imports amounted to 
8,243,629 doUars, and the exporU to 7,806,965 doUars, ex- 
clusive of the trade with Malacca and Penang, so that the 
difference between that year and the preoeding was 1,900,032 
Spanish dollars. 

The commerce of Singapore may be diTided into the 
Eastern trade, that of the Straits, and the Westem trade. 
Tho Eastem trade, or that whicb is carried on with the 
countries east and south-east of Singapore, comprehends 
the commerce with Cbina, the Spanish settlement of Ma- 
nilla, the independeut tribes of the Indian Archipelago, the 
Dutch setllements on the island qf Java and at Rhio, and 
the countries of the Peninsula beyond the Ganges which 
lie east of tbe Malay Peninsula. The most important 
branchea of this commerce are those with China, Java, and 

The commerce with China is entirely carried on in 
Chinese ve8sels. The Chinese junks come from the porta 
of Canton, Changlim, and Ampo, in the province of Quan- 
tong, from Amoy in the province of Pokien, and from the 
island of Hainan. They leave tbeir respective ports during 
the north-east monsoon, about January, and retura with the 
south-west monsoon, which blows from AprU to October. 
They perform the voyage from Canton in from 10 to 20 days, 
and from Fokien in 12 or 15 days. The most valuable, but 
not the largest of the Chinese junks are from Amoy; the 
largest come from the proyince of Quantong, and the 
smallest and least valuable from Halnan. They bhng an- 
nually from 2000 to 2500 emi^rants to Singapore. Tbe 
imports from China amounted, in the year ending the 30th 
of April, 1836, to 712,265 dollars; tho most importaut ar- 
ticleswere Spanish doUars, 138,927 in number; raw sUk, 
113,942 doUars; chinaware, 93,902; tea, 57,509; tobacco, 
47,239; casbia, 93,092; nankeens, 25,715; and gold- 
thread, 11,016 doUars. Minor articles were camphor, 
copperware, carthenware, ironware, paints, piece-goods, 
aalu sugar-candy, and woollens. The imports entered under 
the head of sundries amounted to 152,440 doUars. The ex- 

Sorts to China amounted in the same year to 1,079,752 
ullars, and consisted chieAy of opium and such articles as 
had been brought to Singapore from thelndian archipelago. 
Next to opium, which amounted to 252,327 doUars, the most 
important articles were edible birds'-nests, to the amount of 
162,852 ; tin, 1 1 7,386 ; and trepang, 74,723 doUars. Rice was 
sent there to the amount of 59,408 ; pepper. 56,023; betel- 
nut, 44,962 ; and ratans, 36.019 doUars. Other artides of 
importance were wooUens (25,064 d.), European piece-goods 
(20,796 d.), cotton-twist (18.100 d.), raw cotton (16,155 d.), 
aggar-asgar (16,100 d.), camphor barus (16,155 d.), spices 
(11 ,314d.), tortoise-shell (12,684 d.), sandal-wood (1 1,143 d.)» 
and lakka-wood (10,800 d.), Minorarticles were antimony, 

Digitized by V3 

S I N 


S I N 

birds' feallierg, canva8, dragon's-blood, gambier, gold-dust, 
glassware, European gold thread, hides, garro-wood, spirits, 
and sundries. SpaDiith dollars were sent to China to the 
numberof 21.864. 

The commerce between Singapore and Manilla is carried 
on partly by Spanish and partly by American and English 
yessels. In the year ending on the 30th of April, 1836, the 
imports from that settlement into Singapore amounted to 
166,086 dollars, of which cigars constituted more than one- 
faalf the amount, Tiz. 89.468 dollars. Sugar was brought to 
theaa30untof 23,190 dollars, and the other minor aiticles 
were trepang, cotton, hides, indigo, mother-of-pearl shells, 
oils, wines, sapan-wood (8802 d.), spiriU,and sundries (8842 
d.). Cowries were imported to th^ amount of 2252 dollars, 
and also 3000 dollars. 

The trade with Celebes is almost exclusively in the bands 
of the Bugis of Waju, a counlry on the western side of 
that ii&land, the inhabitants of which have colonized many 
islands of the Indian Archipelago, and carry on what may 
be called the foreign trade of the countries in which they 
have settled. Thev disperse the goods obtained at Singa- 
pore over most of the islands east of Celebes, as far as the 
ooast of New Guinea, and also over that ohain of islands called 
the Lesser Sunda Islands. [Sunda Islands.] Their coun- 
try yessels, called prahits, arrive at Singapore during the 
prevalence of the eastern monsoon. The ^oods brougnt by 
tbe Bugis from Celebes in 1835 amounted to 214,703 dol- 
lars. The most imporlant articles were tortoise-shell 
(61,878 d.), gold-dust (23.230 d.), mother-of-pearl shells 
(21,277 d.), coffee (14.098 -d.), trepang (12.755 d.). birds'- 
nests (10,190 d.), and rice (10.501 d.). Minor articles were 
birds* feathers and birds of paradise, bees'-wax, hides, oils, 
paddy, ratans, aggar-aggar, spices, and tobacco. The importa- 
tion of sundries amounted to 23.287 doUars, and 21,650 
dollars in apecie werealso brought to Singapore. The value 
of the goods exported to Celebes was 339.966 doUars, and the 
pnnci{>al articles were derived from Europe and Hindustan, 
m. opium (71,162 d.), India piece-goods (66.236 d.), Euro- 
pean piece-goods (47,881 d.), cotton-twist (44,244 d.). and 
oopper coin brought from England (12.076 d.). The expor- 
lation of raw silk (17.498 d.) and ofgambier( 13.334 d.) was 
also considerable. Minor articles were arms, benjamin, 
or bensoin, chinaware. earthenware, gold thread, ivory, iron 
and steel (7315 d.) ironware and cutlery (5510 d.), nan- 
keens, stick-lac, tobacco (7569 d.), and woollens (7547 d.). 
Besides, there went 8792 dollars in specie and 4000 Java 

The commerce between Singapore and the northern coast 
of Bomeo is almost exclu8ively carried on by native ^essels, 
many of which are of great sis^ ; some of them are managed 
by Bugis. The articles imported from that island in 1 835 
amounled to 268.074 dollars. Tbe most i mportant article was 
gold-dust, to the value of 128,748 dollars. Other articles of 
importance were edible birds^-nests (30,355 d.)« ratans 
(28,776 d.), antimony-ore (24.872 d.). pepper (17.847 d.), 
and camphor barus (10,478 d.). Minor articles were sago 
(9102 d.). tortoise-shell (8624 d.), bees'-wax (8360 d.), tre- 
pang (5067 d.), eborty, hides, rice, sugar, tobacco, garro- 
wood (5957 d.). and lakka-wood (4472 d.)' The sundries 
amounted to 7137 dollars, and the dollars in specie to 5290. 
The goods exported to Bomeo were to the value of 231.342 
dollars. The largest articles were India piece-goods (1 1 0.934 
d.), opium (73,490 d.}. nankeens (17,311 d.), Malay piece- 
soods (17,024 d.), and European piece-goods (9150 d.). 
Tbere were also arms (5507 d.), iron and steel (6775 d), iron- 
ware and cutlery (4449 d.), raw silk (5155 d.). china-ware 
(3138 d.), gambier (3792 d.), cotton-twist (2627 d.), gun- 
powder (2001 d.). and China sundries (2309 d.). Minor 
articles were trepan<?, benjamin, earthenware, ivory, rice. 
salt, saltpetre. stick-lac, tea, tobacco, woollens, Java and 
Eastem sundries. To these were added 9389 dollars in 
specie* Java rupees to the amount of 4840 doUars, and cop- 
per coin to the amount of 100 doUars. 

An active commerce is carried on between Singapore and 
tbe rival settlement of the Dutch at Rhio. [Rhio.J The 
imports into Singapore from that place araounted, in 1835, 
to 111,395 dollars. of whieh the pepper alone amounted to 
82,483 dollars, and tbe rice to 1 2,349. Minor articles were 
bees'-wax, ootton, gambier, hidos, sugar, tin (2700 d.). and 
Java sundries ; there were also 7933 dollars in specie im- 
ported. The export8 to Rhio amountedto 167,461 dollara, 
aud eonsisted especially of dollars in specie (84,882), Euro- 
pean pieee-goods (25,938 d.)» India piece-goods (16,940 d.), 

I rioe (12,911 d.), and opium (5252 d.). Minor articles' were 
anchors and grapnels, arms, chinawaro, ebony, iron and 
steel, lead, oils, paints, ratans, raw silk. sago, salt, spelter, 
tea, lakka-wood, and sundries, with Java rupees amounting 
to 400 (iollars. 

The direct commerce between Singapore and Java is 
limited to the three ports of Batavia. Samarane.and Sura- 
baya, but European and India goods may be shipped from 
these places to any other Dutch settlement on the isiand of 
Java. or on the other islands of the Archipelago, the Mo- 
luccas excepted. The exports of Java to Sinjiapore. in 1835^ 
amounted to 876.321 dollars. The most considerable articles 
were— tin (155,527 d.). European piece-goods (142,317 d.), 
birds*-nesto (101,949 d.), and rice (86.479 d.). Nextto these 
were tobacco (44,139d.).spices (41,845 d.). ratans (34.589 d.), 
spirits, especially hollands (26.938 d.), Java sundries 
(26,145 d.), penper (18.176 d.), sandal-wood (18.490 d.), 
suear (17.043 d.), gold-dust (14.523 d.), cotton (10.751 d.)» 
and tortoise-shell (10.059 d.). The importations were— . 
woollens (9394 dollars), European sundries (8088 d.), ar- 
rack (7856 d.). hides (7519 d.), glass-ware (6275 d.), 
mother-of-pearl shells (5308 d.), and cotton-twist (4223 d.). 
Minor articles were camphor, camphor barus, coffeo, cop- 
per-ware, copper sheathing, ebony, ivory. indigo,oils, paints, 
proYisions. spelter. stick-Iac, sugar-candy, tea, wine, garro- 
wood, and Eastern sundries. There were also brought to 
Singapore 48.374 dollars in specie, Java rupees to the 
amountof 4709 doUars. doubloons (9S0 dullars). and cow- 
ries (150 dollars). The exports frum Singapore to the 
ports of Java were of the value of 56b,470doIIars. The most 
valuable articles were India piece-goods (135,900 d.), 
opium (118.495 d.), and China sundries (70.790 d.). 
Next to tliese were raw silk (40.135 d.),.cigars (27,112 d.), 
china-ware (22.336 d.). gunnies (15,252 d.). tea (14.310 d.), 
wheat (11,749 d.), and nankeens (10.994 d.) ; Euro- 
pean sundries (9231 d.), China piece-goods (7617 d.), India 
sundries (7308 d.), cupper (6433 d.), pepper (6014 d.), 
iron and steel (5537 d.), Straits sundries (4935 d.), tobacco 
(4829 d.). saltpetre (4449 d.), tin (4000 d ), and cas;iia 
(3340 d.) Minor articles were arms, benjamin, bees*-wax, 
canvas, cordage, dragons*-bIoo(l, earihenware, gluo, glass- 
ware, gunpowder, ivory, lead, oils, pro^isions, European 
niece-goods, Malay piece-goods, sago, stick-lac(3758 d.),wool- 
lens, and American sundries (2052 d.). There are still to 
be added 7024 dollars in specie, and Java rupees to the 
amount of 2000 dollars. 

The island of Bally, whose surfacedoe&notmuchexceed 
2000 square miles, sent to Singapore goods to the amount of 
59,724 dollars, of which the rice alone fetched 37,274 dol- 
lars; the tobacco 8288 d., the tortoise-shell 4021 d., and the 
edible birds^-nests 2755 d. Minor articles were trepang, 
bees*-wax, cofree, hides, sandal-wood, and Eastern sundries 
(1230 d.) ; also 4270 dollars in specie. The goods exported 
from Singapore to Bally amounted to 65,073 dollars, and 
consisted especially of opium (24,264 d.), copper coin 
(13,339 d.), India piece-gnods (10.119 d.), and European 
piece-goods (4583 d.), with several minor articles, as arms* 
chinaware, earthenware, gold tbiead, ivory, ironware, China 
piece-goods, raw silk. wooUens, and China sundries, with 
200 dollars in specie. 

The commerce between Singapore and the 8everal islands 
which lie in the sea between the settlement and Java, in- 
cluding Banca, is also oonsiderable. The goods brought 
from tbem amounted to 133.536 dollars. The larger arti- 
cles were tin (47,461 d.), trepang (10.662 d.), India sundries 
(7942 d.), Eastern sundries (5622 d.)« pepper (5689 d.), aggar- 
aggar (4869 d.), and tortoise-shell (4882 d.). Minor articles 
were bees*-wax, birds'- nests, chinaware. coifee, ebony. ghee, 
gambier, gold-dust, gram, oils, paddy (3612 d.), ratans, rice, 
sago, tobacco. wheat, garro-wood, and sapan-wood. There 
were also 12,296 dollars in specie sent to Singapore. The 
export8 from our settlements amounted to 101,180 dollars, 
and consisted principally of opium (18,528 d.X India piece- 
goods (12,450 d.), rice (11.902 d.), raw silk (6858 d-.), 
European piece-goods (5829 d.), and Malay piece-goods 
(5047 d.). Minor articles were anchors, arms, cotton-twist, 
earthenware, gambier, gold thread,gunpowder, iron and steel, 
ironware, nankeens, oils, sago, stick-lac, sugar, tea, tobacco 
(2500 d.), wheat, garro-woo^ spirits, and sundries. Besides, 
17,110 dollars in specie and 300 dollars in copper coin 
were exported. 

The commerce between Singapore and Siam is mostly 
carried on bv the Cbinese who are settled in that country, 

S I N 


S 1 N 

and in junks built at Bangkok and otber places. The im- 
port8fi'om Siam amounted» intheyear terminatingwitb the 
30th of April, 1836. to 282,019 doUars. The principal 
articlesweie sugar (114,453 d.), rice (43,330 d.), 8tick>lac 
(18,264 d.), iron-ware (12,379 d.), sapan-wood (11,674 d.), 
oils (8485 d.), salt (7959 d.) and Eastern sundries (6483 d.). 
Minor articles werechina-ware (2147 d.), hides, ivory, paddy» 
India piece-goods, raw silk, sugar-candy (2250 dj, tea, 
spirits, and (3hina sundries. The imporled siWer consisted 
of 12,120 dollars, and ticals to the amount of 35,913 dollara. 
The goods imported into Siam were of the value of 180,604 
dollars. The principal articles were Euronean piece-goods 
(58,155 d.), India piece-goods (26,845 a.), cotton-twist 
(19,913 d.), opium (18,925 d.), ratans (9533 d.), ebony 
(9200 d.), bee8'-wax (8475 d.), woollens (5085 d.), gambier 
(4708 d.), and iron and sleel (4560 d.). Minor article^ were 
ancbors, arms, betel-nut, earthenware, lead, lakka-wood, 
and European, India, China, and Eastern sundries. Only 
400 doUars, and oowries to the amount of 100 doUars, were 
sent to Siam. 

The commerce with Cochin China is much less consider- 
able. It is likewise oarried on by the Chinese settled at 
Kangkao and Saigun in Camboja, and at Quinhon, Faifo, 
and Huĕ in Cochin China. In 1835 the imports from these 
piaces amounted to 62,319 doUars, and consisted chieAy of 
sugar (27,055 d.), rice (10,356 d.), copper (9300 d.), and 
salt (4388 d.), with some ebony, indigo (2970 d.), iron, oils, 
raw silk, tea, and Eastern sundries. The export8 amounted 
to 91,073 doilars, and the principal articles were woollens 
(28,534 d.) and opium (26,019 d.). Tlie other articles, as 
arms, canyas, copper sheathing, gambier (4708 d.), iron, 
iron-ware (2485 d.), lead, piece-gpods, ratans, saitpetre, 
spelter, tea, tobacco, sapan-wood, European sundries (3267 
d.), and China and Eastern sundries, amounted in general to 
small sums ; but 9500 dollars in specie were exported. 

The commerce of the Srraits is carried on wilh the Malay 
Peninsula and with the island of Sumatra. The harbours 
on the eastern side of the peninsula, which trade with 
Singapore, are Pabang, Trin^anu, and Calantan, and this 
trade is rather active. The trade with the western coast of 
the peninsula is not important, and is almost entirely 
limited to the harbour of Salangore. In 1835 the imports 
from these places to Singapore were 319,134 doUars. The 
mo8tvaluable articleswere gold-dust (145,040 d.) and tin 
(107,670 d.). Pepper amounted to 1 1,273 doilars, and sugar 
to 4210 doliars. The other articles were trepang, bees*-wax, 
biids'-nest8, coffee, ebouy, ghee, hides, ivory, iron-ware, 
ralans (2216 d.), rawsilk, rice, stick-lac, tortoiseshell, garro- 
wood. lakka-wood, and 8everal olher articles; 31,313 dol- 
lars were also imported. The exports in 1835 amounted to 
316,370^011^1*3. The principal article was opium, to the 
amount of 169,348 dollars, and next to it foUowed cotton- 
twist (40,867 d.), tobacco (30,034 d.), Malay piece-goods 
(21,538 d.). European piece-goods (14,994 d.), and India 
piece-goods (9474 d.). Minor articles were arms, bees'-wax, 
cotlon, earthenware, gambier, iron and steel (3431 d.), iron- 
ware and cutlery,raw silk, salt, and 8everal sundries. There 
were also 14,408 dollars sentfrom Singapore to these ports. 

The commerce between Singapore and the island of Su- 
matra is almost entirely limited to the ports along the 
eastern coast of the island ; there is hardly any comraercial 
intercourse with the Dutch settlements of Bencoolen, Padang, 
and Trappanuli, which are on the western coast The com- 
merce of the eastern coast is divided between Sineapore and 
Penang. The ports south of the free port of Batu Bara send 
their goods to Singapore, whilst those which are farther 
north visit Penang. The harbours connected with the first- 
named settlemeiit are Campar, Siack, Indragiri, lam- 
bie, Assahan, and Batu Bara. The goods imported from 
these places amounted to the sum of 130,921 doUars. The 
principal artides were coffee ( 44,842 d.), betel-nut (24,946 d.), 
ootton (12,134 d.), sago (10,972 d.), ratans (8261 d.) gold- 
dust (5936 d.), and benjamin (4652 d.). Minor articles were 
trepan^, bees'-wax (3712 d.), dragon's-blood, gambier, 
hiaes, ivory, iron, iron-ware, mother-of-pearl sbells, paddy, 
pepper, rice (3682 d.), spices, tortoiseshell, lakka-wo(Hl, and 
8everal sundries. There were also sent to Singapore 1250 
doUars, and Java rupees to the amount of 300 dollars. The 
goods exported to these places amounted to the value of 
165,601 dollars. The principal articles were India piece- 
goods (37,774 d.), European picce-goods (16,443 d.), raw-silk 
(12,680 d.) opium (l 1,76/ d.), Malay piece goods (10,837 d.), 
China sundries (8995 d.), irou (6390 d.), and salt (5915 d.). 

Minor articles were arms (2475 d.), brass-ware, chma-wara 
(3196 d.), copper sbeathing, cotton-twist, earthenware, gold 
thread, gunpowder, iron-ware, nankeens, oils,' stick-lac, tea» 
tobacco, wheat, wooUens, and 8everal sundries. There were 
also sent to Sumatra 26,906 doUars, and Java rupees to the 
amount of 1800 doUars. 

Thewestern trade of Singapore comprehends tbat with 
Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, tbe island of Ceylon, and 
Arabia, with the dlape of Good Hope, Mauritius, and Aus- 
tralia, and with Europe and America. In the commerce 
which is carried on between Singapore and Calcutta larger 
capitals are employed than in that with China or Great 
Britain. The imports from Calcutta araounted, in 1835, to 
1,191,390 doUars. The principal artide was opium, of 
which 1640 chests, of the value of 957,855 doUars, were 
imported. Next to it were India piece-goods, which 
amounted to 135,679 doUars; gunnies (24,745 d.), cot- 
ton (21,060 d.), rice (14,042 d.), wheat (13,978 d.), India 
sundries (8024 d.), and saltpetre (7451 d). The other arti- 
cles, as brass-ware, canvas, copper-ware, cordage, copper 
sheathing, ebony, ghee, hides, mother-of-pearl shells, 
tobacco, and European sundries, amounted only to sniall 
sums. The exports from Singapore to (Jalcutta were to 
the value of 876,851 doUars. The most valuable article 
was gold-dust, wiiich amounted to 473,565 dollars. Tin 
was spnt to the amount of 69,045 doUars, pepper 44,839 d., 
cigars 29,550 d., European piecegoods 20,669 d., sapau- 
wood 18,829 d., spirits 17,992 d., ratans 13,465 d., gambier 
10,230 d., Java sundries 8402 d., spices 6333 d., Easteru 
sundries 5721 d., cauYass 5931 d., cotton-twist 5619 d., 
European sundries 4712 d., and tea 4510 d. Minor articles 
were anchors and grapnels (2014 d.), arms, benjamin, bees*- 
wax, betel-nut (3589 d.), cassia (3951 d.), copper, cordage, 
glass-ware, iron and steel, sago (3142 d.), sugar-candy, to- 
bacco, wine, sandal-wood, woollens, and India, Cbina, and 
American sundries (3916 d.). From Singapore there were 
sent to Calcutta 70,189 doUars, sicca rupees to the amount 
nf 5092 doUars, Java rupees 1943 dollars, sycee silver 650 
doilars, ticals 25,004 dollars, 8overeigns 475 dollars, gold 
mohurs 93 doUars, and cowries 2989 doUars. 

The comraerce with Madras is much less important. The 
imports from that place to Singapore amounted only to 
151,133 doUars. The largest arlicle was India piece-goods 
(132,679 d.), and aU the others, except ebony (6822 d.), 
amounted to small sums, and were trepang, earthenware, 
ghee (2993 d.), mother-of-pearl sheUs, European piece- 
good8(2880 d.), rice, wine, spiriis, and a few sundries. The 
export8 to Madras amounted to 138.365 dollars, and con- 
sisted principaily in raoney, viz. 99,758 dollars in specie, 
ticals to the araount of 17,000 doHars, sicca rupees 311 
doUars, and Java rupees 125 doUars. Cigars, amount- 
ing to 5187 doUars were the raost important article. 
Other articles were benjamin, chinaware, cordage, eartheu- 
ware, gold-dust, glassware, iron and steel, ironware (2984 d.), 
European piece-goods, ratans, sago, spices, sugar-candy, 
woollens (2168 d.), spirits, and sorae sundries. 

The coraraerce with Borabay is more important. The 
imports from that place amounted to 1 56,904 doUars. Opium 
was to the amount of 1 17,195 doUar8,and India piece-goods 
19,578 dollars. The other articles were oflittle value, and con- 
sisted of brassware, cotton (2308 d.), graip, saltpetre, tor- 
toiseshell, wooUens, and a few sundries ; there were aiso 
imported 13,000 dollars. The exports to Pombay amounted 
to 196,757 dullars. The largest nrticles were gold-dust 
(38,683 d.), tin (3 1 ,050 d.), sugar (30,489 d.). spices (17,051 d.), 
piecegoods (11,202 d.), ratans (7598 d.), and cigars (5441 d.). 
Minor articles were benjamin, betel-nut, cassia (2962 d.), 
garabier, ivory, oils, pepper, raw silks, sago, garro-wood 
(3360 d.), sapan-wood, spu-its, and several sundries. Borabay 
it5ceived also from Singapore 30,437 doUars, ticals to the 
amount of 5896 dollars, Borabay rupees 371 dollars, gold 
coins 92 doUars, and doubloons 62 doUars. 

The exports from Singapore to Ceylou amounted only fo 
3849 dollars, and consisted of chinaware (1097 d.), ratans, 
cigars, sugar (1358 d.), and a few sundries. But Ceylon 
sent to Singapore goods to the araountof 30,876 dollark of 
which ebony alone was of the value of 19,872 doUars. The 
other articles, except cordage (4669 d.), were small, and 
consisted of trepang, birds' feather8, canvas, ghee, hides, 
India piece-goods, wheat, spirits, and some sundries. 

The imports from Arabia to Singapore amounted only to 
6395 doUars, and consisted of India sundries (4240 d.), and 
small quantitie8 of gold thread, tortoiseshell, oils, and salt. 

Digitized b^ 


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S I N 

But Singapore exported to Arabia, probably on acoount of 
tbe piltrrims who gn from the Malay Peninsula and the 
Indiau Archipelago to Mecca, the value of 70,153 dollars, 
of which 41,000 dollars were in specie. The largest articles 
of gooda were benjamin (8708 d.), tin (6779 d.), sugar 
(5B85 d.)> and garro-wood (4710 d.) Minor artioles were 
gold-dcst (607 d.), pepper, India piece-goods, rice, sago, 
spices, 6UgarH;andy, sapati-wood, and a few sundries. 

The importstnto Singapore from theCape, Mauritius, and 
Australia amounted only to 4860 dollars, of which 2900 
were in specie, to which arms and ebony in small quantities 
were added. But Singapore exported to these places goods 
to the amount of 88,674 dollars. The most important 
articles were tin (12,570 d.), cigars (1 1,272 d)., wheat 
(11.017d.), Eastern sundries (8739 d.), so^ar(6425 d.), and 
eolTee (5886 d.) The other articles were of less importance, 
and consisted of antimony, bees'-wax, canvas, cassia, cord- 
age (2608 d.), gram, gambier, gold-dust, gunnies, opium 
(2400 d.), pepper, paddy, provisions (2302 d.), ratans, rice 
(2633 d.), sago, sugar-candy, tea (2360 d.), tobacco, wines, 
spirits, and Buropean sundries (3216 d.). 

The United States of America carry on an active com- 
merce with Singapore. but aa most of their goods are not 
adapted for the market of Southem Asia, tney generally 
pay for the goods that they buy with ready rooney. They 
imported 87,800 Spanish dollars, and also manufactured 
goods r 14,548 d.), provisions (9853 d.), and Aroerican sun- 
dries (9122 d.) Minor articles were canvas, cordage, gun- 
powder, hides, cigars, and tobacoo (1556 d.) The whole 
importation amountedto 125,897 dollars, whilst the articles 
exported were of the value of 1 77,526 dollars. The most im- 
portant articles aroong the exports were tin (43,751 d.), 
sugar (38,184 d.), coffee (34.279 d.), pepper (19,793 d.), 
tortoise-ahell (6784 d.), rice (6258 d.), andgunnies(5760d.). 
Hinor articles were antimony, betel-nut, canvas, cassia 
13956 d.), oordage, dragon's-blood, gambier, hides, oils, 
opiam (2660 d.), India piece-goods, ratans (2117 d.), sago, 
cigars, spices (2400 d.), tea, and several sundries. 

As to the harbours of continental Burope, that of Ham- 
burg had the greatest share in the trade. But the imports 
from tbese ptacet amounted only to 65,657 doUars, and the 
largest articlei were spirits (12,876 d.), pieoe-goods 
(12,700 d.), wine (10,578 d.), and European sundries 
(16,584 d.). Minor articles were arms, canvas (3000 d.), 
cordage (2300 d.), cotton-twist (2340 d.), glassware, ^old 
thread, iron (2161 d.), ironware, lead, oils, paints. provisions, 
salt, and woollens. The goods exported from Singanore to 
these partsamounted to 115,303 dollars. Tbe largest articles 
were colTee (42,649 d.), tin (23,319 d.), sugar (15,942 d.), 
pepper (13,772 d.), European sundries (5329 d.), and cassia 
(3355 d.). Minor articles of export were bees'-wax, cordage, 
gold-dust, hides, rice, ratans, sago(2084 d.), cigars (2386 d.), 
tortotse-shell, sapan-wood, arrack, and some sundries. 

The eommeree of Singapore with Great Britain is nearly 
eoual to that with Calcutta, and more active than that with 
China. Great Britain imported into the port of Singapore 
in theyear ending with the 30th of April, 1836, goods to the 
amount of 1,150,808 dollars. The most important article 
eonsisted of 6everal kinds of piece-goods, to the amount of 
675,776 dollars. Other articles of importance were cotton- 
twist (58,994 d.), European sundries (56,772 d.), iron 
(49,409 d.). wooUens (48,976 d.), arms (45.778 d.), earthen- 
ware (3 1 ,560 d.), glassware (23,480 d.), gunpowder (20.793 d.), 
eopper sheathing and nails (16,728 d.), ironware and 
cutlery (15,486 d.), anchors and grapnela (14,383 d.), 
and wines (13,445 d.). The importations were — beer 
(8281 d.), canvas (5188 d.), cordage (6684 d.), opium 
(2000 d.), paints (3077 d.). provision8 (4220 d.), spelter 
(3296 d.), and spirits (4724 d.). Minor artides were brass- 
ware, gold thread, lead, and tea. Great Britain sent also to 
Singapore 17,000 Spanish dollars, and copper coin to the 
amount of 25,072 dollars. The goods shipped at Singapore 
for Great Britain amounted to the value of 890,017 doUars. 
Tbemost important articles were tortoise-shell (125,101 d.), 
tin (101,204 d.). pepper (91,289 d.), raw silk (70,675 d.), 
sugar (62,406 d.), 'Ĕastern sundries (59.586 d.), coifee 
(53,644 d.), tea (44,376 d.), sago (35,89 1 d.), spices (34.939 d.), 
mother-of-pear1 sbells (27,570 d.),China sundries (25,544 d.), 
bees'-wax (22 656 d.), cassia (22,298 d.),antimony( 18.704 d.), 

Simbier (16.339 d.) hides (13.950 d.), benjamin (8708 d.), 
avasundries (7982 d.), ratans (6988 d.), Straits sundries 
(6943 d.), and ivory (5053 d.). Minor articles were birds' 
ibiithen and birds of paradise, camphor, cordage (2524 d.). 

I eoloured cotton-twist(2«41 d.), dragons'-blood, ebony, gold- 

^ dust (4355 d ). nankeens (3440 d.), oils, (;bina piece-goods, 

rice. cigars, wines, sapan-woo<l (4262 d.), and India sundries 

(3106 d.). There were also sent to Great Britain d5 Bove- 

reigns, and cowries to the value of 1086 doUars. 

Such is the state of the commerce of Singapore at present, 
but it will probably increase largely in a few years. If the 
Chinese government continue the vexatiou8 restrictions on 
our comroerceat Canton, it may be expedient to discontinue 
the direct commeroial intercoursewith tbeCelestial empire. 
Instead of Canton, the settlement of Singapore would be 
tbe market to which tea and other articles of Chinese in- 
dustry would be brought, and our goods adapted for their 
consumption would be sold. The consumption of all these 
articles, with the exoeption of opium, would probably be 
rouch increased by such a change, for the Chinese them- 
selyes would be able to sell their goods at a less price at 
Singapore than we have hiiherto paid for them at ciinton. 
Our yessels and merchants have to pay very heavy dues, 
whilst Chinese vessel8 pay very little in comparison, and are 
almost entirely free f^m dues whenever a part of their 
return cargo consists of rice. This artide is at present 
always to be liad at Singapore, and might be grown to an 
indednite extent in the eastern districts of Sumatra and in 
our Tenasserin provinces. if there was a demand for it. 
Thus it is probable that the Chinese junks would be able to 
sell tea and otber artides at least 10 per cent. less than wo 
pay for them at Canton ; besides, the tea is broucht loCanton 
by a transport over land of many hundred miles, whilst 
the counlries in which it grows are near the sea ; and it 
could be brought directlyfromAmoy,Ninepo,and Saughae, 
to Singapore, at a much less expense. The only diiTerence 
would be, that our vessels, instead of proceeding to Canton, 
would stop at Singapore ; but that can hardly be considered 
a loss, when we reflect that the increased consumption 
of CShinese goods, in consequence of the decrease in price, 
would certainly be attended bv an increase of our shipping. 

Hutoty.—Oti the site of the present British settlement 
forroerly stood the capital of a Malay kingdom. According 
to tbe history of that nation, Sang Nila Utama, frora Mcn- 
angkabau in Sumatra. founded the city of Singhapiira (the 
lion's town) about 1160. and Raffles was able in 1819 to 
trace the outer lines of the old city. It then was the capital 
of the kingdom of Malacca. This town was taken in 1252 
by a king of Java, and the residence of tlie king was trans- 
ferred to the town of Malacca, which was then founded. 
Afler that event the town seems gradually to have decayed, 
and the country to have been abandoned; for when the 
British, after having restored the town of Malacca to the 
Dutch in 1816, wished to form a settleroent on the shorea 
of the Strait of Malacca or its neighbourhood, that they 
might not be entirely excluded from the commerce of the 
Indian Archipelago by the Dutch, they found on their 
arrival at Singapore that the population of the whole island 
dtd not exceed 150 individuals, as already stated. It was 
then a part of the kingdom of Johore, which had been so 
reduced by internal discord, that some of the superibr 
oiiicers had become independent. One of them, the Tu- 
roungong, or chief justice, had got possession of the island 
of Singapore aud the adjacent country. and from hiro the 
British obtained, in 1819, permission to build a factory on 
the south shore of tbe island. Soon afterwards a person 
who had some claim to the throne of Joliore came to the 
British settlement and recetved a small pension. From this 
person, who was afterwards king of Johore, and the Tumun- 
gong, ihe British obtained, in 1824, the sovereignty and 
fee-simple of the island, as well as of all the seas, straits, 
and islands, for the sum of 60,000 Spanish dollars, and an 
annuity of 24.000 Spanish dollars for their natural lives. 
In 1826 Singapore was placed under the provinciaI govern- 
ment of the Straits Settleroent, whicb is fixed on the island 
of Penang. 

(Crawfurd's Joumal ofan Embassy to the Courts n/Siam 
and Cochin China; Finlayson'8 Mission to Siam and Hut; 
Moor*s Notices ofthe Indian Archipelago, &c.; NewboId's 
Political and Statistical Account ofihe British Settlements 
in the Straits ofMalacca.) 

SINIGAGLIA. [Pksaro et Urbino.] 

SINKING FUND. [National Debt.] 

SINCPE, or SINUB. [Paphlaoonia.] 

SINTOC. or SINDOC. sometimes written Syndoc, is 
the bark of a species of Cinnamomum, which has been 
called C. Sintoo by Biume, who says it is^tree 80 fept in 

Digitized by VjOOQiC 

S I o 


S I P 

hetght, indigenous in the primeval ibmts of Jam It U in 
HattiBh pieees» of a warm spicy ta8t«, hut ia seldom seen in 
tbis country. It resembles the Calilawan hark« called cl6ve- 
bark by.some, which is called kulie-knDon by the natives of 
Java, and is the produce of a nearly-allied species» the Cin- 
namomum Ccdilaxjixm of Blume, which grows iu similar 
situations with tbe former, and of whicli the bark is used as 
a spice, and its essential oil is employed as a medicine and 
as a perfurae by the JavaneBe. 

SIOUX INDIANS» one of the most numerous and 
powerful of the native tribea within the territories of the 
United States of North Amerioa. Thev inhabit a large tract 
between 42** and 49" N. lat, and 90** 30' and 99" 30' W. long,, 
comprehending nearly the whole of the oountry between 
the Mississippi on the east and the Missouri on the 
west, north of 42" 30' N. lat, or the present territory 
of lowa. They also occupy a large tract of the tenritory 
of Wisconsin on the east of the Mississippi, estending 
along the river from Fort Crawford on the south to the 
St. Croix river, and the whole country west of the last- 
mentioned river as far north as Lake Spirit, and westward 
to the eastern banks of the Mississippi. In these parts their 
country borders on that of the Algonquins, who oocupy the 
tract west of Lake Superior, but along the banks of the 
Red River of lAke Winnipeg the 8ioux claim the whole 
traet to the boundary*line of the United States (49"* 
On the banks of the Missouri they are found near Fort 
Mandan on the north (47" 30'), and at the mouth of the 
Soldiers' Rivbr(42") on the 8outh,and it is stated that they 
hunt in the country west of the Missouri between 43" and 
47" N. lat. The southern bonndary of their conntry may be 
marked by a line drawn from the mouth of Soldiers' River 
to Fort Crawford. 

The Stoux Indians call themseWes Daootas, but in their 
externa1 relationsthey assume the name of Oohente Shakoan 
(thenationof the seven Ares or councils), a name which re- 
fers to a division into 8even great tribes, of which they were 
formerlycompo6ed. The Prenoh Canadians divide theminto 
Gens du Lac and Gens du Large. The forroer once Uved about 
Spirit Lake, and are now principally found along the banks 
of the Mississippi. They live in viUage8, and have begun to 
apply themselve8 to the cuUivation of the ground. The 
Gens du Large, under which name the 'greater number of 
the tribes are comprehended, rove about in tbe prairies be- 
tween the Mississippi and Missouri, and live almost exclu- 
8ively by the chase. On these prairies the buffiBUo is ibund 
in uncommon numbers, and probably there is no part of 
North America in wbich this animal is so plentiful. Henoe 
the means of subsistence are very abundant, and the nation 
of the Daootas is more numerous than any other in such 
high latitudes. * It is stated that tbe Dacotas themselves 
compose a population of 28,000 individuals, and that there 
are above 7000 warriors. The Assinihoines, who live north 
of the Dacotas, within the territories of the Hudson*8 Bay 
Company, formerly constituted an integral portion of the 
Dacotas, but separated from them in conse^uence of a 
qgarrel, whence they are named, by tbe Dacotas, Hoka 
(the revolted). The Chippewas name them Assiniboines 
or Stone Boines, and the Dacota they call Boines. This 
branch of the Dacota ludians is stated to be no less nu* 
merous than the Daootaa tbemaeWes. , 

The language of these two tribes differs from that of their 
neighbours, yet some distinctions of the nature of dialeets 
appear to prevail in some words as snoken by the roving In- 
dians and by tbe Dacotas. They helieve in the existenoe of 
a Supreme Being, and a great numberof aubordinate beings, 
whose powers and attributes vary much. The Supreme 
Being is called Wahkan Tanka, or Great Spirit, and they oon- 
sider him as the Creator of all things, and as the ruler and 
disposer of the universe ; they hold him to be the aouroe of all 
good and the cause of no evil. The next spirit iu respeot to 
power is the Wahkan Shecha, or Bvil Smrit, whose innuenoe 
is exc1usively exerted in doing evil. The third divinity is 
the thunder, whose residenoe Uiey fix in the west, and some 
helieve that it dwelU on the suromit of the Rocky Mountaina, 
because in this country all thunder-storms come from the 
west. The thunder is considered the spirit of war. They 
offer sacriflces to these three powers» and these sacriSces are 
accompanied with prayers, but not with dances. 

To rise early, to be inured to fatigue, to hunt skilfully, to 
undergo hunger without repining, are tbe only points to 
which the Dacotas think it important to attend in .the 
education of their children* 

Hie Daootas who live along the Mississippi and St.Peter'a 
river raise maiae, and they also cultivate beans, pumpkins, 
and other vegetable8. But these agriculturists constitute 
only a small portion of the tribe : by far the larger part oc- 
cupy themselves with hunting wild animals, especially the 
buffalo. The other animals which abound in their country 
are beavers, otters, martens, minxes, musk-rats, lyn;ies, 
wolverines, elks, raoose deer, bears, and wolves. As tbe 
wild animals are so abundant in their counury, the Dacotas 
are not obliged to livo in small societies, but they generallv 
live in camps consisting of eighty or a hundred lodges, each 
lodge containing several faroilies. Sometimes there are 
above three hundred warriors in one encampment. 

(Lewis and C^larke*s Traoels up ihe Missouri, <^ ; and 
Keating*s Narratipe of an Expedition io ihe Sonrce qf ihe 
Si. Peier^s River, <Jv., under the command o/ Major Long,) 

SIPHNO, called also Siphanio aud Si/anno (by Carpao- 
chi, Isole del Mondo)^ an island in the Archipelago, form- 
ing one of the group oalled the Cyclades. TUe original name 
was Merope ; it was called Siphnus from a personage of that 
name. It was colonised by lonians from Athens. (Herodot., 
viii. 48.) In the reign of Polycratesl the tyrant of Samos, 
about 520 B.c, the inhabitants were very Hourishing in cou- 
seouenoe of their gold and siUer mines, and, according to He- 
rodotus (iii. 67), they were the most wealthy of the islanders. 
They had a deposit at Delphi of the tenth of the produce of 
the mines. Some exile8, who were expelled from Samos by 
Polycrates [Samos], invaded Siphnus about this time, and 
levied a contribution of 100 talents. The Siphnians wero 
amoug the few inhabitants of the Archipelago who resisted 
the Persian elaim of earth and water, aud they contributed 
one small ship of war at the battle of Salamis. (Herod., viii. 
48.) Their mines were not afterwards so valuable (Demos- 
thenes, wepi evvr6Ut*s)' Pausanias (X., 11) says that alter 
a time they ceased to send treasure to Delphi, and that in 
consequence the sea broke in on their mtnes and deslroyed 
them. Siphnus is very little noticed by antient authors. 
From Stephanus Byzantinu8, Hesychius, and Suidas we 
learn that the natives were of dissolute roanners, insomuch 
that to do like a Siphnian iXtfvuiZiiv) was a term of re- 
proach. In the work of (}onstantine Porphyrogennetua 
' De Thematibus/ Siphnus is in the theme of Hellas, and 
in the Synecdemus^ of Hierocles it forms part of the Pro- 
vincia Insularum. 

In the reign of Henry I., Latin emperor of Constan- 
tinople, Maroo Sanado, the first duke of Naxos, conquered 
the island and made it part of his dominions. It passed 
from him into the hands of the Gossadini family, who held 
it till it was wrested from them bv Barbarossa, atter the cap- 
ture of Rhodes in the time of Soliman II. It was, in com- 
mon with the neighbouring islands, partially protected from 
the oppressions of dieTurks by tbe Yenetians; and Tourne- 
fort ( Voyage du Levant) mentions that about 60 years be- 
fore his visit to the place, so little was the power of the 
Porte there, that the inhabitaiits, assisted by a Proyen^ 
corsair, expeUed the Turks who had btcn sent thore to work 
the lead^mines. 

Siphnus is between 3&*' 60' and 37' 10' N. lat.. and in 26"^ 
1 0' £. loog. : it is situated to the south-east of Serpho, north- 
east of Milo, and south-west of Paro, lying immediately oppo- 
site Antiparo. It is of an oblong form, narrower at the north 
than at the southern extremity. Piiny reckons it at ahout 
28 Roman miles in circumference, and Carpacchi (Isole 
del Mondo) at 40. Toumefort mentions five ports, which 
were much frequented ahont 50 years before his visit there: 
Fan>,Vathy, Kitriani, Kironisso, and KaBtron,of which Kas- 
tron is on the east, Faro and Kitriani on the south, and 
Yathy on the west side. Another on the east side, Agia 
Sosti, is. marked in the map attached to Fiedler'6 ' Reise 
duroh Griechenland,' ] 841. Tournefort gives the names of 
flve villages. Artimone, Stavnl, Catavati, Xambela, and 
Petali ; and of four oonvent8 of caloyers, Brici or La Fon- 
taine, Stomongoul, St. Chrysostome, and St Hĕlie. 

Fiedler mentiona only two towns : Kastron, on a strong and 
rocky hili overlooking the sea, which is the residenoe of the 
governor; and Stawri^ the Stavril of Tournefort, in the 
centre of the island. Siphnus is in the pashalik of Nakscha. 
The bishop is also bishop of Milo. The population in the 
time of Tottmefort was about 5000 ; they were taxed in the 
year 1700 at 4000 crowns of French money. The lands are 
chieAy laid out in vine^ards ; the wine ia not so good as that 
of the neighbouring islands. The chief trade is in silk, 
fig8, hooey^ was» leBame» and ootton 8tuffif, whieb ace oelo- 

Digitized b^ 


S I P 


« I P 

breted fi>r their quaiity : the inhabitantt import tho raw ma- 
terial. There are very few sheep, horaes, or horned cattle. 
Tbe climate i» good, and the inbabitants long-lived. 

Sipbnua was celebrated among tbe antients for a sort of 
Btone mentioned by Pliny (Nat. aistt xxxvi. 22), of which 
drinking-cups were made, wbich was easily carved* aud har- 
dened aherwards by boiUng oil. This was a species of talc, 
aocording to Fiedler, who gives further particulais relating 
to the geology of the island. Tournefort was shown the 
situation of one gold-mine, but could not discoyer the en- 
trance. Fiedler gives an account of one near Agia Sosti. 

The antiquities of the island are few. On the southside, 
at Porto Plati Gallo, are tbe remains of an old Greek town. 
TourDefort speaks of a temple sacred to Pan near the 
castle, which is also noticed by Carpacchi, and Qf 8everal 
marble sarcopliagi with ffood sculpture. There are also 
Greek inscriptions, which are given by him and Fiedler* 
The Greek coins of Siphnus are very numerous: they are 
of gold. silver, and copper. The types on them are the 
head of ApoUo (there was a town called Apollonia in Siph- 
nus, according to Stephanus Bys., 'Airo\Xii»via), the Chi* 
mnra, head of Bacohusi and a dove with wings spread. The 
coins atruck under the emperors have Pallas on the re^erse. 
Kastron is a castle built apparently when the Yenetians flrst 
oecupied theisland. Yarious buildings bear thearms of the 
Goasadini family, three of whom were still living there in 
the time of Tournefort 

SIPHON {ai^v\ a tube or pipe. Tbis machine, which 
hasbeen described in the article Hyo&aux.ics, was pro- 
bably invented in the second century b.c. by Hero of 
Aleundria, who, in the ' Spiritalia,' or Pneumatics, men- 
tions ita.employment for the purpose of (U)nveying water 
finom one ▼alley to another over the interv6ning ground. 

In order that a tiuid may issue firom that branch of a 
sipbon which is on the exterior surface of the vessel con- 
taiuing it» it is necessary, as has been stated in the article 
above mentioned. that the extremity of the branch should 
be below the smiace of the tluid in the ve8sel ; but it may 
be obferved that tbere is an exception to the rule when the 
laterior diameter of that branch is very small ; for example, 
when it is lees than 1-lOth of an inch» tbe interior diameter 
(^ ibe branch in the ves8el being considerably greater. For 
if such a tluid as water or wine be introduced into a bent 
tobe having one branch only y^ty small, and the open ends 
be upperroost, the top of the tiuid in the more slender 
branch will, by the effect of capillary attraction, stand 
higher than the top of that in the other branch. It would 
foibw therefore, ihat if the bent tube were inverted, and 
the orifioe of its larger branch were placed under the sur- 
face of the tluid in a vesseU tbe iluid would begin to issue 
from the other branch, though tbe oriGce of the latter were 
a little above the level of that surface. 

The effect of a siphon may be produced by capillary 
attraction alone ; for if a piece of cotton cloth have one of 
its extremities in a vessel of water, and part of it be made 
to hang over the edge of the vesseL tbe water will be at- 
tracted along the tl^eads of the cloth, and will descend 
fTom theaee in drops, provided the extremity of the part 
tbus banging over be below the 8urface of the water in the 

The phenomena presented by springs of water are ex- 
plained by supposing that the rain which is absorbed in the 
earth ocoasiooally finds its way by small cbannels to some 
interior eavity, and firom. thenoe bv other cbannels, which 
may be oonsldered as natural siphons, to an orifioe on a 
lower level at the suriace of the ground. At tbis orifice it 
asoes in a stream of water, which oontinues to liow till the 
sorface of the water in the cavity has descended below the 
topa of tbe vertieal benda in the channebs: the water then 
oeases to flow tiil the rains again raise the water in the 
cavity above those bends, But it sometimea happens that 
a spring^ without eeasiug to flow, discharges periodically 
greater andsmalier ouaniities of water ingiven times; and 
this is aceouDted for by supposing tbe existenee of twp eavi* 
ties either nnconnected or communicattng with one another 
by smali chanDels. The channels leading from one of these 
eaYities to tbe point of efiiux are supposed to be below the ievel 
of the water in lioth cavitie8, sothatthe water tiows tbrough 
them continually ; but if the channels from the other have 
vertieal bends, so that they act as aipbons, and at the same 
time these channels carry off the water in them faster than 
it ean tlow firom the first cavity to the seoond, it will be only 
irhen the «ates in thft hitter cavity is aboye the levei 9f all 

tuoh bends Ihat a diseharge will tiike place from thence. 
Aa tbe water in that cavity may only attain the »eoessary 
height in conaequence of periodical falls Qf rain, it will foi- 
low that corresponding increases in tbe total quantity of 
water discbarged can only tben take place. 

For the amuse^ment of young pnersons, several philoso- 
phical toys have been eonstructed, in which the effects are 
produced by means of concealed sipbons» Tbe siphon is 
sometimes plaoed within a Agure in the middle or on the 
edge of a oup» and sometimes between its exterior and in- 
terior sides. Such are Tantalus'8 Cup and the sipbon 

SlPHONA'RIA. [Skmiphyllidians, vo1. xxi., p. 21 8.1 


SIPHO^NIA, a genus of plants of the natural family of 
Eupborbiace», oonsisting of two species, but one may be 
only a variety of the other. This is celebrated as being the 
tree whioh yields the large quaiititiee of caoutcbouc, called 
Cahuchu by the native Americans, annually imported from 
Para in South America. The genus has been named Si- 
phonia, from the Greek word tiphon («ri^y) a tube, from tbe 
purposes to which caoutchouc is applied ; but it was origi- 
nalW. called HeveQ by Aublet, and the name was changed 
by Kichard from its similarity to Evea, The species, or 
South American caoutchouc, was named S. Cahuchu from 
its Indian name Cahucbu. The same plant was first called 
Jairopha elattica by the younger Linnmus ; so that it is 
known and referred to b^ three names» and in some works 
these are considered to mdicate distinct plants. Aublet 
bas figured the plant» and Jussieu thedetails of its in- 

Siphonia eloitica is a tree fiAy to sucty feet in height, 
common in the forests of Guiana and Bra^ii, and which has 
been introduced into the West Indies. Condamiue fi«- 
ouently mentions it in his voyage down the Amason* 
Caoutchouo [Caoutcbouc] is the milky juice of the plant 
which exudes on incisions being made, and solidifies 6n ex- 
posure to tbe air. Aublet states that a deep jnci$ion is 
first mside into the wood near the bottom of tbe tree, 
anotber is then made longitudinally from the npper parts 
of the tree down to the first lateral and oblique incision, 
others are also made along the stemi whioh termiuate iu 
tbe longitudinal one, and the milky juice which exudesfrom 
aii is collected in a vessel piaced at the original incision. He 
aiso states that tiie nuts are edible, and Mr. Morney says 
that a caterpillar, which spins a tough coarse kind of silk, 
feeds on tbe leaves. 

SIPHONI^ERA, M. D*Orbigny*s name for an order 
of testaceous Moilusks, oonsisting of the families Spirulidcot 
NautiUdee, Ammonititke, and Peristellidcet acoordin^ to the 
arrangement of M. Rang. The latter family comprises the 
genera Ichthyoearcolitee and Belemnites, 

SIPHONOBRANCHIA'TA, M. De Blainviile*s name 
for tbe first order of his first subdass of MoUusks, Para^ 
cephahphora dioiccu He desoribes the Siphonobranchiata 
as pesaesaiug organs of respiration constantly formed of one 
or two peotiniform branchiie, situated obliquely on the an- 
terior part of the baok, and oontinued in a cavity, the supe- 
rior wail of which is provided with a tubiform canal more 
or iess eiongated and attaobed to the columella ; and ar- • 
ranges under the order the following famiIies:~SiPHONQ- 
STOMATA ; Entomostomata ; and Angyostomata» 

The Angyostomata are described as differing very little 
from tbe other &miliea as far as the animal is ooncerned, 
and as possessing a very large subventral foot, which can be 
folded together longitudinally for the purpose of being 
withdrawn into the dhell. 

The aperture of the eheU of the family is described as 
being mpre or less notched anteriorly, generally very nar- 
row, but always much longer than it is wide, and the colu- 
mella as being straight or nearly straight. 

The operoulum is rudtmentary in a oertain number of 
genera, and entirely nuli in others. 

The ^mera arranged anderthe AnguoetomcUa are Strom- 
bue, Cottue, Terebeilum, Olivat Aneillaria, Mitra, Voluta^ 
Marginella, Peribolus» Cypraa, and Ovula. 

SIPHOl^OPS. Wagier'8 name for a genus of Ca)ciii- 

The first suhorder of the Batracbians» the Pcromĕles of 
MM. Dum^rii and Bibron, eonsists but of one family, the 
Ophioeomee (snake-hodied Batracbians) or CoBciliotdiuns, 
Tbeir round eiongated form, without either tail or feet, ap- 
pro^umatea to cbsely to that of the serpe^ts» that|the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

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greatef number of authors have arranged ibem in the order 
Ophidians, acknowledgiiig at the same time the anomalies 
whicK they present, and obserying that they ought to form 
a very distinct group. [Serpbnts, vo1. xxi., p. 281.] 

Tbe characters which lead to tbe classidcation of these 
reptiles into one family, and to their separation from all 
otbers, are, Ist, a body extremely extended in lengtb, and 
of a cylindrical sbape ; 2nd, the absence of limbs or lateral 
appendages proper for locomotion ; 3rd, a skin naked in ap- 
pcarance and yiscous, but concealing between the circular 
folds which it fbrms many rows or rings of ilat, delicate, 
imbricated scales, with free and rounded borders, resem- 

Sealei of CadUa albiTentib. 

bling tbose of the greater part of tbe fishes ; 4th, the rounded 
oritice of their oloaca situated below, very near the posterior 
extremity of the body, whicb is sometimes truncated, as it 
were, and rounded ; sotaetimes obtusely pointed, as in the 
geuus Typhhps; 5th, their head, aa in all the Batrachians, 
is articulated to the spine by means of twodistinct and sepa- 
rate condyles ; 6th, their lower jaw moves upon the cranium 
without any separate articular bone. and tbe two branches 
which form it are short and very solidly soldered together 
towards the symphysis of the chiu. 

In the Serpents the occipital bone presents, below the 
rertebral hole, a single articular eminence, or condyle ; and 
the structure and disposition of the jaws will be remem- 
bered by those who have referred lo the article Skrpbnts. 
The brevity of the jaws, and tlieir construction in the Cseci- 
lioidians, Teduce the aperture of their mouth to a very small 

The bodies of the.vertebr8B of the CsBcilioidians are doubl}^ 
excavated into cones, instead of being concave before and 
oonvex bebind. Their tongue is large, papillose, flxed by 
irs borders upon the gums in tbe concavity of the jaw, and 
notprotraetile, nor forked, nor susceptible of entering into a 
sheath. The disposition and structure of their teeth are 
noticed in the artide Serpents and more fully detailed in 

Profes8or Owen obser^es that in the extincc family of the 
Labyrinthodonts [Salam androidbs], the Batracbian type of 
organization was modiAed so as to lead directly from that 
order to the highest form of repliles, vi2. the loricate or 
crocodilian Saurians ; that some of tbe existing edentulous 
genera of the Bu/onitUe [Progs) connect the Batrachian 
with the Chelonian order, and that the family founded 
upon the Linnean genus Cadlia forms the transition to 
the ophidian reptiles. *The characters,' says the Professor, 
' which retain tbe Ccedlice in the Batrachian order are gene- 
rally known, and may be brieAy enumerated as the double 
occipital condyle, tbe biconcave vertebrsD, the sraooth mu- 
cous integument with minute and concealed scales, and the 
branchial apertures retained by the young some time after 
their birth. In the fixed tympanic pedicle, and the anchy- 
losed symphysis of tbe lower iaw, the Ceecilia are also far 
removed from the typical opbidian structures ; but the teeth, 
in their length, slenderness, sharp points, wtde intervals, 
and diminished number, begin to exhibit the characters of 
the dental system of the serpent tribe.* iOdontography.) 

The cbaracters above set fortb sbow the connection whicb 
these reptiles have with tbe Batracbians ; but there is one 
striking feature, metamorphosis, which is not yet quite satis- 
factorily made out. Muller indeed states tbat be had ob- 
8erved young Caeciliee whose neck was fumished with small 
branchial ^ringes, as will be hereaiter more particularly 

The departure in a degree of the Cieeilioidians from the 
Batracbians is marked by the presence of small scales ; by 
ribs which are forked at tlieir vertebral extremity, and much 
more distinct than in the genus Pleurodeles ; by the ab- 
sence of a stemum ; and especially by the form and struc- 
ture of tbe mouth, the aperture of which is sroall, the lower 
jawbeing shorter than the upper, and the teeth long, sharp, 
and generally curved backwards. 

The Cceeilioidians resemble many species of Ibe osseous 
fishes of tbe division of tbe Mureenicue in the form and 
structure of the skeleton, the articulation of the jaws, the 
mocle of implantation of tbe teeth, &c. ; but the mode of 
junction of the head with the spine by meani of two con- 

dyles, the presence of Inngs and nostrils which open dis- 
tinctly withiu the cavity of the mouth, and tbe entire ab- 
sence of branchisD» remove these animaLs from tbat class. 

Skeleton,-^The cranium presents above a single vaulted 
piece, in which no trace of orbits is perceptible. The lower 
jaw is not articulated with the skuU by an intermediate 
bone, as in the birds, lizards, and serpents, but nearly as it 
is in the mammals, witbout however there beiug the 
slightest trace of a zygomatic bone. The brancbes of the 
lower jaw are joined anteriorly by a true suture, as in the 

Profes8or Owen states that the teeth are implanted in a sin- 
gle row upon the maxillary, intermaxillary, and palatine boiies» 
the upper jaw being thus provided with two semi-elliptical 
and sub-concentric series ; that tbere are also two rows of 
equal-sized teeth on the premandibular bones of the lower 
jaw in certain species : tbe Ccecilia, he remarks, is the 
last example in the ascending survey which he has taken • 
of tbe dental system of this disposition of teeth, which was 
so common in the class of fishes. 

* There are,' writes the Professor, * twenty teelh in the an- 
terior or outer premandibular row in the lumbricoid and 
whitebellied Ccecilice^ and ten or twelve of much smaller 
size in the second row. There are twenty teeth in tbeouter 
row of the upper jaw, of which six are supported by the 
intermaxillaries, and sixteen in the inner or palatine row. 
AU these teeth are long, slender, acute, andslightly recurved. 
In the rostrated Ccecilia the first two teeth of the maxil- 
lary and premandibular series are longer and stronger than 
the rest : they are succeeded by small and recurved teeth ; 
the median margins of the palatal bones are bristled with 
small teelh ; the second row in the lower jaw is repre- 
sented by two small recurved teeth on the internal border 
of the premandibular bones. In the modification of the 
dental system presented by tbis species may be perceived a 
retention of the Batracbian type. The annulated Csecilia 
(Siphonope annulatus} has the maxillary and palatine teeth 
strong, pointed, and slightly recurved. In the glutinous 
and two-banded Cteciliee {Epicrium), the teeth are slender, 
acute, and more inclined backwards, thus approaching 
nearer to the ophidian type; in the latter species {Epicrium 
— Rhinatrema—bivittatum) the palatal series, instead o 
ranging concentrically with the outer row, is chevron-shaped 
with the angle turned forwards and rounded off. The teeth 
of tbe Ccecilia are sub-transparent ; their intimate struc- 
ture corresponds with that of the frog*s tooth ; but their 
mode of implantation resembles that of the teeth of ihe 
Labyrinthodonts, the base being anchylosed to the parietea 
of a shallow aWeolus.* (Odontography,) 

In the junction of the vertebrfle thereis an entire differ- 
ence from that of the Iizards and serpents, and a perfect 
a{)proximation to that of the perennibranchiate batrachians 
and Ashes. * AU the bodies of the vertebr» are hoUowed, 
'both before and behind, by tunnel-shaped cavities, in which 
ligamentous fibres are implanted ; tbey are not really arti- 
culated, but placed one upon the other. Their superior, 
spinous processes are like those of the Amphisbeeme and 
tbose in tbe neck of birds, in other words, depressed so as to 
present only a slight carina, Each body of a vertebra is 
hirnished below with an apophysis curved backwafds, and 
forked foiwards for the reception of the eminence of the 
preceding vertebra. On the sides is seen a small projeotion, 
on which one of the bifurcation8 of the rib is applied, for the 
other and longer fork rests upon an inferior eminence. The 
ribs are sbort, straight, directed backwards, and triangular, 
forked as in the birds, and united to the vertebrfiB very nearl^ 
in the same manner. 

Respiratory System.-^-ln Ccecilia lumbrieotdea the rudi- 
ment of a lung only bas been observed ; and Meyer, who 
made thts obser^ation, and recognised also scales under ihe 
fold8 of tbe skin, conceives that these animals are speetes 
between the two orders of reptiles which he indicates under 
the name of Ophisaurians on account of the e^istence of 
ttie ribs and the presenee of the single lung. MiiUer an- 
nounced the existenee of branohial holesin a young Ccedlia 
{hypocyanea) presenred in the Museum of Natural History 
at Leyden. He noliced an aperture of the size of a line on 
each side of the neck, at some lines* distance from the ex- 
tremity of the buccal sliU This aperture was much wider 
than it was deep, situated in the yellow stripe which exi8t8 
on the sides. The edge of tbe hole was rough (dpre), anl 
in the interior were observed black Aringes, which appeared 

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to be fixed to the horns of the os hyoide», or branchial arcs ; 
but they did not project beyond the external oriaces. The 
holes themselYes are in Aree communication with the buccal 
cayity. It must be remerobered that this observation was 
made without dissection. The specimen is foar inches and 
a lialf in length, whilst an adult individual, which showed 
no trace of holes, was more than a fbot long. 

(j«i^a/iow.— Mayer thinks that he observed two intro- 
mittent organs in the Ccsciliw, Seefurther the remarks at 
tbe end of thia article. 

Systematic Arranobment. 

The position assigned to the Ca)cilioidians will be found 
in the articles Reptiles and Serpents. We will only here 
add tbat Miillerproposes for them thename of Gymnophids^ 
his first order of naked amphibians. The second order con- 
sists of Ibe Derotremet, the third of the ProtetcUans, the 
fourth of the Salamandrines, and the fiflh of the Batra- 
chians, Tschudi arranges the Ceeciliotdians between the 
Pipas and Salamanders, adopting the three genera of Wag- 
ler, who placed them betweeu the Amphisbdente and the 

Geographical DistribuHon qf the Suborder. — ^America, 
Asia, and Africa. 

Grenera. — Ceecilia, Siphonops, Epicrium, Rhinatrema, 

Generic Charaeter. — Head cylindrical; mu£zle project- 
ing. Maxillary and palatine teeth short, strong, conical, and 
slightly curved. Tongue velvety or cellulose, most fre- 
quent1y offering two hemispberical convc.\ities correspond- 
ing to the internal ori6ces of the nostrils. Eyesdistinct or 
not distinct ihrough the skin. A fosset or false nostril 
below each nostril. (D. and B.) 

IIeadof Cncilialnmbricolde». 

«, leen in profilo : h, mou;h opcn, to show tho ton^ue, the tecth, and ihe in- 
Isiual oriAcea or the uoBlrils. (Dum. and Bib.) 

GeograpMcal Distribution qf the Genus.—Ot the four 
species, one is Asiatic, one African, and two American. 

£xamp1e. Ccecilia lumbricoidea. 

Deseription. — The longest and most slender of the whole 
family, its length beingmore than ninety times the diameter 
of its body measured towards the middle. MM. Dumĕril 
and Bibron stato that individuals fifty-three centimetres 
loug havo the thickness of a stout goose-qui11 ; cylindrical ; 
its body however being rather smaller in its last part than 
its first, excepting at the extremity, where it is always a 
little convex. Tho muzzle is wide and rounded ; the maxil- 
lary and palatine teeth are rather long, sharp, a little sessile 
backwarik, and separated from each other. The tongue 
adheres to all parts in the concavity formed by the submax- 
illary branches; its 8urface cxhibits small vermiculiform 
fulds and furrows, and there are two hemispherical convex- 
ities, correspondiuK to the internal oriAces of the nostrils, 
which are great and ovaL The external nostrils are two very 
small lobes situated on each side of the end of the muzzle, 
under which are seen two very small apertures, upon a por- 
tiou of the border of each of which there seems to be a 
small tentacle. MM. Dumĕril and Bibron were unable to 
peiceive the eyes through the skin, which is perfectly smooth 
over the whole head; that which enve1opes the body is 
scarcely roarked with circular folds, except at the posterior 
extremity, that is to say, at about the twenty-seoondth of 
the length of the body, where there are from twelve to 
fifteen. When these folds are raised, large but delicate 
scales are discovered, beartng much resemblance to those 
of the carp, forming one or two verticiUations, in the com- 
position of which Uiey show theroseWes to be very distinctly 
irobricated. Tbe vent is situated under the terminal ex- 
tremity of the body, which is rounded. Tbe colour is of a 
browniah or olive tint. 

Locality. — Surinam. 
P. C, No. 1365. 

Siphonops. (Wagler.) 

Generic Character. — HeadsMd 6o£^cy1indrical ; muzzle 
short; maxil1ary and palatine teeth strong, pointed, and a 
little recurved; tongue large, entire, adhering on all sides, 
with a 8urface hollowed into small vermiculiform sinkings. 
Eyes distinct through the skin. A fosset or fa]se nostril in 
front of and a little below each eye. 

MM. Dumĕril and Bibron remark that the species of this 
genus generally have the muzzle shorter than the Ccecilice, 
which gives their mouth the air of opening less uuder the 
head. The fossets or false nostrils aie placed not under the 
muzzle, but under the eyes, a little more or less ibrward. 
The skin which covers the eye is 8ufficiently transparent to 
enable the observer to see that organ through. The border 
of their nostrils and false nostrils are without the least ru- 
diment of a tentacle. Their teelh resemble those of the 
Ccecili^ ; but their tongue, whose surface is furrowed with 
small vermiouliform sinkings, has iio hemispherical protu- 

Geographical Distribution of the Genus, — Two species 
only are known, both American. 

£xample« Siphonops annulatus (Ccecilia annulata, 

Description, — Muzzle very short, very thick, very much 
rounded, hardly less than the back of the head. Nostrils 
opening on the sides of the muzzle,entire1y at the end^ nnd 
a little upward. False nostrils placed below each eye, and 
very slightly forward. Diameter of ihe body a sixteenth or 
seventeenth of its total length : it is rather 8trong, and per- 
fectly cylindrical, of the same size throughout its extent. 
There are from eighty-six to ninety annular folds, slightly 
and equally separated from each other ; these cease a little 
in front of the vent, so that the skin of the terminal extre- 
mity of the body, which is rounded, offers no wrinkles. 

MM. Dum6ril and Bibron state that in no individual 
could they discover scales in the thickness of the skin, where 
thoy probably exist, as in the other Ccecilio!, but doubtless 
much smaller and more difiicult of exposure, on account of 
the extremely close tissue, which renders it as it were cori- 
aceous. Colour olive or bluish-asb, but, in all, the circular 
folds have a white tint 

Locality. — Cayenne and Surinam. 



1, Slphonops aunulatns Tery much reduced. a, hend aod neck lecn in 
prohle ; 6* raouUi open, to show the tonj^ie, the lceih. aod the iniemal oriAcea 
or the noMtrils; c, termiual extremityof ite body leen below. (Dum. and 

Epicrium. (Wagler. IckthyophiSy Fitzing.) ^ 

Generic Character. — Head depressed, elongated ; muzzle 
obtuse ; maxillary and palatine teeth of loose texture (efii- 
16es), sharp, and couched backwards. Tongue entire. with 
a velvety surface ; eyes distinct through the skin. a fosset 
(with a tentaculated border?) belowthe eye, near the border 
of the upper lip. Body subfu8iform, with numerous circular 
folds close-set one against the other. (Dum. and Bibr.) 

£xample, Epicrium gluiinosum; Ccecilia glutinosa, 
Linn. : the only species known. 

DescripHon, — ^The diameter of the body taken near the 
ipiddle is the twenty-second or twenty-third part of the total 
length. There are about three hundred and twcnty-five 
folds, rather uniforraIy approximated. Those which occupy 
thc two first thirds of the length of the trunk do not com- 
plctely surround it, that is to say, they do not descend so as 
to meet under the belly. These same foId8 of the two first 
thirds of the length of tbe trunk are remarkable for break* 

VoL.XXII.-H ^ 

Digitized b\ 


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S l P 

ing on a point of tbeir oircumferenoe, lo as to form, eaeh ot 
thera, a very open chevron, the summit of which, direoted 
forward8, is found placed on the medio-longitudinal line of 
the back. The other fold8 of the body, tbose, namely, which 
surrouitd the last third of it, form complete hngs. The 
scales which these folds hide are small, numerous, delicate, 
transparent, subcircular, and ofiering on their superior sur- 
face a small figure in reUef. representing a net with auadri- 
lateral meshes. A yellowish band extends to the riant and 
left all along the body, from the muzzle to the anal extre- 
mity : above and below the tint is slate-colour. 

Locality. — Java and Ceylon. 

Rhinatrema. (Dum. and Bibr.) 

Generic Cliaracier, — Head depressed, elongated ; muzzle 
obtuse; maxillary and palatine teeth of loose structure 
(efiil6es), sharp, and coucbed backwards. Tongtte entire, 
of a velvety surface. Eyes distinct through the skin. No 
fossets, neither under the muzzle nor below the eyes. Body 
8ubfusiform, with numerous circular folds. 

£xample, Rhinatrema bivittatum ; CcBcilia bivittata, 
Auct. : the only species. 

Description. — Head a little elongated and slightly do- 
pressed, bearing sorae resemblance in form to that of eertain 
Ophidians, particularly of the Coronellce, The teeth yery 
loosely constructed (effilĕes), and very much couched back- 
wards ; the second row above, instead of forming a curved 
line like tho first, makes an angle rounded at its summit. 
The diameter of the middle of tlie trunk is one twenty-sixth 
of the total length of the body, round which there are three 
hundred and forty perfectly annuliform folds. There e^ists 
a small conical tail. The fold8 of the skin may be easily 
raised by a point ; and a great number of circular transparent 
scales, with a sui-face relieved by projecting lines, forming a 
sort of net. Thero is a large yellow band on each side of 
the body; the submaxillary branches, whose border is 
brown, are of tbe colour of the lateral bands, as weU as the 
margin of the cloaca, and a small longitudinal stripe upon 
tbe lail. 

Zoca/i7y.— Cayenne ? 

Bhinatrema bivittatuin. a, ita •eale*. 

MM. Dumĕril and Bibron terminate their account of ihe 
Ccpcilice with the following informalion. 

M Leperieur, during his stay at Cayenne, having procured 
a living CcDcilia, which he placed in a vessel filled with 
water, he saw it bring forth, in the spaoe of some days, from 
five to seren young. perfectly similar to their mother. Upon 
this MM. Dumĕril and Bibron observe that the CcBcilice, in 
spite of their bearing a greater resemblance to the Batra- 
cnians than to the other reptUes, must be ovoviviparou8. 
The fecundation of their germs must be efiected in tbe 
interior of their body; and their metamorphoses must take 
place in thc body of their mother, as in the case of the 
Black Saiaraander of the Alps. [Cecilians.] 

SIPHONOSTO'MATA, M. de BlainvUle's name for his 
first famny of Siphonobranchiata. 

The forms comprised under this fkmUy aro principally to 
be found under the extensive genus Murex of Linnceus. 
AU the known animals belonging to it are carnivorous and 
marine, and all are furnished with a horny operculum. 
The Siphonostomata are thus subdiyided by M. de Blain- 
villc: — 

* No persistent bourrelet on tlie right lip. 

Pleurotoma. (Lam.) 

Generic Character. — Animal f 

Sheil fu8iform, slightly rugose, with a turriculated spire ; 
aperture oval, small, terminated by a straight canal more or 
less long. The right lip trenchant and more or less incised. 

Operculum horny. 

A. Species ia which the incision is a little behind the 
middle of the lip, and the tube of considerable length. 

Bxample, Pleurotoma Babylonia. 

Description. — The sbell fusiform-turreted, tran8verse1y 
carinated and belted, white, with black-spotted belts, the 
spots quadrate ; whorls convex ; tube or canal ratber long. 

Locality. — ^Tbe ^ast Indian Seas and the Moluccas. 

Pleurotoma Babylnnia. * 

B. Species in w.hich thc incision is entircly against the 
spire, and whose tube is short. (Genus Clavatula, 

£xample, Pleuroioma auriculifera. 

Pleurotoma aurieuliCera. 

This genus has been taken on diSerentbottoms at dcpths 
varying from eight to sixteen fiithoms. 

Laraarck characterises 23 living species of Pleurotomc^ 
and 30 fo8si1, the latter mostly frora Grignon. Defrance 
makes the number of fossil species 95. 

Mr. G. B. Sowerby has aescribed in addition 36 1iving 
species collected by Mr. Cuming, M. Deshayes onc, and 
Dr.Turton one. (Synopsis Testaceorum ; ZooL Proc., &c.) 
M. Deshayes in his tables makes the number of 1iving ape- 
cies 71, and the number of ibssil (tertiary) 150. Of these 
he records Pl. Cordieri, CaumarmoncH, yulpecula, craticu- 
lata, and a ncw species as both living and ibssil (tertiary). 
In Europe the principal localities for the fossi1s are the 
calcaire grossier, the London clay, the contemporary beda 
near Boraeaux, and the Subapennine beds. Dr. Mantell 
notes an iraperiect Pieurotoma in the blue clay of Brackles- 
hara. Mr. Lea has described and figured eleven fos8il spe- 
cies from the new tertiary at Claiborne, Alabaraa. Professor 
Sedgwick and Mr. Murchisoti noticethree species, prisoaO)^ 
/usijbrmis, and spinosa, from the Gosau deposit and ita 
equiva1ents in the Alps ; and Mr. Murcbison records two 
species, Pteurotoma artieulata and Pl, corallii, in the Silu- 
rian rocks. {Silurian System.) 

Rostellaria. (Lam.) 
This genus, in our opinion, belongs to tho Strombida» 
uuder whicb article it will be described. 

Digitized by 



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Fusu8. (Lam.) 

Generic Character. — Animal not diflfering mucli from 
that of Murex, 

Shell fusiform, Qflen yentricose in the mlddle, ru^ose, 
tbick, and with a very elevated spire ; canal very straight 
and elongated ; aperture oval ; right lip trenchant» the lefl 

Operculum horny 

Anlmal of Pusoi. a, opercnlam. 

A. Turriculate or suhturriculate, but not umbilicated 

£xample, Fu9us Colus (Murex Cdus, Linn.). 

Descripiion. — Shell fusiform, narrow, transversely fur- 
rowed, white, the apex and base rufou8; whorls convex, 
nodulously carinated in the middle ; canal long and slender ; 
the lip sulcated within, and denticulate on the margin. 

LocaUty. — ^The East Indian Ocean. 

Fusus Colua. 

B. Speci^ subturriculated and umbilicftted. (Genug La- 
iiruĕ, De Montf.) 

Example, Punu Jilosus. 

/>e«Ttp/ton.— Shell fu8iform-turreted, thick, knotty, but 
tmooth to the touch, whitish yellow girt with numerous 
orange-nid lines; whorls knotty above, the knots hemi- 
Bpherical ; the aperture white ; the lip striated within. 

/^oco/i/y.— The seas of New Holland. 

C. Subturriculate species, with the caual notched at the 

Example, Pusus articulatus. 

Description.^)MQ\\ fu8iform-turreted, very delicately stri- 
ated tranwenely, shining, salTron-coloured or violaceous- 
cceruleseent, girt with articulated bay lines; lip sulcated 
within; columella with one plait above; canal short and 

D. Species with the whorls of the spire rounded and 

Example, Fusus Islandicus. 

Descrtption. — Shell fu8iform-turreted, ventrico8e below, 
not knobbed, transversely striated, white, the whorls con- 
vex ; the lip thin, smooth within ; the canal i*ather short 
and 8ubrecurved. 

LocMlity.—The seas of Iceland. 

E. Muricoid species. 

Examp]e, Fusus muriceus. 

F. BuccinoYd species. 

Sxample, Fktsus buccineus. 

Fm»i have been fbund on bottoms of mud, sandy mud, 
and sand» at depths rangiug irona the auriiice to eleven 

Lamarck records 37 living species of Fusus. and 3C fossil, 
nearly all from Fiance, and principally from Gn^iion. De- 
france makes the number of the latier 70, four of which are 
analogues from Grignon, and one from the Plaisantin. 

M. Deshayes in his tables give8 8ixty-seven as the num- 
ber of living species of Pusus, and 1 1 1 as that of the fos8il 
species (tertiary): of these he records Fusi craiiculatus, 
rostraius, strigosust lignarius, sinistrorsus, Tarentinus, 
aniiguuSy brevicauda, carinatus, despectus, and Peruvia- 
nus, both living and fos8il (tertiary). Dr. Mantell notes 
onespecies {longiffvus) {rom the blue clay at Brackle.sham. 
Profe8sor Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison enumerate six spe- 
cies from the Grosau deposit and its equivalents in the Alps. 
Dr. Fitton notes Fusi clathratuSy guadraius, rigidus, rusti- 
cus, and an indistinct species in the strata below the chalk. 
iObsermtions on the Strata between the Chalk and Oolite, 
&c., in Geol. Trans., 2nd series, vol. iv.) Mr. Lea records 
sixteen new species from the tertiary beds at Claiborne, 
Alabama, and one irom Maryland. {Contributions to Geo- 

Pyrula. (Lam.) 

Generic Character. 

Shell pyriform, in conse^uence of the lowness of the 
spire ; the canal conical and very long or moderate» some- 
times slightly notched ; aperture oval, rather large; colu- 
mella smooth and bent; right lip tienchant. 

Operculum horny. 

A. Subfusifoim spccies; the spire being slightly ele- 

Example, Pyrula carnaria. (PyrulaVespertilio,lajn.; 
Fusus carnarius, Mart. ; Murex Vesperiilio, Gm.) 

Z)^*cnp^fo«.--Shell subpyriform, thick, ponderous, mu- 
ricated anteriorly. of a rurous-bay colour; the last whorl 
crowned above with compressed tubercles ; spire rather pro- 
rainent; the sutures simple; canal sulcated and subumbi- 

Locality. — East Indian Ocean. 

PyruUt camarla. 

B. Species with a long and rather narrow tube; 
very short. 

£xample, Pyrula Spirillus. 

Description. — Shell ventricose anteriorly, the canal very 
long, delicately striated tran8versely, white, spotted with 
saSTron-colour ; body-whorl abbreviated, carinated in the 
middle, tiattened above, tuberculated below the middle; 
spire very much depressed, its apex mamilliferous. 

Zoca/i7y.— East Indian Ocean. CJoasts of Tranquebar. 

C. Species with a long and rather narrow tube, but sinis- 
trorsal or left-handed, and with the indication of a 
plait on the columella or pillar. (Genus Pulgur, De 

Example, Pyrula perversa. 

Description.-^SheW sinistrorsal, pyrifovm, very ventri- 
cose, smooth, yellowish-white, ornamented with broad rufo« 
fuscou8 longitudinal line&; the last whorl crowncd above 
with tuberctes; the upper whorls tuberculiferous at the 
base ; the canal or tube rather lonpj and strialed. 

Locality. —The Antilles. Bay of Campeachy. 

D. Speciea more ventiicose and delicate. r^^rrTp 

S 1 P 


S I P 

£xample, Pyrula Picus. 

Descripiion» — Shell Ag-shaped, ' dolicately decussated, 
CGDlrulescent-grey ; gprinkled with yariegated bay or %*iolet 
8pot8 ; tran8ver8e strioB the largest and most crowded ; tbe 
spire sbort, conTex, mucronated at the centre; moutb 
cceruleBceut- violaceous generally. 

Localiii/.—The East Indian Ocean. Tbe Moluccas. 

Pyrula Fittu. 

E. Ventricose species, witb a sbort tul e ; aperture very 
large and wide, sensibly notcbed. 

Example, Pyrula Melongena, 

DMmp/ion.— Sbell pyriform, turgldly ventricose, ccDru- 
lescent, glaucous, or rufous, banded witb wbite ; tbe wborls 
channelled at the sutures ; the last soroetimes unarmed, 
but more frequently muricated. with various sbarp tuber- 
des ; spire sbort, acute; aperture smooth and white. 

Localiiy. — ^West Indian Seas ; Antilles. 

F. Species still sborter ; aperture very wide ; tbe rigbt 
lip subalated. 

Example, Pyrula abbremata. 
' Description^—SheM aubpyriforTO, very vcntrico8e, ratber 
rougb, transYersely sulcated, cinerescent-wbite ; tbe spire 
ratber prominent ; the canal sbort, widely umbilicatcd ; 
muriculatedon tbe backwith subechinate elevated furrow5; 
outer lip striated within, and its margin denticulated. 

Pyndae have been found on mud, sandy mud, and sand, 
at deptbs ranginy from the 8urface to nine fathoms. 

The number of living species recorded by Lamarck is 
twenty-eight. M. Desnayes has described one more (P. 
/ulva\ and a variety of P. Vesperiiiio, Lam. Lamarck re- 
cords six fos8il species, four from Grignon and Courtagnon, 
one from Parnes, and one from Houoan. Defrance noticcs 
tweWe, three of wbicb, from tbe Plaisantin, he considers as 
analogous, and otber tbree from tbe neigbbourhood of Bor- 
deaux, analogues also. M. Desbayes, in bis tables, makes 
tbe number of living Pyrulw tbirty-one, and tbe number of 
fossil (tertiary) twenty-one ; of these last be indicates Py- 
rulcB reiiculaia, Ficu9, Melongena, and Spirillus, as beiug 
found botb livin^ and fossil (tertiary). Dr. Mantell records 
two species, buU^ormie f and lcBvigaiay kom the blue clay 
of Bracklesbam in Sus8ex, and one from the arenaceous 
liroestone of Bognor. Dr. Pitton records tbree, Brighiii, 
depressa^ and Sniiihii /, from tbe strata below tbe cbalk 
(gault of Kent). Mr. I^a records three, Pyrula auic^llaia, 
eleganiissimat and Smiihii, from the tertiary beds at Clai- 
lorne, Alabama. 

Pasciolaria. (Lam.) 

Generic Characier, 

Antmal of Fascio1ari«. a, operculum. 

Shell fusiform, not very tbick, raibcr convcx in tbe mid- 
dle, witb a moderate spire; operture ovol; canal ratber 
long, sometiroes sligbtly bcnt; rigbt lip trencbant, often 
wrinkled internally; oolumellar lip witb some very oblique 

Optrculum bomy. 

A. Fusiform, but not tuberculous species. 

Example, Pasciolaria Tulipa, 

Descripiion.— She\\ fusiforra, ventricose in Ibe middle, 
unarmed, smootb, soroctimes oran^e-rufous. sometimes 
marbled witb white and bay, girt with transverse brown 
lines unequally congregated ; whorls very convex ; suturea 
fimbriated at tbe margm ; tube sidcatcd ; outer lip wbite 
and striated witbin. 

Localiiy.-~Vfeit Indian Seas; tbe Antilles. 

Pasdolaria Tulipa. witli tha opereulam in aitu. 

B. Fu8iform and tuberculbus species. 

Exomple, Pasciolaria Trapezium. 

Descrtpiion. — Shell fu8iform, ventricose, tuberculiferou8, 
rather smooth, wbite or rufescent, girt with rufous lines ; 
the tuberclea conical, subcompressed, and in a single series 
in tbe middle of tbe wborls ; columella reddisb-yellow ; outer 
lip elegantly striated wiibin, tbe strioD red. 

Locality, — The East Indian Ocean. 

C. Tuberculated and turriculated species. 

Example, Pasdolaria JUameniosa. 

Description. — Sbell elongated, fusiform, turreted, trans- 
ver8ely sulcated, wbite, painted witb longitudinal orange- 
red stripes ; middle of the wborli subangulated, and l he 
wborls themsehes crowned witb sbort and compressed 
tubercles; tbe canal rather long; the outer lip striated 

Locaiiiy. — Tbe East Indian Seas. 

Fascioiari{e have been found on muddy bottoms, at deptbs 
ranging from the surface to seven fatboms. 

I^marck reoords eigbt living species. Mr. Broderip has 
described one (granosa) brougbt by Mr. Curoing from 
Panama. M. de Blainville states that seven fossil species 
are known. M. Desbayes, in his tables, makes the number 
of living EisciolaritB seven only, and the numl^r of fassil 
(tertiary) speeies five. Professor Sedgwick and Mr. Mur- 
chison record one species {Pasciolaria eUmgaia) in tbe 
Gosau deposit and its equivalents in tbe Eastent Alps. Mr. 
Lea notices two, Pasciolaria plicata and elevaia, in tli£ 
C.aibome tertiary, Alabaroa. 

Turbinella. (Lam.) 

Generic Charaeier. — Animal imperfectly known. 

Shell ordinarily turbinated, but also sometimes turricu- 
lated, rugous, tbick ; spire rather variable in forro ; aperture 
elongated, terminated by a straigbt canal, often sufficiently 

Turbiaella Baj 

Digitized by 



S I P 


S I P 

short ; the left lip nearly straiglit and formed by a callosity 
hiding the columella, which has two or three unequal, 
nearly transYerse plaits ; right lip entire and trenchant. 

A. Fusiform and nearly smooth species. 

£xample, Turbinella Rapa. 

Description.SheW subrusiform, ventricose iri the middle, 
thtck, very ponderous, unarmed, white; the whorls above 
eoTering the base of the preceding one ; canal rather short ; 
eolumella subauadripHcated. 

Locaiitu.-^The East Indian Ocean. 

B. Turbinaceous and spiny species. 

Emmple, Turbinella Scolymus, 

Descnpion. — Shell 8ubfusiform, ventrico8e in the middle, 
tubercuUited, pale yellow ; spire conical, tuberculato-nodose ; 
the last whorl crowned above with great tubcrcles ; canal 
transversely sulcated; the columella orange-coloured and 

Locality.-r-The East Indian Ocean. 

C. Turriculated, subfusiform species. 

£xample, Turbinella Jnfundibulum. 

Descnpiion, — Shell fusiform-turroted, narrow, many- 
ribbed, transversely sulcated, the ribs longitudinal and 
thiek, the furrow8 smooth and red, and the intcrstices ycl- 
low ; canal perforated, the aperture white. 

Turbinella have been found on bottoms of sandy mud, 
at depths varying from the surface to eighteen fathoms. 

Lamarck records 23 liring species, all from the seas of 
warm climates. Mr. Broderip describes three more brought 
by Mr. Cumiug from the Galapagos Islands, Elisabeth 
Island, and the Caracas. M. de Blainville observes that 
wben he wrote (1825) no fossils had been found. M. Rang 
(1829) states that there are fos8il species. M. Deshayes, in 
his tables, makes the number of living species 32 and tlie 
number of fo6sil (tertiary) 3. 

* * A persistent bourrelet on tlie right lip. 

Columbella. (Lam.) 

Generic Character, — Animal incompletely known. 

Shell thick, turbinated, with a short obtuse sp(ire ; aper- 
fure narrowy elongated, terminated by a very sbort canal 
sligbtly notched, narrowed by a convexity at the interual 
side of thc right lip and the plaits of tne columella. 

Operculum horny, vcry small. 

Example, Columbella mercatoria. 

Description. — Shell ovate-turbinated, transversely sul- 
eated, white, painted with small, rufo-fuscous, transverse, 
subfasciculated lines, sometimes banded; outer lip denticu- 
lated within. 

Xoca/t/y.— The Atlantic Ocean. 

ColumlMlla mercatorU. 

Colwnbella have been found on bottoms of sandy mud 
and mud at depths ranging from the 8urface to sixteen 

Lamarck describes eighteen speeies, all from the seas of 
warm climates. M. de Blainville acknowledges that this 
geniis would perhaps be better placed among the opercu- 
lated Angyostomata, or narrow-mouthed testaceous gastro- 
pods. M. BLang however arranges it between Triton and 
TurbineUa. Mr. G. B. Sowerby has described thirty-nine 
additional species brou^bt home by Mr. Cuming. De- 
france notices one fossil species. M. Deshayes, in his 
tables, makes the number of living species thirty-three and 
of fo8sil (tertiary) four. M. de Blainville remarks that the 
Colwnbella avara of Say haa not the character of the 
thickened right lip. 

Triton. (Lam.) 

Generic Characier. — Animal a good deal resembling that 

Shell oval, with the spire and canal straight and moderate ; 
ordinarily rugose, furnisned with few varices, which are scat- 
tered and arranged longitudinally ; aperture 8uboval, elon- 
gated, terminated by a short open canal ; the columellar lip 
kss excavated than the right, and covered by a callosity. 

Opercuium homy and inclined to oval. 

a. opcroulum. 

A. Comparatively smooth species, wilb cordons sligblly 
or not at all marked, with the e\ception of that of tlie 
right lip. 

Example, Triton rariegatus, the marine trumpet or 
Triton*s shell. 

Description, — Sliell elongated-conical, trumpet-shaped, 
ventricose below, girt with very obtuse smooth ribs, white, 
elegantly variegat^ with red and bay ; the sutures crisped at 
the margin ; the aperture red ; the columella wrinkled with 
white and with a single plait above ; the edge of the outer 
lip spotted with blaok, the spots bidentated with white. 

Locality, — The seas of the Wcst Indies and the Asiatic 
seas, especially those of the torrid zone. 

Triton Yari^gatu*. 

B. Species more tuberculous, or spiny, whose aperture is 
more open, and terminated by a more or less ascending 
canal. (Genus Lotorium of De Montfort.) 
Example, Triton Lotorium, 

Dencnption. — Shell fusiform-turreted, distorted below, 
very much tuberculated, transversely rugous, and striated, 
rufou8 ; the whorls above angulste-tuberculated ; canal tor- 
tuous, the extremity recurved, the aperture trigono-elon- 
gated and white ; the outer lip toothed within. 
Locality, — East Indian Ocean. 

C. Spccies with a shorter spire, always very tuberculous, 
mo8t frequeDtly umbilicated» a 8inu8--at the posterioc 
Digitized by VjOC 

S [ P 


S I P 

junction of tbe two lips. (Genus Aguillus, De Mont- 

Example, Triton cutaceus, 

Description,She\\ ovale, yentricose-depressed, cingu- 
lated, tuberculato-nodose, yellow-rufescent ; tbe belts rather 
prominent, separated by a furrow ; the whorls above angu- 
lato-tuberculate, rather Aattened above ; canal sbort, umbili- 
cated ; the outer lip notched within. 

Locality, — ^The Atlantic Ocean. 

D. Species like those of section C, but whose aperture is 
closely narrowed by a callosity and irregular teeth. 
(Genus Persona, De Montf.) 

Example, Triton Anus, the Grimace of collectors. 

Description,^She\\ ovate, ventricose-gibbous, distorted, 
Aattened beneath ; nodulous above, subcancellated, white, 
spotted with rufous; the aperture narrowed, sinubus, irregu- 
lar, ringent ; the lip very much toothed ; the canal short and 

Locality. — The East Indian Seas. 

Tritons have been found on various bottoms at depths 
rancring from the surface to thirty fathoms. 

The number of living species recorded by Lamarck 
amounts to fifty-one. Mr. G. B. Sowerby has described 
eight additional species, and Mr. Brodcrip tbe same num- 
ber brought home by Mr. Cuming. lAmarck describes 
three fossil species, all from Grignon. Biainvillo states 
that one of the species has its analogue. Defrance makes 
the number of fossil specics ten, one from the Plaisantin, 
an analogue according to Brocclii. M. Deshayes in his 
tables, published before the descriptions of Mr. Sowerby and 
Mr. Broderip, makes the number of living species of Triton 
43 and of fossil (tertiary) 25. Of these last, he records 
Tritones nodiferus, Lampas, Scrobiculator, succincius, clath- 
ratus, and unijilosus as both living and fossil (tertiary). 
Struthiolaria. (Lam.) 

Generic Character, 

Shell oval, the spire elevated, the aperture oval and 
wide; canal very sbort, very much notched ; right lip sinu- 
ous. not toothed, furnished with a bourrelet; columellar 
border callous, extended ; a sinus at the posterior union of 
the two lips. 

Opercuium horny. 

Example. Struthiolaria nodulosa* 

Description,—^he\\ ovate-conical, thick, transversely 
striated, white, paintcd with undulated, longitudinal, saf- 
fron-coloured tlame-like lines; whorls angulated above, 
Hattened on the upper side, nodulous at tbe angle ; the 
sutures simple, tbe outer lip luteo-rufescent within. 

Locality.—The seas of New Zealand. 

Lamarck records two living spccies. M. Deshayes, in his 
.tables, also makes the number of living species two ; and 
he records one fossil (tertiary), with a query, from Paris. 
Ranella. (Lam.) 

Generic Character, 

Shell oval or oblong, depressed, having only two varice8 
situated latcrally; aperture oval; canal short, and a sinus 
at tbe. union of the two lips, backwards. 

A. Non-urabilicated species. (Gen us 5i(/b, DeMontf.) 

Example, Ranella grantUata. 

Descnption. — Shell ovate-acute, girl with closo-set granu- 
lated stria), palc saAron colour, zoned with fulvoui ; colu- 
mella sulcated ; outer lip thick and toothed. 

Locality,—The East Indian Ocean. 

B. Umbilicated species. 
Example, Ranella /oliaia. 

verse, subgranulated, low ridges, the intersticcs between 
which are longitudinally striated; the whorls armed wilh 
one row of sharp tubercles, the middle of which are the 
longest, the other ridges of the body whorl obsolelely tuber- 
culated here and there ; the columellar lip expansive and 
foliated, and the margin of the outer lip exnanded and thin ; 
the aperture Qvate, very strongly and thictdy furrowed, of a 
rich orange-colour, and terminating above in a deep ^oliated 
sinu8,which extend8 beyond the varix. (Brod.) 

Locality. — The Mauritius. 

Ranellee have been taken on difl*erent bottoms at depths 
yarying from the 8urface to eleven fathom8. 

Ilamarck describes fifteen living species. M. Deshayes 
has described another ; and Mr. Broderip nine new species, 
eight of which were brought horae by Mr. Curaing. M. de 
BIainville states that there is but one fossil species, but 
allows that Defrance admits flve, three of which, from 
Italy, are identic^l. M. Deshayes, in his tables, gives tbe 
number of living species as nineteen, and of fossil (tertiary) 
aseight: of these last he recoids Ranellce gigantea, gra-' 
nulata, pygmcDa, and tuberosa, as living and fossil (ter- 

Murex. (Linn.) 

Generic Character,—Animal ^urnished With two long and 
approximated tentacles ; mouth without jaws, but armed 
with hooked dentioles in lieu of a tongue ; foot rounded, 
generaliy rather sbort: mantle large, often ornamented 
with fringe8 on the right side only ; branchi» formed of 
two unequal pectinations ; anus on the right side in the 
branchial cavity ; oriAce of the oviduct on the right side at 
the entrance of tbe same cavity; oriAoe of the deferent 
canal at the end of the esciting organ, on the right side of 
the neck. 

Shell.—Oyoiit oblong, more or lesa eleyated on the spiral 
side, or prolonged forwards ; external 8urface always inter- 
rupted by rows of varices in the form of spires or ramifica- 
tions, or simply tubercles, generally arranged in regularand 
constant order; aperture oval, terminated anteriorly by a 
straight canal, which is more or leaa elongated and closed ; 
right lip ofien plaited or wrinkled; columellar lip often 

Operculum horny. 

Banella Ibliata. 

Description. — Shell ovate conical, ventricose, not com- 
pressed, of a tiesh or pale rose-colour ; with frequent traiift* 

Ammiil of Muiex. 
a, operculum. 

A. Species with a very long and spiny tube. {Thomy 
Woodcocks of coUectors.) 
Example., Murex Tribulus, Linn. {Murex tenuitpinch 

Description, — Shell ventricose anteriorl?, the tube very 
long, elegantly spired tbroughout its length, the spires set 
in triple order, each row at regular intervals, greyish or 
purplish grey ; the spires very lone, thin, rather closely set, 
and somewhat hooked ; body of the shell transyersely sul- 
cated and striated ; the spire prominent. 
Locality. — ^The Indian Ocean ; Moluccas. 
This is the Venus's Comb of coUectors, and when perfect 
is a most delicate and striking shell. 

B. Species with a very long tube and without spines. 
(Genus Brontes, De Montf.) 
Example, Murex Haustellum (Snipe^s or Woodcocks head 
of collectors). 

Description. — Shell anteriorly ventricose, naked, scarcely 

armed, fulvnus inclining to red, lineated with bay ; body of 

the sbell rounded and furnished with three or more ribs 

between the tarices ; the tube ver. long and alender ; the 

\ »pire sbort ; moath couudisb, i * '^ 

_. jzedl 


S I P 


S I P 

Mnies Tribuliu! (CoiBinon Tlioniy Woodcoek; Muiex mrisploii« Lam.);' 

Locality, the East Indian Ocean ; Moluccas. 

Murez Haustellam. 

C. Species^ith three e1evated, Hattenedi and ccmpa- 
ratively thin varices. 
£xampl6. — Murex acanihopterus. 
Deacrrption. — Sliell oblong, fusiform, trialated, trans- 
' Yertely sulcated and striated, white ; the also membrana- 
ccous ; «horls angulated ; aperture oYate^rounded. 
Z.oca/t7y.— East Indian Seas. 

Mujces iwgius. 

D. Speciea with three ramified Yarices. (Genui Chioo* 
reus, De Montf.> 
f Example, Murex adustus. 

Descrtption.SheW abbreviate-fu8iform, suboval, ventri- 
cose, thick, with tbree rows of frond-Iike ramiiieations, 
transversely sulcated, black ; the fronds short, cur\'ed and 
dentate-muricated ; the tubercle of the interstices very 
large ; aperture small, roundisb, white. 

iocality. — East Indian Ocean. 
E. Speoies which have a greater number of varices ; 
the tube nearlj closed. 

Example, Murex regius. 

No description can convey an adequat6 idea of the splen- 
did colouring of this species when it is in fine condition ; 
the form is given below. 

Locality. — The western coast of Central and South 

F. Subturriculated species. 

Example, Murex lyratus, 

Description,—^She\\ fusiform-turreted,thin, multifariou8ly 

varicose, horny-fulvous ; the varices thin and lamelliform ; 

the interstices smooth ; the whorls convex ; the tube sbort. 

G. Subturriculated species; the tube closed; a tube 

pierced towards the posterior extremity of the 

right side, and persistent upon the whorls of the 

spiie. (Gonus Typhis, De Montf.) 

Example, Murex pungens, fo8sil. 

H. Species more globular ; the spire and canal shorter, 
very open ; the aperture rather wide, 

Examp1e, Murex ritulinus. 

Description, — Shell ovate-oblong, ventricose, somewhat 
rough, with 8even rows of varices>. which are obtuse, asperu- 
late, and ruddv ; the interstices wbite ; tube narrow, some^ 
what acute ; the aperture white; the lip toothed internally 

I. Species which have an oblique fold very much anterioi 
to the eoUumella, and an umbilicus. (Genus Phos, De 

Murices havo becn found on different bottoras at depths 
ranging from five to twenty-five fathoms; and species of 
Typhis on sandy mud at depths varying from 8ix to eleven 

Lamarck records66 recentand 15 fo8sil8pecie8,mostlyfrom 
Grignon. To the recent species are to be added 26 Murices 
described by Mr. Broderip from specimcns brought home 
by Mr. Cuming, and 5 of T)/phis (recent), also desoribed hy 
Mr. Broderip. 

M. de Blainville remarks that among the fossil species of 
France there is no true analogue ; but he adds that Defrance, 
who admits 50 fossil species, counts 30 analogues from the 
Plaieantin, after Brocchi. 

M. Deshaves, in his tables, makes the number of recent 
species of Murex (apparently including Typhis) 75, a num- 
ber much below the raark, and giyes 89 as the number of 
fo88il speoies (tertiary). Of these last he records the fol- 
lowing as having been found both liying and fossil (tertiary) : 
— comutus, Brandaris, trunculus, erinaceus, tripterus^ 
cristatus, Jlstulosus, tuhifer, a new species, elongatus, an* 
gularis, saxatilis (vaT.), another new species, Lasseignei, 
and a third new species. 

Dr. Mantell records one species (argutus) from the blue 
clay of Bracklesham (Sus8ex) ; and another iSmithii) from 
the arenaceous limestone of Bognor. Professor Phillips 
names one iHaccanensis) from tbe coralline oolite of York- 
shiro. Dr. Fitton records one (Calcar) from the gault of 
Kent and Blackdown ; and Mr. Lea one from the CTaiborne 
tertiary, Alabaraa. 

The Entomostomata and Siphonostomata may be con- 
sidered as the two great tribes of carnivorous gastropods or 
trachelipods appointed to keep down tbe undue increase of 
tbe CoNCHiPERA and herbivorous gastropods, whose shells 
the majority of those carnivorous testaceans penetrato by 
raeans of an organ which raakes a hole as truly round as if 
it had been cut by an auger, and then feed on the juiccs of 
the included aniraal. 

Dr. Buckland notices this habit with a view to the con- 
dition of the testaceous inhabitants of the earlier seas of our 
planet with his wonted fe1icity. • Most collectors,' says the 
Professor, * have scen upon ihe sea-shore nurabers of dead 
shells, in which sraall circular holes have been bored by the 
predaceous tribes, for the purpose of feeding upon the bodies 
of the aniraals contained within thera : similar holes occur 
in many fo8sil shells of the tertiary strata, wherein the shells 
of carnivorous trachelipods also abound; butperforations ol 

Digitized by 

)Utperlorations oi 


S I R 


S I R 

this kind are extremely rare in the fossil shells of any older 
forroation. In the greeu-sand and ooUte they have heen 
noticed only in those fe\v cases where they are accompanied 
hy the shells of equally rare carnivorous moUusks ; and in 
the lias and strata below it,* there are neither perforations, 
nor any shells haring the notched mouth peculiar to perfo- 
rating carnivorous species. It should seem firom these 
facts that, in the cconomy of submarine life, the great 
family of carnivorous trachelipods performed the same 
necessary office during the tertiary period which is allotted 
to them in the present ocean. Wo have further evidence 
to show that in times anterior to and during the deposition 
of the chalk, the same importaut tunctions were consigned 
to other carnivorou8 mollusks, viz. the testaceous cephalo- 
pods: these are of comparatively rare occurrence m the 
tertiary strata and in our modem seas ; but throughout the 
secondary and transition forraations, where carnivorous tra- 
chelipods are either wholly wanting or extremely scarce, 
we find ahundant remains of camivorous cephalopods, con- 
sisting of the chambered shells of nauiili and ammonites, 
and many kindred extinct genera of polythalamous shells 
of extraordinary beauty. The molluscous inbabitants of all 
these chambered shells probably possessed the voracious 
habits of the modern cuttle-fisb ; and by feeding like them 
upon young testacea and crustacea, restricted the excessive 
increase of animal life at the bottom of the more antient 
seas. Their sudden and nearly total disappearance at the 
commencement of the tertiary era would have caused a 
blank in the " police of nature," allowmg the herbivorous 
tribes to increase to an excess that would ultimately have 
been destructive of marine vegetation, as well as of them- 
seWes, had they not been replaced by a difierent order of 
carnivorous creatures, destined to perform in another man- 
ner the ofilce which the inhabitants of the ammonites and 
yarious extinct genera of chambered shells then ceased to 
discharge. From that time onwards we have evidence of 
the abundance of carnivorous trachelipods, and we see good 
reason to adopt the conclusion of Mr. Dillwyn, that in the 
formation above the chalk the vast and sudden decreaso of 
one predaceoui tribe has been nrovided for by the creation 
of many new genera and species possessed of similar ap- 
petencies, and yet formed for obtaining their prey by habits 
entirely ditTerent from those of the cephalopods. The design 
of the Creator seems at all times to havo been to fill tbe 
waters of the seas and cover the surface of the earth with 
the greatest possible amount of organised beings enjoying 
Iife ; and the same expedient of adapting the vegetable 
kingdom to become the basis of the life of animals, and of 
multiplying largely the amount of animal existence hy the 
addition of carmvora to the herbivora, appears to have 
prevailcd from the first commencement of organic life to 
the present hour.' (Bridgewater Treatise,) 

slnRACUSE. [Syracus*.] 

SIRE'DON, Wagler's name for the Axol<>tl. Since 
that article was written, further information has been ob- 
tained relative to the structure of this genus of perenni- 
hranchiate Batrachians. The form and character of the 
teeth, as given by Profe:ssor Owen, will be found in the ar- 
ticle S.\LAMANDRiD.E, vol. XX., p. 328, and we avail ourseWes 
of this opportunity to introduce a reduced copy of the figure 
of the animal, lately published by MM. Dumĕril and Bib- 
ron, to whose excellent work on Reptiles we refer for the 
lateat particulars known. 

Siredon ■eon in pTolIle ; a, mouth seen in front, opcn to show tbe tecth. 

We shall confine oursehes in this article to an account of 
its organization, as observed by Cuvier, so that the reader 

* Carnivorons gastropoda occin* in the Silnrian rocks; and the lonic tnbe of 
the SiphonottomMta i» equally cbaracteristic of carmTonmi hahita wlth tb« 
Mtch of the Entomottomata, 

may have some notion of its relationship to the other pcrcn 
nibranchiate Batrachians. 

Cuvier then remarks that the Axolotl approaches nearly 
to the Salamander, and especially to its larva. Tbe cranium 
of the AxolotI is indeed more depressed ; its sphenoid bonc 
wider and Aatter; the bones of the nose proportionally 
smaller ; the ascending apophyses of the intermaxillary bones 
loneer and narrower ; but, especially, in lieu of those large 
and fixed bones which Cuvier calls vomer8 or palatinea, 
there are two oblong plates detached from the cranium be- 
set with teeth in quincuncial order, and continuing them- 
seWes with the pterygoids, which reach them because tbey 
are longer than in the Salamander^ and which also carry 
teeth in front on their external edge. Behind, these ptery- 
goids are widened, without alWays articulating themsehes 
to the sphenoid, as in the Salamander of the AUeghanies. 
[SALAMANDRiDiB, vol. XX., p. 332.] Tho spaco betwoen the 
orbital and the petrous bone is also more considerable than 
in the Salamanders. Tlie lower jaw has a regular dental 
portion forming the symphysis and the greatest part of the 
external surface, and armed all along its superior edge 
with small, fine, and pointed teeth; an articular portion, 
which doubles the posterior part of the internal surface of 
the preceding, forms the posterior angle and carries the 
articular tubercle; lastly, there is a true opercular bone, 
long and delicate, covering at the internal 8urface the in- 
tenral of the two preceding, but furnished throughout with 
very small pointed teelh arranged in quincuncial order. 
And this is the structure which we find in the Siren, with 
this difference, that the dental portion in the latter has no 
true teeth, which are only seen on the opercular bone. 

In all the AxoIotls that Cuvier examined, the branchial 
apparatus was cartilaginous. It consisted of two suspensory 
branches, or anterior horns, a(lixed to the cranium under the 
fene8tra rotunda, carrying an unequal piece, to which two 
lateral branches were attached on each side : the Rrst carried 
the first arch of the branchisa ; the second, the three others. 
The fir&t of these arches had dentilations on its posterior 
border; the two intermcdiate ones, on both their borders. 
Under the unequal piece was one which went backward, 
and whose extremity wa8 bifurcated. 

When Cuvier wrote thia description (in the Ossemens . 
Fossiles\ he thought that this animal was the larva of somo 
unknown Salamapder ; but in his last edition of the Rĕgne 
Animal he corrected this conjecture, and placed it where all 
zoolo^ist8 now place it, among the Batrachians. 

SIREN (ZooIogy), a genus of Perennibranchiate Batra- 

Generic Character. — Form elongated, nearly like that of 
tlie eels ; branchial tufls three on each side ; no posterior 
feet. nor any vestige of a peWis ; head depressed ; gape of thc 
mouth notwide; muzzle obtuse; eye very small ; the ear 
ooncealed; lower jaw armed with a horny sheath and 
8everalrow8 of small teeth; the uoper jaw toothless; but 
numerous small, pointed, retrovertea teeth occur on the pala* 
tal region. [Salamandridjb, vol. xx., p. 328.] 

Dr. Garden appears to be the first who called attention to 
this form, whicn is declared by Cuvier to be one of the 
most remarkable of the class of Reptiles, and indeed of the 
whole animal kingdom, from the anomalies of its organiia- 
tion, and its apparent relationship with different familie8» 
and even classes. Dr. Garden (1765-1766) sent a descrip- 
tion of this reptile to LinnsDUs and Ellis, and the former, re- 
lying upon Dr. Grarden*s assurance that the Siren did not 
change its form, established an additional order for it in his 
class Amphibia, with the name of Meantes. 

Pallas, Hermann, Schneider, and Lacĕpĕde however saw, 
as Cuvier remarks, nothing moro in the Siren than the 
larva of some large unknown Salamander ; whilst Camper, 
foIlowed by Gmelin, went so far as to give it a place among 
the fishes. The latter arranges it at the end of the Eels, 
under the name of Munena Siren, These differencc8 of 
opinion suffioiently show the doubts which arose on the cx 
amination of this extraordinary form. 

Cuvier, in 1807, satisfactori1y established, in a memoir 
read to the Institute of Prance, and inserted in the Ist voL 
of the • Zoolo^ical Observation8 of Humboldt,' that whatever 
changes it might undergo, the Sircn was a reptile sui ge- 
nerisy which never rould have hind feet, and whose whole 
bony framework differed essentially from ihat of the Snla- 
manders ; that there was no probability that it ever changed 
its form or lost its branchiis; and that tho Siren is conse- 
quently a truo amphibian» which re^es at will throughout 

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S I R 


S I R 

its lif«, either in tlie water by means of branchiaB» or in the 
air by means of lun^s* Tbis conclusion rested upon that 
solid basis which has given such value»a value aaily be- 
eoming moreappreciated— to the views of this great loolo- 
giet, — his peraonal observations made on the osteology and 
splanchnology of the animal. 

Dr. Garden had, in his correspondenee wilh Linnnus 
and EUis, come to the same conclusion fh>m other evi- 
dence. Dr. Grarden had observed the animal from the length 
of fovir inches to that of three feet and a half ; he bad 
satisAed himsel^ that in the whole province there was not, 
with the exception of the alligator, any Saurian or Sala- 
mander which exceeded six or seven inches in length, and 
be had eonvinced bimsel^ tbat it was oviparous, and that it 
propagated without losing its branehin. 

In 1766 Hunter, as we shall presently see, dedared the 
Siren to be a complete form, on the most satisAictory evi- 
deoee : the specimens dissected by him were brought fh>m 
South Oaiolina in 1768. 

That the Siren is a perfect animal belonging to the pe- 
rennibranchiate batrachians is now admitted by all soo- 
logista. Cuvier indeed remarks {Rĕgne Anitnal), that 
the branchi» of Siren intermedia and Siren itriata have 
been regarded as not participating in their respiration, and 
that in con8equence Mr. J. £. Gray has formed them into 
the genus Pieudobranchw. Cuvier however adds, that it 
is, nevertheles8, not diilicult to see on their lower surface 
folds and a vascular apparatus, the use of which does not 
appear doubtAil to him ; and tliat M. Leconte has satisfac- 
torily demonstrated that both these species, as well as Siren 
laeertina^ are perfect animals. 

CuTier remarks that the Siren sbould be judged of not 
after Amphiuma, but from itself. He accordingly procured 
soroe sirens, and saw an osteology so Anished and so flrro, 
that it was impossible to believe that they were not adult. 
The branchisB of these individuals were perfectly entire, 
and their lungs oompletely 'developed, and rich in well- 
illed tessels. No doubt therefore existed in his mind that 
ibe aiumals used both. 

He obser^^es, that it had been objected that it would be 
impossible for these animals to respire air without ribs or 
diaphragm ; and withoiit the power possessed by the tor- 
toises and frogs to cause^it to enter by the nostrils, in order 
that, so to migSt be swallowed, because the nostrils 
af tbe Sirens do not lead into the mouth, and the branchial 
apertures mustlet itescape. But his own observations made 
upon well'pre8erved individuals showed Cuvier that the nos- 
trils in the siren do communicate with the mouth by a liole 
pierced, as in the Protetu, between the lip and the palatal 
lione which carries the teeth. The membranous opercula 
of their branchin are muscular internally, and capable of 
hermetically sealing the apertures ; then it is very easy for 
the siren, by dilating its throat, to introduce the air into 
the mouth, and to force it afterwards, by contracting tbe 
throat, into its laryn^. Even without this structure of the 
nostrils» the animal could produce the same effect by open- 
ing its lips a little : a theory whieh Cuvier applies to the iVo- 
ieui as well as the Siren, 

The simultaneous existence, observes the same author, of 
a larynx and a trachea with a branchial apparatus not only 
permanent, but perfeetly ossitted in many of its parts, is 
alao wortby of especial attention, and proves, as is evident 
in the ftog» and salamanders, that the branchiai apparatus 
is no other than a more complicated os byoides, and not 
a oombination of pieces proceeding from the sternum and 
lirynx. He adds, that it is to the salamanders that the 
airens approach most nearly by the structure of the head, 
althougn neilher tbe ^eneral form nor the proportions of 
theparts have so near similarity. 

BLaving thus given a general view of the conformation of 
this extraordinary animal, we proceed to a sketch of the 
details of its 


8heieton.--The ekull of the siren is narrowed in front by 
reason of the excessive reduction of the maxillary bones, 
which consist ooly of a very small osseous point Behind 
there is a strong occipital crest on the parietal and petrous 
hones. The pieces which form the lower jaw, instead of 
being transver8e like the branches of a cross, are directed 
obliquely forwards. The parietal bones occupy the greatest 
portk>n of the upper part of the cranium. They have each 
u front a poin^ expanding so as to lodge between them 
the posterior part of the principal frontal bones, which have 
P. C» No. 1366. 

each a groove for the lodgraent of tlie posterior \iO\nt 6f two 
slender bones, which proceed beside eacb other to the end 
of the mussle. At their sides are attached two other bones, 
which are slender and pointed backwards, and which de- 
scend and widen far in order to raise the anterior edge o< 
the jaw. Cuvier takes the first for the nasal bones, and the 
others for intermaxillary bones. These last are toothless, 
but their edge is trenchant, and fumished, when the animal 
is alive or well preserved, as well as the edges of the lower 
jaw, with a sheath whieh is nearly horny, is easily detached 
from the s^m, and has its analogue in the tadpoles of the 
frog!«. [Salamandrida, vo1. xx., p. 328.] Between them. ' 
at the end of the osaeous mussle, is an aperture, but not 
that of the nostrils. In the rerent animal it is closed, and 
the nostril is pierced on each side on the outside of the in- 
termaxillary bone. In the crocodile the intermatillary ad- 
heres to the external side of the nasal bone, and all the 
reptiles, except the crocodile, have the nostril on the out- 
side of the ascending apophysis of the interroaxillary bone; 
but the peculiarity m the Siren is, that the interroaxillary 
ascending to the irontal bone entirely separates the nasal 
bone froro the frame of tbe external nosthl. The roaxillary 
bone excludes the nasal in the same way in the chameleon. 
A very small bone, suspended in the flesh below the extor- 
nal nostril, and without any tooth, is tlie sole peroeptible 
ve8tige of the maxillary bone. The cavity of the nostril is 
oovei*ed below with a simple ligamentous membrane. Tho 
internal nostril is situated on each side, near the commis- 
sure of the lips, between tbe lip and the palatine teeth. All 
the lower part of the cranium and the face is composed of 
a large and wide sphenoid, which extends from the occipital 
hole to the intermaxillarie8. The sides of the cranium, in 
the orbital region and the front of the temporal bone, are 
closed by a single bone, in which are pierced, forward, the 
olfactory aperture; farther back, the optic hole, and an- 
other for the ttrst branch of the fifth pair, and probably for 
the small nerve8 of the eye. The inferior surface of this 
lateral bone forms part of the palate at the sides of the 
spbenoid bone. It is plain that it performs the functions of 
the orbital part of tne spbenoid bone, or what has been 
called the anterior spbenoid, and that it fV]Iflls in part those 
of the ethmoid. Between it and the petrous bone is a great 
merobranous space, in which is pierced the hole for the rest 
of the fifih pair of nerves. The petrous bone and the lateral 
occipital bone are perfectly distinct It is in the petrogs 
bone only that the ^encstra ova1i8 is pierced, or ratner cut 
out, but the lower part of its frame is, nevertheless, cora- 
pleted by the lateral occipital and the sphenoid. Its aper- 
ture, which is large, is airected a little downwards. In 
the fresh state it is closed by a cartilaginous plate si- 
milar to that in the Salamander. There is only a single 
tvropanic bone fitted obIiqueIy by its posterior stem on 
the superior Burface of the petrous bone, and enlarging be- 
low nearly like a truropet, in order to furnish a large facet 
to the lower jaw. Cuvier found neither mastoidian, ptery- 
goidian, jugal, superior occipital, nor basilary bone, and ne 
remarks that the occurrence of the two last is impossible. 
when the position of the suture, which separates the lateral 
occipital bones, is considered. To the palate, under the an- 
terior and lateral part of the sphenoid and orbital bones, are 
fitted two delicate plates beset with hooked teeth. They 
may be taken for the vestige8 of vomers and of palatines, or, 
it it be preferred, of palatines and pterygoidians ; but Cu- 
vier did not find suASciently markea characters to warrant 
giving them those names. The first, which is the largest, 
has 8ix or 8even obliaue rows of pointed teeth, roaking a 
kind of wool-card. Tbose of the roiddle have each twelve 
teeth; the anterior and posterior ones have less. The 
second plate has four rows of similar teeth, each row eon- 
sisting of from five to 8ix. 

The lower jaw of the Siren is composed of four bones on 
each side ; one of which form8 the symphysis and the trench- 
ant border of the jaw, which it invests externally up to near 
its posterior extremity. One cannot, Cuvier observes, avoid 
taking it for th&analogue of the dental portion,but it is not 
the portion which carries the teeth, and it has only its 
trenchant edge invested in tlie fresh animal with a horny 
covering, analogous to that which forros the edge opposed 
to the upper jaw. The posterior extreroity of this trench- 
ant edge, roore elevated than the rest of the border of the 
bone, serve8 for the coronoid apophysis, The second bone 
form8 tlie greatest portion of the internal suHace and the 
posterior angle, and carries, ab<>ve» the third, which is th(| 

^ YoL. XXII.— liC 

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S I R 

articuiar tubcrcle. The fourth is a delicale and naiTOTr 
lamina which perrorrns the office of the opercular bone, and 
coYen, on the internal 8urface, a vacancy leilt between the 
two flrst. The whole of this bone is beset with small 
pointed teeth disposed quincuncially likc thuse of the palatal 

The os hydides of the Siren is an os byoides of the larTa 
of a Salamander or of the Axolotl, but very much ossiAed 
in many of its parts. The suspensory branch or anlerior 
horn ih a bone stouter and longer than the humerus, dilated 
at its two. ends, narrowed in its middle, and suspendcd to 
' the cranium by a li^ament. The first unequal piece is also 
a very hard bone dilated anteriorly, compressed posteriorly, 
and narrowed in its middle. The secoud unequal piece is a 
pedicle, which is divided behind into many radiating apo- 
physes : the whole of this, again, is very bony, and the two 
lateral branches are equally so. The Ainst, which is the 
stoutest, carries the Arst aich of the branchi» ; the second, 
which is more slender, carries Ihe threo others. These 
gill-arches are not ossiAed, but always remain cariilaginous, 
as in the Axolotl, and are, like thoi$e of the AxolotL, denti- 
lated. They are united by ligameuts at their external ex- 
tremity, which a ligament attaches also to the root of the 
anterior horn. The same pieces, or very nearly the aame, 
may be seen in the Proteus. 

The shoulder-blade of the Siron is slender, nearly cylin- 
drical, narrowed in its middle, and au^mented,on the spinal 
side, by a cartilaginous lamina. Tlie claoicle and the 
coracnid are represented by two cartilaginous lobes, one 
direcled forwards, the other much wider, proceeding upon 
the breast and crossing upon that of the opposite side. In 
the external border of this coracoid cartilage, near and a 
little behind the articular fossa, is a bony semilunar lamina 
which is the sole representatire of the bony coracoid : but 
there is nothing similar for the clavicle. Tlie humerus 
compressed laterally above, from before backwards below, 
andnarrowed in its middle, has its e^trcmities cartilaginous. 
It is the samo with the two bones of the ibrearm, both 
rather slender, and the internal bone or radius widened 
below. The bones of the carpus remain cartilaginous. 

Each bf the four ftnger8 has a metacarpian aiid two 
phalanges only. 

Autarior pottkoo of tlie ikelotoo of Siren lacitTtina. a. dorM] Tertebr» leeti 
beUind ; b, the Mme seea be&ire. 

There rs no Testige of a pelvis, nor of any posterior extre- 
mity, either osseous or cartilaginous. 

Cuvier did not find in a large individual more than forty- 
three veriebrce in the trunk and forly-four in the tail : but 
the individual whicb he described in 1807 had three more. 
These vertebrse, all perfectly ossified and complete, do not 
resemble in his opinion those of any of the reptiles of whieh 
he had previonsly treated, nor indeed of any other animal. 
Their bodies have their two articular faces hollowand united 
bv a cartilage in the forni of a double cone, as in the fishes. 
Thcir articular apophyses are borizontaI, and the posterior 
apophyses of one vertebra lie on the anterior apophyses of 
the other. A horizontal crest on each side goes from the 
anterior to the posterior. In lieu of a spinous apophysis, 
they bavc » Tertical creat, whicli at half ite length becoraes 

bifurcated, and ne oranches go to terminate on the articula; 
posterior apophysis. Their very wide transverse apophyso 
are composed of two laminse united at their posterior borde 
up to tneir oommon point; the upper, which is obIique 
coming from below the anterior artioular apophysis ani 
from below the neighbouring part of the lateral crest, th< 
lower coming from the sides of the body, to whirh it ad 
heres by a borisontal line. The body below is also coin< 
pressed into a sharp ridge (arĕte). 

In the vertebr€B which carry the ribs, the upper lamini 
of the transverse apophysis is but little raarked, and th^ 
point is stoutand divided into two lobes for the two tubercle; 
of the rib, as in the salamanders. Cuvier only found eight o 
these vestiges of ribs on each side, oommencing froni th4 
second vertebra. The two last have the head sioiple. Ai 
the tail, the transverse apophyses, which have already be 
come rather small, promptly disappear : the articidar apO' 
physes diminish also by degrees. The body of the yertebri 
takes a very compressed form, and gives below two small 
laminsD, which intercept a canal for the Tessels, like th( 
chevron bones in the lisards. 

Enlire ikelcton of Sirt c laoertiaa. 
Bespiratory Organs.-^John Hunter in 176« gave Ihe fol 
lowing accurate and interesting description of tlie two-fbh 
respiratory apparatus of the Siren :— •* On the posterior an< 
lateral parts of the mouth are three openin^ on eaoh side 
these are similar to the slits of the gills in iSsh, but the pai 
titions do not resemble gills on their outer edges, far the 
have notthe comb-like structure. Above and cloae to th 
extremily of each of these openings, externally, so man 
processes arise, the anterior tbe smalleet, the posterior tfc 
longest; their intorior and inferior edges and extremity qi 
serrated, or formed into Ambrise : these processes foId dow 
and cover tlie slits exlernally,and would seem to answer tb 
purposes of the comb-Iike part of the gill in fish. A 
the root of the tonguc, nearly as far back as these openini 
reach, the trachea begins, muoh in the same manner aa j 
birds. It passes backwards above the heart, and thei 
divide8 into two branches, one going to eaoh lobe of tl 
lun^. The lungs are two long bags, one on each aidi 
which begin just behind the heart, and pass back throug 
tbe whole length of the abdomen, nearly as fttr as the anu 
They are largest i» the middle, and honeycombed on the 
internal 8urfaoQ through theirwholo length/ {PhiL JVani 
lvi.» 1766.) 

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In the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in Lon- 
don tiiia part of the organization is well illustrated. No. 
1062 presenu a Siren laceriina, with the yentral parietes of 
the abdomen removed, together with all the visoera, except 
the lungs, xphich have been diatended with apirit. Tbese 
cotnmence immediately below the pericardium, and extend 
almost to the anus. A bristle is passed tbrough the trachea, 
and the hrvngeal oriAce is exposed by the removal of the 
cranium. The branchi» are externa1, three on eaeh side, 
and suspended to four cartiladnous arches of tbe hyoYd bone. 
The three internal branchialapertures of the 1eft side may 
be seen. No. 1063 exhibits the right side of the head of a 
larger specimen of Siren lacertina^ showing the branchial 
arches and gills of that side. The first and /burth branohial 
arches are flxed, the intermediate ones only being free. 
Their concate margins aie provided, as in many Sshes, wtth 
amall pointed processes, which lock into one another and 
defend the branchial passages. The gills inerease in sise 
from the flrst to the third, which is suspended to both the 
tiiird and fourth arches. They are subdivided and flm- 
briated inferiorly, where the 8urface is most vascular : the 
branchial arterles may be seen injected on the Gonvex side 
. of the cartilaginous arches. The origin and i»ttbsequenc 
reunion of the branchial vesse]s to form theaorta are sliown 
in the preparation No. 914 (fVom whieh the present was 
taken), noticed below. No. 1064 is a portion of the luugs of 
tbe same Siren^ laid open to show the ramiAcations of the 
pulmonary artery, which form a vascular network upon the 
internal surface of this simple respiratory bag. {Catalogue, 
voI. ii.) 

Circulatin^ Sysiem.^John Hunter describes (1 766) the 
heart of the Siren as consisting of ono auricle and ventriele. 
• What answers,' saya Hunter, * to the inferior vena cava, 
passes forward8 above,but in a sulcus of the liver, and opens 
into a bag similar to the perloardium : this bag surrounds 
\be heart and aorta as the pericardium does in other ani- 
mals; from this there is an opening into a vein whioh >ies 
abore, and upon the left of the auricle, which V6in seems to 
receive the blood from the lungs, eills, and head, is ana- 
iogous to the superior vena cava, ana opens into the auricle 
vbich is upon the left veutricle. The aorta goes out. pass- 
ing for a little ^'ay in a loose spiral turn, then becomes 
straight, where It seems to be muscular: at this part the 
branches go off, between which thcre is a rising within the 
arca of the aoita like a bird's tongue, with its tip turned 
towards the heart. This account of the vente cav8B opening 
into the cavity of tbe pericardium may appear incredible ; 
and it might be supposed that, in the natural statc of the 
parts, there is a canal of coramunication going from one 
cava to the other, which beingbroken or nipt through in the 
act of catching or killing tne animal, would give tho ap* 
pearance above described. I can only say that the appear- 
ances were what have been described in three dilTerent sub- 
jects which I have dissected, and in all of them the pericar- 
dium was fun of coagulated blood. But besides the small- 
ness of the subjects, it may be observed that they had been 
long preserved in spirits, wbich made them more unfit for 
anatomieal inquiries. They had been in my possession above 
seren years.' (Pkil. Trans., lvi.) 

In ihe Museum of the College of Surgeons theprepara- 
tion No. 912 shows the anterior part of the body or a Siren 
laceriina. The ventral parietes bave been removed, toge- 
ther witb the pericardiura, to show the heartm situ. It is 
of an elongated form, and consists of a large Ambriated 
auricle, divided internally into two chambers, and of a flat- 
tened oblong ventricle, giving off a single artery, whioh, 
after a half-spirai twist, dilates into an elongated Heshy 
bulbus arteriosus. The blood from the body passes into a 
large membranous sinus formed by the union of the two 
anterior ven8e cavse with the lar^e posterior cava. The latter 
vessel pours its blood into the smus by two orlAces on either 
side a septum, which extends forwards as fkr as the open- 
ings of the anterior cavsB, where it terminates in a firee 
semilunar margin ; the sinus is then continued forwards, 
and terrainates in the chambcr analogous to the right au- 
ricle. White bristles pass fi-om the posterior cava through 
the sinus on either side the septum into the anterior cav». 
A black bristle is passed through tbe right pulmonary vein 
into the trunk comraon to the two, which tra^erses but does 
nol communicate with Ihe sinus proper to the veins of the 
body, and terminates in the chamber analogous to the left 
The bulbus artcriosus is laid opcn, to show the val- 

vular protuberance whirh projeots into it frora the dorsai 
aspect. On ihe opposite $ide of tho proparation ihe cra- 
nium and upper jaw are removed to show the aperturos 
leading from the mouth to the lungs and gills, the simul- 
taneous existence of which through life form8 the chief cha- 
raoteristic of ihis tribe of truly amphibious reptiles. No. 9iy 
is the heart of a Siren. The auricle, consisting of two 
chambei-8, appears as one cavity externally.* It is remark- 
able for ils large sise, its weak parietes, and the number of 
Arabriated follicular processcs which it sends off, and 
which gives it an appearance similar to the branchial 
divi8ions .of the vena cava in the cephalopods. The 
ventricle ia here seen to be slightly bifld at the apex. 
The artery ismembranous at its oommencement. The bulb 
is here laid open to show the internal valvular projection. 
No. 913 A presents the heart and pericardium of a Siren 
lacertina^ prepared to show the internal structure of ^he 
auricles andt\entricle. White bristles pass from the vein8 of 
the body into the right auricle, and black ones through the 
pulmonary veins into the left auricle. This is much smaller 
than the right auricle, eorresponding to the quantity of 
blood whioh it receive8. The pulmonary vein8 unite into a 
common trunk,which seems to pass through the great sinus 
of the veins of the body, but it adheres to the parietes of 
that sinuB by its posterior 8urface. Here Profes8or Owen 
remarks thatitisprobabl/thisremarkablestructure which led 
Hunter to suppose that the sinus was part of the pericardium, 
and that ihe ven8B oav8Dopened intoit Tlie Profes8or then 
quotes Hunter'8 descriplion, above given, and adds, with 
truth, that all anatomists since IIunter's time have con- 
ourred in asoribingbutoneauricle to the heart of theSiren, 
and that Cuvier regards this siraple structure of the central 
organ of the circulation as common to the Batrachian order 
of reptiles. The outward form Qf the auricle, observes Mr. 
Owen, naturally suggests such an idea, and it is only in 
favourabie specimens that the true structure, as it is Bhown 
in this preparation (made by hira), can he roade out. The 
ventricle is conneoted to tne pericardium, not only by the 
reliection of the serous layer from the bulbus arteriosus, but 
by a duplicature of the sarae raembrane, which passes from 
the lower third of the poaterior edge of the ventricle, and 
incloses the ooronary vein : this vein is continued from the 
apex of the ventricle to the sinus. The musoular parietes of 
the ventricle are about a line in thickness, and of a loose 
fa8cieular structure. The cavity is partially divided by a 
rudimentary septum, which extend« from the apex half 
way towards the base of tho ventricle, and there terminates 
in a concave edge directed towards the orilioe of the artery. 
The whole inner surface is reticulated by decussating carnese 
columntB, one of which has been detached from its con- 
nection to the Beptum, which intervenes to the two auri- 
cular apertures, and which aupports the valvular 8tructure 
that closes them from within. The artery and bulbus ar- 
teriosuB ars laid open, sbowing in the latter the remarkable 
valvular projection described by Hunler. In conclusion, 
Profe88or Owen remarks that tlie ^essels on the back part 
of the talo, which supports the preparation, are, the inner 
ones, the pulmonary arteries, the outer ones, the jugular 
yeins or anterior cavcB. No. 914 is the anterior part of the 
body of a large Siren laeertina, prepared to bIiow the heart 
and principal vessel8 injected. The Ambriated struoture 
and magnitude of the auricles are well seen when thus 
distended, and they then advance forwards on both sides of 
thd ventricle and bulb, so as almost to encompasB thoBe 
parts. The two di^isions of tbe venou8 ^inus may be 
observed below the ventriole, with the termination of the 
coronary vein and the attacbment of the ventricle to the 
sinus. Behind the ventricle appear two superior cav8s which 
terminate at the sides of the sinus. The portions of the 
lungs which remain are laid open to sbow their reticulate 
structure, and the re1ativ6 nositions of the pulmonary 
arteries and veins : white bristles are placed in the former, 
and blaok ones in the lateral ve8sels. On the left side of 
the preparation, the origin of the pulmonary artery, from 
the posterior branchial arch, is shown. The remainder of 
the branohial ^essels, with the exception of small branches 
to the head, are ooUected into one trunk, which unites with 
the corresponding ^essels of the opposite side to ibrm the 
aorta or systemic artery. The tongue, the interior of the 
air tube, the internal branchial aperture, and the branchi» 
of the left side, the eye and nostril, and structure of the 
integument are also favourabIy displayed in this preparation. 
[Pkoteus and Protopterus.J ^ j 

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We now proceed \o lay before our readers such other pre- 
parations in this noble collection as illustrate tbe circulating 
system in animals approximating to the perennibranchiate 
Imtracbians, so that thc student may compare this part of 
their organisation with that of the Siren. 

No. 9 1 5 hhows the anterior part of the body of an Amphi- 
VMJL{Amph, means, Garden), prepared to show the heart 
and great ▼essels in gitu, Professor Owen states that tbe 
blood is returned from the body, as in the preceding species. 
by two auterior veniB caveB, and one large posterior cava, 
which form by their union a membranous sinus. The 
auricles or venous chambers of the heart are proportionately 
smaller and less fimbriated, and are situated more to tbe 
left and superior part of the ventricle. The ventricle is 
conneoted to the pericardium at its apex, and give8 off from 
its opposite extremity a single artery, which, after a half- 
sniral turn, dilates into a large bulbi which is broader and 
shorter than in Siren lacertina, and is grooved externally. 
The two pulmonary arteries are given off from the posterior 
part of the extremity of the bulb, which then divide8 into 
two branches, each of which again subdivides on the side of 
the (Bsophagus. As there are no external gills, so there 
are no lateral branches sent off from the branchial arteries ; 
but these, after winding round the arches of the hyoid bone, 
terraiuato in a single trunk on either side, and form by 
their union the aorta, which is seen, injeoted, behind the 
phai7nx. On the left side of this preparation the internal 
branchial aperture is preserved, and on the right side the 
branchial arches of the hyoTd bone are shown. The lungs 
are laid open so as to display their reliculate and longitudi- 
nally plicate structure, and the relative positions of the pul- 
monary arteries and veins. 

Professor Owen further obsenres that this preparation is 
iigured by Rusconi (Amours des Salamandres Aquatiques, 

EI. V., fig. 8) as a portion of the adult Siren lacertina, which 
e supposes to have lost the external brancbisD, and to have 
acquired the posterior extremities in a manner analogous to 
the salamandcrs ; and that Rusconi endeavour8 to invalidate 
the opinion which Hunter, after an extensive and minute 
comparison of their entire structure, had formed of the 
8pecific difference of ih^Amphiuma and Siren, as well from 
cach olher as from iUid Kattewasoe or Menopoma of Harlan. 
The manuscript alluded to by Ruscuni, and which contains 
detailcd accounts of the anatomy of Ampkiuma and Me- 
nopoma, as well as of the Siren, is given entire in the de- 
scripiion of the plates illu8trative of the 2nd vol. of the 
Museum Catalogue, where (plates xxiii. and xxiv.) the cir- 
oulatini( and respiratory organs of the ' Chuah Chisstannah, 
or Crawfish-eater, or Kattewagoe' (Menopoma AUegha- 
niensis, Harlan [Salamandridje, vo1. xx., p. 332], are 
beautifully displayed ; and Pro^essor Owen remarks that 
the conclusions as to the distinctions of these amphibia to 
which Hunter arrivod, have been Bub3equentlyconfirmed by 
a similar series of investigations instituted by Cuvier, and 
above noticed. 

No. 916 of the saroe museum exhibit8 the lower jaw, 
tongue, iauces, with part of the abdominal viscera, and the 
heart in situ of Menopoma Alleghaniensis, The greater 
part of the pericardium has been removed. The ventricle 
is of a Aattened triangular form, resembling that of osseous 
fishos : the aurirles are smaller in proportion than in the 
Siren, and are situated wholly to the left of tbe ventricle. 
The veins of the body terminate in a membranous sinus 
situated below tbe auricles. The aorta, afier making a spiral 
turn to the left side, dilates into a large bulb which gives off 
four vessel3 on each side. The first or posterior pair are 
the smallest, and ramify op the ossophagus and lungs ; but 
they are not distinctly shown in this preparation. The 
second and third pairsare the largest : they are seen passing 
outwards, and winding round the arcbes of the hyoid bone. 
The two brancbes unite on each side, and, after sending off 
small arteries to the head, converge on the poaterior part 
of the GBsopbagus, and unite to form the descending aorta. 
The fourth small pair of arteries pass outwards, and wind over 
the anterior part of the first hyoidian arch : they send off 
in this course some small arteries to the head, and ultimately 
unite with a cephalic branch given off from the united trunk 
of the third and second branchial arteries. The right lung 
is here preserved, and a black bristle is inserted into it from 
the trachea. White bristles are placed iu the right branchial 
uperture, which is left entire, showing the absence in this 
form, as in Amphiuma, of external gills. On the left side 
tbe bran^hial arches of the l^yoid bone are pr«servQd. B^ 

sides the parts ooncemed in tlie curculatory and respiratory 
functions, the stomach, duodenum, liver, pancreas, aud 
spleen are well shown in this preparation. No. 917 exhibits 
the heart, pericardium, and trachea of the last-noticed 
species. Here the ventricle is laid open to show the loose» 
fasciculate, muscular structure, whicn, as in the Testudo 
Indica, occupies the whole of its cavity. The bulb of the 
aorta is laid open to show the two rows of semilunar YaUes» 
tbree in each row, and the origins of the branchial arteries. 
The preparation is suspended by the pericardium, behind 
which is the liattened air-tube, in which distinct cartilagi- 
nous rings may be seen. {CatcUogue, vol. ii.) 

Generatipe System.—^So. 2695 exhibits the posterior part 
of a Siren lacertina, with the ventral parietes of the abdo- 
minal cavity removed to display the female organs of gene- 
ration. The ovaria are seen as two irregular elongated 
bodies, situated on each side of the root of the mesentery, 
and bearing impressions of the convolution8of the intestines. 
Tbey contain innumerable minute ovisacs of a greyish 
colour, with a few otbers of a larger size, and of a very dark 
colour. The oviduct8 are external to the ovaria, and are 
attached to the sides of the spine, each by a broad duplica- 
ture of peritoneum : they commence anteriorly bv a simple, 
elongated, slit-like aperture, without fimbriatea margins, 
aud are immediately disposed in about twenty parallel trans- 
ver8e fold8, which gradually diminish, and finally cease about 
three iuches from the cloaca, where the oviducts open 
behind the reotum upon small prominences : bristles are 
placed in these outlets. The contracted allantoid bladder 
is seen anterior to the rectum : the posterior extremity of 
the kidney extends behind the oviducts, a short way beyond 
tbe cloaca. No. 2696 shows the anterior extremity of the 
oviduct8 and liver of a Siren. The oviduct8 are much 
attenuated at their commencement,butsoon increase in size, 
and become thicker in their parietes. (Catalogue, vol. ii.> 

No preparation of the male organs of the Siren appeam 
to exi8t in the CoUese Museum ; but there are two illustra- 
tive of those of Ampniuma and Menopoma, which we proceed 
to lay before our readers. 

No. 2397 is the posterior moiety of an Amphiuma (^m- 
phiuma didactylum), with the abdominal cavity laid open, 
and exposing to view the termination of the intestinal canaU 
supported by its broad and simple mesentery, tbe termina* 
tion of the right lung, the long allantoid bladder attachcd 
by a duplicature of the peritoneum to the mesial line of the 
abdomen, and the testes with their adipose appendages : 
the latler may be observed projecting on each side of the 
root of the mesentery; and behind them are the testes, 
elongated, subcylindrical, ash-coloured bodies, tapering at 
both extremities : the vasa deferentia descend in the form 
of white ligamentous tubes, and finally opcn into the pos- 
terior part of the termination of the rectum, which is laid. 
open. The renai organs are almost coucealed by the parta 
above described: they have been injected. No. 2933 
exhibit8 the male organs, kidneys, allantoid bladder, and. 
large inte8tineof the Menopome {Menopoma AlleghanienH^y^ 
The testes in this subject are less elongated, and of a moro 
compact oval, thus indicating a further stage of advanco> 
ment above the class of fishes. The efferent vessels leave 
the testls at a longitudinal groove at their poslerior and 
internal 8urfaces, at the line of reAection of the supporting- 
processes of peritoneum, and on each side unite to form a. 
va8 deferens, which descends along the edge of a process of 
peritoneum external to the kidneys, and finally opens into 
the termination of the rectum, as in the Amphiume. Tho 
kidneys are opake white bodies, which, beginning by small 
extremities near the lower end of the testes, slightly enlargc» 
as they descend to the cloaca. The injectcd aorta occupies 
tbeir posterior interspace, and there sends off the arteries 
for tbe hinder extremities. (CatalogUe, vol. ii.) 

Siren lacertina grows to the length of thrce feet: its 
colour is blackish. The fi}et have four toes, and the tail i^ 
compressed into an obtuse fin. 

This Siren inhabits the marshy grounds of Carolina, espe^ 
cially those where rice is cultivated. , It .lives in tbe mud^ 
from whence it makes excursions, sometimes on land aa cl 
sometimes in the water. From the swampy places by th cs 
sides of pools and under the overhanging trunka of olcl 
trees where it is found, it was called by the inhabitan^^ 
' tbe Mud Iguana.' Garden was of opinion that it feec2s 
on serpentB, and that it uttered a cry similar to that of « 
young duck; but Barton contests these statements. ICa 
fQod is g^n^rally b^lieyed tg coosi&t of ^wrtb-wonnsi in^^ctWi 

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&e. Thero is now (Sept., 1841) a Ana lively speoimen in 
the parrot-house in the garden o( the Zoological Society in 
tbe Regent^s Park. It is kept in a vessel of pond-water 
with a deep bottom of mud, in whicb it bides itself, and is 
twenty incbes long, as large as the wrist of a stout child 
of six montha old, and very eel-like in its moyements and 
appearanoe. About a dozen and a half of carth-worms are 
Eupplied to it as food every other day« 
' Siren stncUa is blackish, with two longitudinal yellow 
stripea on each side ; has only three toes on each foot, and 
18 about nine inches in lengtb. 

SlreD itriata. 
M, hmd and antarior part Men in profile, ihowing the branchis and (bot. 

Whilst tbe article was passing tbrough the press. Pro- 
fessor Owen was so good as to send tbe folIowing highly in- 
teresting observations on tbe blood-globules of the Siren for 
insertion in this work : — 

'Aroong tbe important generalizations which the nu- 
merous observations of recent microscopical anatomists 
hare enabled the pbysiologist to establish respecting tbe 
form and 8ize of tho blood-discs in different classes of 
animals, tho most interesting seems to be that which Pro- 
fe88or Wagner has enunciated respecting the relation of 
the magnitude of the blood-disc to tbe persistence of tbe 
branchial apparatus in tbe Batracbian order of reptilea on 
the occasion of his description of the blood-discs of tbe Pro- 
teu9 onguinus. 

The absolute Bize of these particles in that perenni- 
branchiate reptile, in which tbey may be distinguished by 
tbe naked eye, renders them peculiarly adapted for minute 
inve8tigations into the structure of the nucleus and capsule 
of the blood-disc : but tbe value of tbe relation between 
their size and the persistency of the external gills must 
depend uponthe correspondence of other perennibrancbiate 
reptiles witb the Proteus in this respect. The superior sizo 
of the blood-discs of tbe newts to tbose of the land-sala- 
tnanders and tailless Batrachians haa been confirmed by 
Profes8or van der Hoeven*s obser^ations on tbe blood-discs 
of the giganticnewt of Japan (Sieboldtiay Salamanorid^, 
vo1. xXm pp. 331, 332), of whicb a fine specimen has been 
for several years kept alive at Leyden ; and I have been 
able to add another instance of the still greater relative 
aize of the blood-discs in the perennibranchiate reptiles 
by the examination of those of tbe largest existing species of 
that family, ihe Siren lacertina^ of wbich a specimen 
twenty inches in length is now (October 15tb) living attbe 
Zjulogical Gardens. The blood was obtained from one of 
the external gills, and immediately subjected to examination. 
The blood-discs presented the elliptical form which hitherto 
without exception has been found to prevail among tbe air- 
breathingoviparous vertebrated animals : the ellipse was not 
quite regular in all the blood-discs ; several were 8ub-ovate, 
a few slightly reniform and thicker at the more convex 
side : all were as compressed, or disc-shaped, as in other 
Batrachians, with tbe nucleus sli^htly projecting from each 
p| the datt^ned 9urf^, 

' The nucleus did not partake in the 'same degree with 
these varieties of form,but maintained a more regularellip- 
tioal form ; the varieties in question appearing to depend on 
pressure acting upon the capsule and the coloured liuid 
surrounding the nudeus. Yet when the eUipse of the 
blood-disc was, as it happened in a few cases to be, longer 
and narrower tban tbe average, tbe form of the uucleus pre- 
sented a similar modification of size. 

'The foUowing is a table of tbe avera^e8 of many admea- 
surements of these blood-discs, made with the screw micro* 
meter* : — 

English inch. 

. l-4dOth 

l-850th to1-870th 

. 1-lOOOth 

. ]-2000th 


' Long diaraeter 
Long diameter of nucleus 
Sbort diameter of ditto . 
Thickness ofditto . 
(as viewed edgeways covered by tbe capsule). 

' The nucleus was circumscribed by a double line, tbe 
outer one more regular than the inner one, whicb appeared 
crenated. This appearance was due to the structure of the 
nucleus, or the contents of the nucleolar capsule, wbich 
was indicated by the outer line. These contents con- 
sisted, in every blood-disc examined, of a number of mo- 
derately bright spherical nucleoli, sufficiently distinct to 
be counted, when viewed by a Poweirs 1-1 Oth inch ob- 
jective, with the eye-piece, magnifying 700 linear dia- 
meters : the ordinary number of nucleoli seen in one 
plane or focu8 being from twenty to thirty, the total 
number was of course much greater. The facility as 
well as certainty of the demonstration of such a structure in 
a good microscope of the present day will be readily acl- 
mitted when it is remembered that tbe nucleus of tbe 
blood-disc of tbe Siren is tbree times the size of the entire 
human blood-disc. These tuberculate nuclei, when re- 
moved from the capsule, were oolourless ; the component 
granules or cells have a high refracting power : viewed m 
situ they present a tinee of colour lighter tban that of the 
surrounding tluid, and dependent upon the thin layer of that 
liuid interposed between the nucleus and the capsule. 

' The external capsule of the blood-disc is smooth, mode- 
rately resisting, elastic, as was easUy seen by the Aattening 
of the parts of two blood-discs tbat mtght come in contact, 
and the recovery of form when they were Aoated apart. 

' As the duidcontenta of theblood-diso in part evaporated 
during the process of desiccation, the capsule fell into fold8 
in tbe interspace between tbe nucleus and the outer con- 
tour, these fold8 generally taking the direction of straight 
lines, tbree to seven in number, radiating fVom tbe 
nucleus.' (R. Owen» Sept. 25, 1841.) 


Blood-disct of Man aad Siren, drawn by inc camera ladiU onder a magiii- 
lying power of 700 linear dimousious. 

a, Uuman blood^diacs; a\ ditto vietved edgcwises b, 8iren*t blood-diac; 
b', ditlo viewod edgewtBo ; c, folds of extemal cApsule. produced by deaicca- 
tion ; d, capsule of nuoleus ; e, uucleuii. 

SIRENS (Seip^wc) are described in the * Odyssey' as two 
maidens who sat by tbe sea and so cbarmed with their 
music all who sailed by, that tbey remained on the spot tilL 
they died. Ulysses, by the direction of Circe, had himself 
tied to the mast, and stopped tbe ears of his companions 
with wax, \iy whicb meansbe was able to hear their musir, 
and escape from its intluence. {Od,, xii. 39, &c., 169.) The 

* ' 1 was ii.debted io Mr. Stokes (br the use of tho one altacbed to his ^d 
mirable mlcuwcopo br rowet), ^^^ t 

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sliip of Ulysses, with hiroseir tted to the mast, it frequentl7 
represented on gems, and other works of antient art. (See 
Diciionary of Greeh andRoman Antiguities, p. 52.) The 
nuraber of the Sirens was afterwards increased to three, 
and various names were given to Ihem by different writers. 
They were usually called the daughters of Melpomene and 
Achelous (Apollod., i. 3» $ 4), and were represented by art- 
ists with the feathers and wlngs of birds (compare Ovid, 
Met.t ▼. 522, &c.) They were urged by Hera to contend 
with the Muses, who conquered them» and tore off their 
wines. (Paus., ix. 34, J 2.) 

SIRHIND, a district of northem Hindustan, which ex- 
tends from 29'' 27' to 31° N. lat., and from 73° 38' to 77° 
38' E. long. The northern boundary is formed by the 
Sutlej, and the Jumna forms a part of the eastern boun- 
dary. The principal rivĕr is the Gagur. Most of the other 
rivers are amuents of the Gagur. Sirhind constitutes a por- 
tion of what are called the Hill States, and is inhabited 
by the Sikhs. [Hindustan, p. 283.] The town of Sirhind, 
from which the district derives its name, though former]y a 
plaee of importance, is now little else than a heap of ruins. 

SIRI, VITTO'RIO. born at Parma in 1625, became a 
priest, and a^terwards went to Paris, where he found favour 
with Louis Xiy.4 who appointed him his almoner and his- 
toriographer. Siri wrote a joumal in Italian, entitled * Mer- 
Gurio Politico/ which he continued for many years, and as 
Louis acted fbr a long period the principal part on the 
political 8tageof Europe, he was llattered at having by him 
a writer who contributed to spread his fame in a foreign 
language. Siri however was not a ful8ome tlatterer, and 
although he often prnised Louis, he did not always spare his 
ministersand other powerful menof that and the preceding 
reign, and this freeaom passed unheeded chietly from the 
circumstance of his writing in alanguoge foreign to France, 
and which was not understood by the people in general. 
Besides the ' Mercurio Politico/ the collection of which con- 
sists of flfteen thick volumes, Siri wrote another journal* 
entitled 'Memorie Recondite/ which Alls eight volumes. 
Le Clerc {Bibliothĕque Ghoiĕie, ▼ol. iv., p. 138) ob5crves 
that both these works contain a vast number of valuable 
authentic documetits. The general style of the writer is how- 
ever prolix and heavy. Slrl died at Paris, in 1685. (Cor- 
niani, Seenli della Letteratnra Itatiana.) 

SIRI'CIUS, a native of Rome, succeeded Damasus I. as 
bishop of that city, a.d. 384, under the reign of Valentinian 
II. We have 8everal letters by him written to variou8 
chnrches on matters both of dogma and of discipline. Sorae 
of them are in condemnation of the Priscillianists, Dona- 
tists, and other heretics ; one is directed to Anycius, bishop 
of Thessalonica, on matters of jurisdiction ; another to Hi- 
merius, bishop of Tarracona, which is one of the oldest 
instances of a bishop of Rome sending mandates to other 
churches to be received as ecclesiastical laws. Siricius is 
also one of the first bishops of Rome who wrote concerning 
the celibacy of thaclergy. He directed that a priest who 
married a second wife after the death of the first should be 
expelled fvom his odice. (Plalina, Lives o/ the Papes ; 
Dupin, Nowelle Bibliothĕque, Vie de Sirice.) The council 
of Nicsea had already decreed that all clerks who had been 
married before they took orders, should be allowed to retain 
their wives according to the antient tradition of the church, 
but that priests and deacons should not marry after their 
ordination. Siricius died a.d. 398. 

SI'R1US and PRO'CYON (Sttpioc and Hpojci^wy). 'the 
Greek names of the bright stars in the constellations 6f the 
Greatand Little Dog [Canis Major and Minor]. These 
are Orion'8 dogi, according to some, and those of minor 
personages, according to others: the whole of their mythic 
cxplanalions form astrong proof, in addition to those already 
noticed, that the constellations are not Greek in their 
origin. In a passage af Hesiod he has been supposed 
to speak of the sun under the name of Sirius; and 
Hesychtus deAnes the word to mean both the sun and 
the dog-star. Dr. Hutton informs us that the Egyptians 
'called the Nile Siris, and hence their Osiris,' which 
ho has copied from Sir John Hill, who derive8 Sirius 
from Siris, but does not say where he got his informa- 
tion : probably from some writer of his own calibre. The 
Egyptians called the dog-star Sothis [Sothiac Pbriod], 
aiid Aom its hbliacal rising had warning that theoverfiow 
of the Nile was about to commence. Now the overflow of 
the Nile fuUow8 the summer solstice; whereas, by the pre- 
cession of the equinoxes» the heliacal rising of Sirius is now 

about the tenth of August. This heliacal rising is a very 
indefinite pbenomenon, and will 8erve any system : by it 
Bailly, from Bainbridge*s calculations, was abie to carry 
back the settlemeut of Egypt 2800 years before Chriat : 
while Newton, by a reckoning made ou the 8ame principles, 
made many antient event8 seem later than was generally 

The greatest heats of summer generally follow the summer 
solstice, and in the Mediterranean latitudes, and in antient 
times, it was observed that the unbealthy and oppressive 
period coincided with the heliacal rising of the dog-star. 
Wu say the dog-star, without specifying whether it was 
Sirius or Procyon ; it is uncertain T^iich it wa.s, and may 
have been both, for the heliacal risings do not differ by 
many days. The .star itself was in Latin canicula, which 
should seem to apply to the lesser dog, and Horace says^ 

' Jam Procyon Ihrit 
£t ttella vesani Leonis [w. Regulus] 
Sole dies refcreDtc tiiccos.' 

Pliny supports the same meaning of canicula, and per- 
haps Hyginus ; alao the framers of the Alphonsine Tables» 
and Bede and Kepler, among the older moderns : while Ger- 
manicus and Julius Firmicus, with Apian, Magini, Argoli, 
H. Stephens, and Petavius, among the moderns, contend 
for Sirius, which is the more common opinion. AIl anti- 
quity attributed an evil inttuence to the atar ; and though 
Geminus among the antients, and Petaviu8 among the mo- 
derns, thought that the effects were to be attributed to the 
sun alone, they had harrlly any foIIowers until the fall of 
judicial astrology. £ven at this day, when the beats of the 
latter part of tbe summer are exces8ive, we are gravely told 
that we are in the dog-days ; and the almanacs, in which an 
absurdity has the live8 of a cat, persist to this very year in 
informing us that the dog-days begin on the 3rd of July, 
and end on the 1 1th of August. Now as the beliacal rising 
of Sirius takes place about the very end of this period, it is 
clear that the cart has got before the horse, or the mischief 
before the dog. Moreover it is notorious that in our island 
the oppressive heats of the summer, during which dogs are 
apt to run mad (which is what manypeople think the name 
arises from, as indecd it was antiently recorded among the 
eiTeots of the star), generally fall about the middle or end 
of August. The real classical dog-days are the twenty days 
preceding and the twenty days foiIowing the heliaeal 
rising of whichever star it was, Sirius or Procvon. It is per- 
fectly useless to retain this period : surely these dogs have 
had their day. 

SIRMOND, JACQUES, was born at Riom, in France, 
October 22, 1559. Having oompleted his studies at the 
Jesuits* college at Billom, the first which that Society had 
in France, he adopted the rulc of St.Ignatius, and prepared 
himself, by a diligent study of the antient languages, iix 
fulfilling the duties of a teacher. When he had Anished his 
noviciate, his superiors required him to come to Paris as pro- 
fessor of rhetoric, in which cily he remained till 1790, when 
he repaired to Rome, on the invitation of the Pere Aqua- 
^i^^a, Greneral of the society of Jesuits, who chose Sirmond 
as his secretary. In this employraent he continued 8ixteeii 
years, during which he examined diligently the manuscripts 
in the Yatican library, as well as the inscriptions and oiher 
remains of antiquity, of which Rome possesscd such aa 
abundant supplv. 

In 1608 tbe tĕre Sirmond returned to Paris, and soon 
afterwards commenced a visitation of the libraries and 
archives of the convents, and was thereby enabled to saye 
from destruction a great number of documents of tho 
highest value for the history of the middle oges. Sirmond's 
first publication was the * Opuscules* of GeoiTroi, abhĕ de 
Vend8me, in 1610; from which time he continued to add 
to his reputation by other publications almost every year. 
Pope Urban VII. invited him to return to Rome, but Louis 
Xni. retained him in Prancc, and in 1637 made him his 

Tlie Pĕre Sirmond, having left the court on the death of 
Louis XHL in 1643, recommenccd his literary labours, 
which had been somewhat inlerrupted by attention to the 
dulies of his late dignified office, and continued with un- 
abated ardour to occupy himsel^ in the same way till bis 
death, October 7, 1651, wheu he was 92 years of age. 

Sirmond's * Ouvrages' wero collected and p\iblished in 

1696, in 5 vol9. folio. The first ihree voIuraes contain tho 

* Opuscules' of those Pathers and olher ecclesiastical writers 

which had been published by Sirmond, with prefaces sind 

Digitized by V:rOC 


s I s 


S I S 

notes ; the fourth Yolume contains biB Diasertations ; and 

the lifth Yolum^ contains the workA of Thĕodore Studite. 

Thii edition of Sirmond^s Works is by the Pĕre La Baume, 

aod is preceded by a Life of Sirmond by the editor, his 

Puneral Oration by Henri de Yalois, and a list of Sirmond*s 

Works in manuscript aswell as priuted. In this edition 

are inoluded the Works of Ennodius bishop of Pavia, of 

^OK Sidonius Apollinaris, of Bugenius biabop of Toledo. the 

lutr Chronioles of Idatiut and MarceUinus, the CoHections of 

pn&' Aoastasius the Librarian, the Capitularies of Charle»-le- 

^-sc Chaave aud his auocessors» ihe works of St* Avit, of Thĕo- 

n r« dulphe bishop of Orleans, &o. Father Sirmond pubUshed 

ndr oiber eoeiesiastical writers besides tho«e ioeluded in the 

iife: aboTe edition, among which are * L'Histoire de Reims,' by 

. vt. PkNloard, the * Lettres de Pierre de Gelles,' the ' (Suvres' 

SLJ^. of Radbert, of Tbeodoret, of Hincmar archbishop of Reims, 

&c Sirmond published also a Collection of the Councils of 

' Phince, * Concilia Antiqua Gklti»,' Paris, 1629, foho. 

(BiograpMe Unwerselle,) 

SIRl)CCO. [WiwD.] 

SISIN^NIUS. a Syrian by birth, sueoeeded John VII. 
as bishop of Rome, ▲.d. 707, and died twenty days after his 
eleetiGii. He was sucoeeded by Constantine. 

SISON, the name of a genus of plants belonging to the 
oatoral order Umbellifer9B. It possesses the fbIlowing 
eharaeters :— ealyz obsolete ; petals broadly obcordate, deeply 
ootclied* and cttrved with an inflexed point; styles very 
short; fruit ovate, laterally compressed; carpels with 
Ave ftUform equal ridgea, of which the lateral ones are 
margtoal; interstioes with single, short, club-shaped ▼ittso; 
seed gibbous, convex, plane in front; universal and partial 
iBvolucre of few leave8. 

Smnd speoies wero formerly re^ent^d to this ^us which 
m now plaeed under variou8 genera. The only species that 
ssBow decidedlyTefetred to Slson is the S.Atnomumy hedge 
bastard stone parsley. It is a native of PrancOi Sicily, Italy, 
Oreece, and Great Britain. It is not unft'equent in this 
iiwntry, eepeoially in chalk soils in rather moist ground, 
nidAr bedges, &c It is known by its erect, terete, pani- 
enlately branehed stem ; pinnate leaves, tbe lower leaAets 
lather toothed and lobed, upper ones out into narrow seg- 
uents. The Aowers are cream-eoloured. The green plant 
when bniised has a peouliarly nauaeous smell, tomething 
like that of bugs. The seeds are pungent and aromatio, 
and were formerly celebrated as a diuretieibut are now little 
8ISSOO, a tree well known througbout the Betigal pre- 
rti^- f sideney, and highly valued on account of its timber. It is 
it i common cbtetiy in the forests and beds of rivers which ex- 
jia teod all along the foot of the Himalayaa up to 90^ N. lat. 
pi^ The trunk is generally more or less crooked, lofty, and 
i, n often from three to four feet in diameter. The branehes 
iJ tie numeroiM and spreading; the leavc8 pinnate, with 5 
\p' alteroate roundish acute leatiets, which ftom their small 
la:^ sise and drooping nature give the tree a very light and 
q^' degant appearance. 

t: The Sissoo yields the Bengal shipbuilders tbeir erooked 

ti»; thnbers and khees. Dr. Roxburgh "describes it as being 

:?/ tolermbly light, remarkably strong, but not so durable as 

> ' could be wished ; the colour is light greyish-brown, with 

^ dark Teins : lie says that upon the whole he scarcely knows 

any other tree more deserving of attention, from its rapid 

growth in almost every soil, its beauty, and uses. Captain 

Baker, in his * £xperiments on the Elastieity and Strength 

of Indian Timbers,' describes the Sissoo in structure some- 

wbat reaembling the flner species of teak, but as being 

tougher and more elastie, and as employed by the natives 

ibr iiouse Aimtture, beams, eheeks, spokes, navesand fel- 

lies of wUeels, keels and iremes of boats, blocks, and print- 

ing-presses. It is universally employed both by Europeans 

aikl natives of the north-^ost proYinces where strength is 


The Sissoo belongs to a genus Dalbergia, which abounds 
in valuable timber-trces, as D. laii/blia, which is usually 
ealled Blaekwoodi-tree by the English, and of wliich the 
wood ia exported as a kind of ebony : sometimes also 
ealled Black Rose-wood. It is one of the largest timber- 
Irees of India, being 15 feet in eireumference, with the 
wood of a greenish-black colour, with lighter-coloured veins 
mnning in Tarious directions, and admitting a fiije polish, 
atid therefore much admired as fVirniture<wood. Captain 
Baker fottnd it, like the 'Siasoo, able to snstain a weight of 
UM pettods» ^heA teak broke with 1 12S Ibs. S. Daiber- 

eiaOugeinensia, found in rentral India, ia alsohighly valued 
for timber : the pillars of Sindia*s palace at Ougein are 
made of it. 

SISTERON, the chief town of an arrondissement in tbe 
departmentof Basses Alpes in France,on the righi bankofthe 
Durance, at the junction of the Buech, 437 miles from Paria 
by Lyon, Grenoble, and Gap. Sisteron was known to the Ro- 
mansby the name of Segustero (ItinerariumAntoninini, and 
Peutinger Tabls) or the town of the Segesterii (Notitia Pro- 
vinoiarum), afterwardA altered into Segesterium, Sisterioum, 
and Sisteron. It is not known to what people it belonged. In 
the sixth century it became the seat of a bishoprio, and waa 
the object of attack in tbe ninth century to the Saracens and 
the Hungarians. The townsmeu embraoed the Huguenot 
party in the religious cx)nteats of the sixteenth century. Tiie 
Catholics in consequence attaoked the town and took it, a.d. 
1562 ; but it waa afterwards retaken by Lesdiguidres. The 
town is calculated to be 479 metres, or 1570 feet, above the 
Ievel of the sea. It is situated at the fi>ot of a rock, upou 
which is an old citadel, and is surrounded by an em« 
battled wall Aanked with towers, but is commanded by the 
surrounding heights, ao aa to be iittle defensible in modern 
warfore. There are two bridges, one of a aingle arch over 
the Durance, the other over the Buech. The ex-cathedral 
has a fine altar-piece by Yanloo; there are two oiher 
churches, an hospital, and a prison. The population in 
1831 was 3937 for the town, or 4429 ibr the whole com- 
mune. The townsmen manufacture hats, leather, and pot- 
teiy ; there are lime-kilns ; and trade is carried on in almonds, 
wool, oil, and trufiies : there are ten yearly ftiirs. The sur- 
rounding country produoes a great ouantUy of walnuts 
and almonds, and some good wine. UrDS, t-aseg, lamps, 
roedals, and other Romatl antiquitiea have been dug up 

SISTRUM, a musical instrument of percussion, of the 
highest antiquity, constructed of brass, and shaped like 
the Ihime and handle of a racket, the head part of which 
had three, and sometimes four, horizontal bars placed 
loosely on it, which were tnned, most probably, by some 
scale, and allowed to play freely, eo that when the instru- 
ment was shaken, piercing, rtnging sounds must have been 
produced. Some writers have eonfounded the sistrum with 
the oymbals, though the instrumente eonld have had nothing 
in eommon exoept their harsh metallio sounds. 

SISY'MBRIUM (from Si<T^/ti8piov), the name of a 
ffenus of plants belon^np^ to the natural order Crucifer8D. 
It possesses a roundtsh stHque seated upon a torus ; two 
stigmas, somewhat distinct, or connate into a head ; calyx 
equal at the base ; ovate or obleng aeeds ; Hat, incumbent, 
sometimes oblique cotyledons ; stamens not toothed. The 
species are mostly perennial or annual herbs, with yellow 
or white ilowers, and leave8 very variable on the same 
plant. About fifty-eight species are enumerated, but com- 
parativelyfew of these are cultivated. The genus however 
belongs to an order that possesses no injurious plants, and 
a few of the specie? are well known on aeoount of their 

S. qficinarum, Cominon Hedge-Mustard, has muricate 
pilose leaves, a pilose stem, and subolate pods pressed to tho 
rachis. It is a native ef Burope, and grows in waste places 
and way-sides, among rubbish, and along the sides of walls. 
It is plentiful in Britain, and alao the north of Africa. The 
whole plant is warm and acrid, and is often cultivated for 
use as a pot-herb. It is eaten by sheep and goats ; but 
cows, horses, and swine refuse it. In medicine it was for- 
merly much used as an expectorant in chronic coughs and 
asthma. It was also recommended in ulcerations of tho 
roouth and throat. Tbe stimulant pronerties of this and 
olber plants belonging to the order would make them un- 
doubtedly valuable remedies in many diseases in thc ab»ence 
of other means, but in modern medicine more powerful and 
certain reroedies have thrown into disuse many agents for- 
merly hi^hly valued. 

S. Irio, London Rocket or Broad-ieaved Hedge-Mustard : 
stem and leaves smooth ; 1eaves runcinato ; lobes toolhed ; 
pod erect. It is a native of waste places throughout Europe, 
but especially about London. It is said to have entirely 
corerea the ground in the following spring of the great fire 
of London in 1666. The former species is also remarkable 
fbr appearing on the ground where flres have existcd. In 
such cases the ashes o? the fires constitute a nutriment pe- 
cuiiarly adapted for the growth and deve)opment of these 
plants. The wbole of this plant possesses the hot biting 

S I T 

cltaraoter of ibe mustard. Several varietiea liare been re^ 

S. Sophia, Five-leaved Hed|;e-Ma8tard, or Flixweed: 
1eaves doubly pinnatifid, alightly bairy; lobes linear or 
OYal; pedicels four times longer than the calyx; petals 
shorter. It grows on dry banks, waste ground, dung- 
hills, and among rubbish in most paru of Europe. It is 
frequent in Great Britain. It has derived its name of ilix- 
weed and that of ' wisdom of surgeons ' from its supposed 
power of controUing diarrho&a, dysentery, &c. Whatever 
may have been its foTmer reputation, it is now almost 
entirely fallen into disuse. 

Sf. mllejblium, MiUfoiMeaved Flixweed: leave8 some- 
what tripinnate, hoary ; lobules blunt, small ; stems shrubby j 
petals larger tban tne calyx. A native of Teneriffe, on the 
rocks in the lower parts of the tsland. It isa small branobed 
shrub, with corymbose Aowers. It is a greenhouse species, 
growing well in a rich light soil ; and young cuttings will 
readily root under a hand-glass when placed in a sheltered 

S, stHeHmmum, Spear-leaved Hedge-Mustard : leaves 
lanceolate, stalked, toothed, pubescent. It has intensely 
yeUow Aowers, with pods two inches long ; the stem is erect, 
and branching at the top. It is a hardy perennial, adapted 
for shrubbertes, and may be easily increased by divi8ion of 
the root. 

This genus at one time included that now known under 
the name of Nasitartium, The latter was originally sepa* 
rated by Brown, and is principally distinguished by the 
position of the eotyledons, a point of primary importance in 
the whole order of Brassicacese. In Sisymbrium the cotyle- 
dons are folded with their back upon the radicle, whilst in 
Nasturtium their edges are presented to it ; in the former 
the cotyledons are said to be incumbent, in the latter accum- 

A well known species o( Nasturtium is the N qfficinalet 
formerly Sisymbrium Nasturtium, the common water-cress. 
In addiiion to the characters of the genus, tbis plant is 
known principaUy by ihe form of its leaves. The leaf is 
composed of from 5 to 7 leatiets, which are arranged oppo- 
site each other on a common petiole with a terminal leatlet. 
The lealiets are somewbat heart-shaped and slightly waved 
and toothed; they are succulent, and their surikce is smooth. 
The terminal leatlet is always largest. Tbe upper leave8 do 
not separate into distinct leaAets, being pinnatifid with 
narrow segments. The petiole of the leaf does not in any 
manner embraoe the stem. The Howers are while, and the 
pods, when ripe, are about an inch long. This plant is a 
native of rivulets throughout tbe world, and is very plentiful 
in Great Britain. It has a warm agreeable flavour, and has 
long been one of the most popular plants as a salad. It 
was formerly mucb used in medicine as a'diuretic and anti- 
soorbutic, but its great oonsumption now is as an article of 
diet. As it frequently grows amongst plants tbat are not 
wholesome, and that b^ to it a general resemblanoe, it 
would be well foreveryone to be acquainted with its charac- 
ters. The plant most frequently mistaken for it, especially 
when out of Aower, is the foor8 water-eress. [Siith.] From 
this it may be always distinguisbed, and in fact rrom all 
other Umbelliferfle, by the petioles of the leaves not forming 
a sheath round the stem. 

The water-cress is cuUivated to a very great extent in the 
neighbourhood of London. The plant8 are placed out in 
rows In the bed of a clear stream in the direction of the 
current, and all that is required for their success^ul growth 
18 replanting occasionally and keeping the plants clear of 
mud and weeds; sandy and gravelly bottoms are best. 
' Some market-gardeners who can command only a small 
stream of water, grow the water-cress in beds sunk about 
two feet in a retentive soil, with a very gentle slope from 
one end to the other. Then, according to the slope and 
length of the bed, dams are made six incbes high across it, 
at intervals, so that when these dams are full, the water 
may rise not less than three inches on all the plants in- 
^luded in each. The water, being turned on, will circulate 
from dam to dam, and the plants, if not allowed to run to 
Aower, will afford abundance of young tops in all but the 
winter months.' (G. Don.) Waier-cresses grown in this*way 
have not so fine a flavour as those irom natural streams. 

SITKHA is the name of the most important of the 
Russian settlements on the west coast of North America, 
^hougb its proper name is New Arkhanghelsk. Thisplace lics 
in 67" 2' 50'' N. lat. and 135** 18' W. long., and is built on 

64 S 1 T 

one of the group of islands which received from Vancouvef 
the name of King George III.'» Archipelago. The outward 
coast of this extensive group had been seen before by Cook 
in his third voyage, who called a very elevated island, whicb 
had the appearance of a cape, Mount Edgeeombe, but he 
afterward8 suspected that it was an island. The space between 
this small island of Edgecombe and the larger island which 
lies east of it, form8 the harbour of the settlemen t. When Van- 
couver surveyed this coast, he thought that ihe outward ooast, 
which extends from Chatham Sound on the south (56'' N. lat ) 
to Cross Sound (58** N. lat.) on the north, conslituted one large 
island, which he called King George III.'s Island ; but it 
was afterwards ascertained that it was divided by a narrow 
strait into two islands, and since that time the northem 
island has been called by the native name of Sitkha, while 
the southem has received the name of Baranoff Island, in 
honour of ihe founder of the Russian eettlement. On the 
las^mentioned island Baranott built a smaU fort in 1799, 
which was destroyed in 1802 by the natives of the tribe of 
the Kolosbes. But in 1804 BaranoffexpeUed thera from the 
strait which constitutes theharbour of New Arkhanghelsk, 
and founded in the vicinity of one of their village8 the pre- 
sent town. The harbour, which Vanconver named Norfolk 
Sonnd, but which is now better known as the Bay of 
Sitkha, is spaoious and 8afe, and offer8 exoeUent anchoraee 
opposite the settlement The place itseU is surrounded by 
a wooden wall, and enolosed by mountains of considerable 
e1evation, which are almost oovered with ibrests, in which 
excellent timber is found.^ Ship-buildtng constitutes the 
most important of tbe branch^ of industry, and all ihe 
ve8sel8 of the American Company are now built at thia 
place, since shin-buUding hasbeen discontinued atOkbotsk. 
New Arkhanghelsk is the centre of the administration of 
the Russian territories in America,overwhioh the American 
Company e^ercises sovereign powers, nearW in ihe same way 
as the Iludson's Bay Company over a muoh more extensive 
poriion of North America. The collecting of fur8 is the 
exclu8iveobject of boih oompanies, and New Arkhanghelsk 
may be oompared wiih Fort York, which lies nearly under 
ihe saroe latitude on the easiern ooast of America. Bat 
NewArkhanghelsk is larger : its population in 1 833 amounted 
to 847 individuals, of whom 406 were Europeans, and 307 
descendants of Europeana and native women, and 134 only 
Aleutes and Koloshes. New Arkhanghelsk haa also a 
much greater oommeroe by sea, and the ve8sels of the Coia- 
pany visiiCaliforaia, whence they import grain and salt. aiid 
dried meat ; and the Sandwich Islands» where they obtain 
salt for curing their fisb. The nurober of vessel8 employed 
by the Company in ihis oommerce and in the iransport of 
the fur8 which bave been oollected in the different smaller 
setilemenis amounts to twelve ; tbeir tonnage is staied not 
to exceed (1833) 1565 tons. 

Wrangell continued to make roeteorological obser^ations 
during his stay at New Arkhanghelsk (1833 and 1835), and 
Baer has taken advantage of his work to compare ihe cli» 
mate of Nain on the coast of Labrador with that of Sitkha. 
The result is oontained in ihe following iable, which ex- 
presses the mean temperaiure of the seaaons and of the 
year :"• 

New Atkhangbelsk. Naio. 

Winter (Dec.— Feb.) -^34 • 74 -1-26 

Spring (March— May) 42*28 +22*38 

Summer(June — Aug.) 56*30 45*62 

Autumn (Sept.— Nov.) 47*89 36'00 

Annual mean temper. +45*30 +25*50 

Thus ii appears that ihe mean annual temperature of 
tbese two places, siiuated respectively on the easiern and 
western coasts of North Ameriea, differs nearly 20 degrees 
of Fahreuheit; in winter the difference amounts to 36 
degrees, and in summer to nearly 1 1^ degrees. But though 
these obser^ations prove thegreat superiority of the westera 
coasi of North America over the eastern in respect to climate, 
a comparison between Sitkha and Bergen in Norway shows 
thai the westera coast of the old continent is much more 
favoured by nature. For though Bergen is 3 degrees and 
20 minutes nearer the pole, the roean temperature of the 
winter is +36^ of the spring +45°, of the suromer +58^ and 
of the autumn +48^ and the mean annual temperatura 
nearly 47^ The climate of the last-roentioned place ma>r 
also in other respecta be coropared with that ot Siikba, es* 
pecially in regard to humidiiy. ^itkha however is cer-' 
tainly more humid: for in 1828 there oeourred 120 dayi^ 
Digitized b^^ 

S I V 


S I V 

in whieh rain fell without interruption, and 180 days in 
which sbowers were frequent, so that only 66 days were 
free froin rain. Snow is frequent during three or four 
months, but it does not lie long on the ground. It is consi- 
dered rare if the fro8t coniinues for teu days together. 
It is to tbis great degree of humidity that the failure of 
all attempts to cultivate grain is attributed ; for there are 
many other places in which it suoceeds, and in which the 
mean temperature of summer is from 8° to 10° lower. The 
preTailing winds are irom the south-east and the south-west 
Thunder-storms occur only in Novembor and December, 
and never in summer. 

(Lang8dorf *s Voyages and TraveU in various partn qf 
the World; Liitke s yoyage autour du Monde ; ^nd Wran- 
gers Statistische und Ethnograpkische Nachrichten iiber 
die Russischen Besitzungen an der Nordwesthuste von 

SITKOPP. [Japan.] 



SIUM, the name of a genus of plants belonging to the 
natural order UmbelUfer8a. The calyx possesses 5 teeth or 
isobsolete ; petals obcordate with an inflexed point, or entire 
and ovate; fruit laterally compressed or contracted, and 
subdidymous, crowned with the reflexed styles with their 
depressed bases ; carpels with 5 equal, flliform» rather obtuse 
tidges, of which the lateral ones are marginal ; interstices 
vitb one or many vitt8e ; seed subterete. The universal 
iavoIucre vanes; the partial one is composed of many 

S. Sisarum, Skirret, is the best-known plant of this 
genus. The root is composed of fascicles of fu8iform tubers; 
stem terete; leaves pinnate, upper ones ternate, leaAets 
ovato-lanceolate, acute, serrated; involucre of 5 reflexed 
leaves; commissure, according to Koch, with 4 vitt8B. It 
bss wbite ilowers. The tubers of the root are about the 
iize of tke Anger, and were former1y greatly esteemed iu 
eookery, but ai*e now gone much into disuse. The Prench 
ciii this plant Chervis, the Germans Zucker-umrzel, and in 
l^ north of Scotland, where it is much eaten when oooked, 
it ts ealled erummock. Wheu eaten, tbe tubers are boiled 
and 8erved up with butter, forroing, according to an old 
writer. * the sweetest, whitest, and most pleasant of roots.* 

The Skirret is a native of China, and is reputed to possess 
in that country peculiar medicinal virtues. Sir J. £. Smith 
obsenrea that the Chinese have long been in the habit of 
sending this roo( to Japan as the true Ginseng of Tartary, 
or Panax quinque/olia of Linua)U9, a plant possessing very 
diAerenl properties. 

The Skitret may be propagated by seeds aud oAshoots. 
The seeds should be sown in the months of March and 
April, iii small drilU eic;ht inches apart, in an open space of 
lightisb ground. When the plants are one or two inches 
high, they should be thinned, and they may be used as they 
atiaJn sise till August, September. or Ociober. Plants of 
the last year will always afford oiTsets, which may be broken 
oS the old roots and planted in rows. For procuring seed 
the plants should be left till the following autumn. 

8. nodiflorum, ¥ooVfi Water-cress, or procumbent Water- 
parsnip, possesses a rooting, procumbent, stiiated stem ; 
pinnate leaves, oblong equally serrated leaAets ; umbels 
settile, opposite the leaves. It is a nalivo of Europe, in 
ditehes and rivulets, and is common in Great Britain. A 
small and large' variety are rccorded, the one not attaining 
more than three or four inches in height, the other as many 
feet. It was formerly admitted into the * London Pharma- 
eopiBia,' on account of its eSicacy in cutaneous diseases 
and scroAila. Dr. Withering has recorded his opinion in 
iti favoar, and related a remarkable case in which benefit 
was derived fi om its use. He administered three or four 
oances of the juice in milk daily. This plgint has often been 
represented as very poisonous ; but if thus much of the juice 
cao be taken witb impunity, it can hardly be very active. 
This, with some other species of Sium, has been placerl by 
Koeh under a new genus, Helosciadium. The principal dif- 
ference consists in the number of vitt8D found in the inter- 
stices of the carpeis ; Sium having several vitt8B» Helosdc^ 
dium only oue. 

There are many other gpecies of Sium, four of which are 
British. but none of them are cultivated for their beauty or 
applied to any particular uses. 

S1VA» tbe personiScation of the destroytng principle, 
£orm8, vitb tho two other gods» Brahma and Yishuu, the 
P. C, No. 1367. 

Trim Arti, or iriad, of the Hindas ; and although, in allusion 
to his oAice as destroyer, he is dassed third, yet he is gene- 
rally allowed to occupy tho second place among the Hindu 
deities, or even (aecording to Kindersley) the first, as his 
supremacy appears to have obtained more general assent 
than that of Yishnu. Indeed the worship of Siva is so pre- 
dominant, that Brahma, who is the only one of the three 
mentioned by Manu, and who seems to have enjdyod a 
larger share of adoration in antient times, has now only one 
temple in India, while Mahfideva(a name of Siva) and the 
adventurous Yishnu, whose incarnations attract so much of 
the veneration of the Hindus, are, in fact, the only gods of 
the whole Hindu pantheon who have numerous worship- 
pers. This however is no proof tbat Siva or Ytsbnu dates 
from a later period. The personification of the three divine 
attributes originates, no doubt, with the Yedas, and the 
names of tbe three gods are mentioned, though rarely, and 
wilhout the least allusion to their pre-eminence over the 
elemental gods or over each other; but we do not find 
that the two great sects of India, the Yaishna^as (follower8 
of Yisbnu) and the Saivas (worshippers of Siva) came into 
existence before the seventh or eighth century of our sera. 
It is therefore to the Purilnas (the scriptures of the modern 
Hindu religion) that we must ascribe the extension of the 
worship of Siva and the character which now distinguishes 
this god. We cannot however point out the difference be- 
tween the modeof worshipping Siva now and in the time of 
Manu, the Yedas being too little known, and the extracts from 
them, which have been hitherto published, unsatis^actory. 
We must therefore limit ourseWes to the description of the 

Eresent popular form of Siva worship, which in all probability 
ad not assumed its actual state before the great Saiva re- 
former, Sankara Acharya, who lived in the eighth or ninth 
century. iVishnu Purdna, pref, p. x.) This opinion is 
.. supported by the weII-foundea asseriion that the Saiva faith 
was instituted by Paramata Kaldnala, who is described in 
tbe * Sankara Yijaya' of Ananda Giri as teaching at Be- 
nares, and assuming the insignia tliat characterize the Dan- 
disi a sect of Saivas of modern times. (As, Res., xvi. 22.) No 
allusion is made in the Purdnas to theoriginal power of this 
god as destroyer; that power not being called into exer(nse 
till after the expiration of twelve millions of years, when 
aocordmg to Pauranic accounis, thoKaliyuga will come to a 
close togetber with the universe ; and Mahddeva is rather 
the represeniative of regeneration ihan of destruction. In- 
deed the worship of ihe type which represents him as the 
vivifying principle, the linga (phallus, a smooth black »tone 
in the form of a sugai--loaf, with a piojeciion at ihe base 
like the mouth of a spoon) is spread all over India, and ihe 
number of woi&hippers of' this image ih Tar ureaier than the 
wor.shippers of all the oiher go^lii. (Ward, i. 16.) Thero 
are bowever a few legends in Hindu m>ihology in which 
Siva appears as the actor without any refereu<'e to the wor- 
ship of ihe Unga. The linga is indeed the only form uuder 
which Siva is now adored in most parls cf India. Accord- 
ing to Professor Wilson {Vi8hnu Purana, xliv.), *There is 
nothing like the phallic orgies of antiquit) ; it is all mystical 
and spiriiual. The linga is twofol(l, exiernal and internal. 
The ignorant, who need a visible 8ign, woi*ship Siva through 
*a mark' or Mype,* which is the proper meaning of the 
word 'Iinga,' of wood or stone; but the wise look upon this 
outward emblem as nolhing, and contemplate in their 
mind:» the invisible inscrutable type, wbirh is Siva himselt'. 
Whatever inay have been the ori{;in of this formof woiship 
in India, the notion upon which it was founded, according 
to the impure fancies of European writers, is not to be read 
even in the Saiva Purfina.' Indeed the embleros under 
which the Hindus exhibit the elements and operations of 
nature are not indecorous, and the low cylinder of stone, 
which is meant for the symbol of the creative power, sug- 
gests no suspicionof its original import; and nothing what- 
ever belongs to the worship of the linga, or to the terms in 
which this is mentioned, which has the slightest tendency 
to lead the thoughts from the contemplation of the god to 
an undue consideration of the object by which he is typified. 
The best refutation however of the injurious suppositions to 
whioh the accounts of many trave11ers have given rise, wili 
be the words which Siva himself is supposed to say in the 
Saiva Pur&na: ' From the supreme spirit proceed Puru- 
sha (the generating principle), Prakriti (the generative 
nature), and Time; and by them was produced this uni- 

verse, the manifestation of the one god Of all or^ns 

of scnse and intellect tho best is mind, which proceeds f ronr 

VoL. XXII.-K ^ 

g I V 


S I V 

Ahanki^a;* Aliankira, from intellect; intelleet, froiii the 
supreme being, vrlio is in fact Purusha. It is tbe primeval 
nia.e, whose form conatilutes this universe, and whose breath 
is the sky; and though incorporeal, that male am I.' This 
doctrine is pure enou^h, and the few aberrations which 
remind one of the orgies practised in honour of Bacchus, 
are not sufficient to justify us in stigmatizing it as yile and 

The linga howerer is only the type of Siva as the god 
who presides over generation. His other forms are many» and 
they vary in so far as they attribute to him the qualities of 
creator, preserver, destroyer, and regenerator, and represent 
him in nis various avatdras (incarnations, eight of which 
are called by the common name of Bhairava, and are seve- 
rally termcd Asitdnga, Ruru, Ohandra, Krodha, Unmatta, 
KCpati, Bhtshana, and Sauhira, ali alluding to territic pro- 
perties of mind or body. He is sometimes seen with two 
hands, at others with four, eight, or ten, and with five faces ; 
he has a tiiird eye in his foreliead, the oorners of which are 
perpendicolar, which is pccuhar to him ; acresceut in his hair, 
or on his forehead, encircling tlie third eye; he weai*s ear- 
rings of snakes, and a collar of skulls. Mafaddeva, when re- 
presented thus, but with one head, has four hands. in one of 
which he holds a nlsa, the use of which is to extract the 
BouU out of the boaies of men, when ttieir time is come, and 
is a common attribute of Yama, the god of death (£». Sdui- 
tryupakhyana, ed. Bopp., p. 25), a tris^ula is upheld by the 
oiher, and the two other hands are in a position of benedic- 
tion. As Bhairava (the lord of dread) he is frightful to be- 
hold ; great tusks burst tiirough his thick lips ; the hair, 
which is stitr and ei-ect, gives his face a dreadful aspect; the 
fal1 of the neckloce is impeded by numerous snakes which 
twine round his body. This is also the idol which sliows him 
as Mahil-kAla, or god of tiroe. It is in this charactei* that he 
is supposed to delighi in bloody sacriilces, and that the Saiva 
Sannydsis (followers of Siva who practise the yoga to the 
hit^hest degiee) intiict on themsehes thecrueUies which have 
rendered so conspicuous the temple of Jaggernaut (Jagan- 
n^tha, the lord of the worid). [YooA.] A very minute 
account of the tbrtitude and self-denial of the deluded Yogis 
is given in Ward's * View on the Religion of the Hindus ' 
<i. ^19). His consort Sakti, who in her Gorresponding clia- 
racter is celebraied os tiie goddess Durgu or Kult, partici- 
pBtes in these horrible sacriAces, and has lately become 
more notorious by the exposuro of the homicidal practices 
of the Tiiugs, who reco^nise ip her their tutelary diyinity. 
8iva is also the god of justice. In that cbaracter he rides 
n white bul), the symbo) of divine justice (Manu, viii. 16), 
and is oftcn seen wiih iheparoihu (battle-axe) in his hand, 
and the sacred string. On pictures he is o&en represented 
ns if rubl)ed over with ashes, and with a blue neck ; the 
epithet of Nilakanta (blue-necked) was given to him in 
rommemoration of his havingdrunk the poison which arose 
from the sea, and threatened to destroy mankind. But the 
charartcr in which he is raore generally known, and which 
liis followers imiiate, is that of the Kapdla-bhrit (skull- 
bearer). Skanda-PurSna makcs him descrihe himaelf in 
the following words : — 'Pdrvat}(his bride) must be fooiij»h 
, to practise so 6evere a penance in order to obtain me, Rudra 
(one of his 1000 names), a wandering mendicant, a bearer 
of a human skull, a delightcr in cemeteries, one ornamented 
with bones and serpents, covered with ashes and with no 
garments but an elephant'8 skin, riding on a buU, and ac- 
coropanied by gbosts and goblins.* Now this, except that 
the uncarthly beings who loWoyr him are represented by a 
crowd of dirty people, is exactly the description of a Saiva 
digambara (sky-clad, t>. naked — akind of religious mendi- 
cants), if, instead af the god*s third eye, we add a round dot 
on the nose, made of clav or cow-dung, and a mark on ihe 
forehead, composed of three curved lines, instead of ihe 
chandra (half-moon) which Rudra obtaiued at the churning 
of the ocean. When asked for the reason why they and their 
god carry a human skull, they refer to the Vdmana-Purfina : 
' Formerly, when all things moveabIe and immayeable had 
been destroyed, and nought remained but one "Tast ocean ; 
while uniyersal darkness reigned, thal lord who is incom- 
prehensible and subject to neither birth nor death reposed 
in slumber on the abyss of the waters for a thousand divine 
years ; but when his night had passed, desirous of creating 
the three worlds, he, investing him8elf with the quality of 

• Literally Uie ' I-Maker ' is the Hiadu term for ihe power of seU-couscioiia- 
noas. or, vrhat U implied by thia, indlTiduality^ for/uxther Inrormation see 

impurity, assumed a corporeal form with five beads. Tl^en 
aUo was produced from the darlcness another form, with 
three eyes and twisted locks, and bearing a rosary and tri- 
dent. Brahma next created Ahankdra (self-consciousnes^, 
wbich immediately pervaded both Siva and himself, and 
under its impression Rudra thus said to Pit&-Mahd :— " Say, 
O lord ! how oamest thou here, and by whom wert thou 
created?** Brahma replied, ** And whence ai't tbou?" and 
instantly caused tbe new-made sky to reverberate with a won- 
drous sound. Sambbu (Siva) was thus subdued, and stood 
with a oountenance downcast and humbled, like tbe moon in 
ancclipse, and the fifth head of Brahipa tbus addressed bim 
rendered red-dark with anger at his defeat : — " I know thee 
well, thou form of darkness t with three eyes, clothed with 
the four quarters of the sky (t.6. naked), mounted on a 
buJl, tbe destroyer of the universe." On hearing these 
words Sambhu became incensed with anger, and while he 
viewed the head with the terrible glances of his world-con- 
suming eye, his five heads, from bis wratb, grew white, red, 
golden, black, and yello^, and fearful to behold. But 
Brabma, on obsenring th.ese heads glowing like the sun, 
thus said:^" Wby dost thou agitate thyself and attempt to 
appear powerfuI? for» if I choose, I could this instant make 
tby heads become like bubbles of water.*' This heard. Siva, 
inllamed with anger, cut off with the nail of his right hand 
the head of Brahma which had uttered such fierce and 
boasting words : but when he would have thrown it on the 
ground, it would not, nor ever shall it, fall from his hand.' 
The beautiful idea which is obscured by the extravaganoe8 
of this passage, namely, that the creation in itself involva 
subsequent destruction, need hardly be point^ out. In 
nearly all the representations of Siva, the Ganga (Ganges) is 
seen either tlowing from his head or beaming on his liead- 
piece. There is an interesting fable whicli makes it How 
irom Parvatrs fingers, but for which we refer our readers to 
Moore'8 ' Hindu Pantheou* (p. 41). 

The origin of the linga worship is, we find, diSerently ac- 
counted for in dilTerent Purinas. The * Linga-Purana,' whieh 
contains 1 1 ,000 \eis&%iMackenzie Coll,, i. 39), states that the 
primi(ive linga is a piUar of radiance in which Kahddera 
is present. Tlie appearance of the great fiery linga takes 
place, in the interval of a cre^tion, to separate Vishnu aad 
Brahma, wbo not only dispute the place of supremacy, but 
fight for it, when tlie linga suddenly springs up, and puts 
them to shame ; after travelling upwards and downwards 
Ibr a thousand years in each direction, neither of them can 
approach its termination. Upon the linga, the sacred 
monosyllable Om is visible, and the Yedas proc^ed from it, 
by which Brahma and Yishnu become enligbtened, and ac- 
knowledge the superior might and glory of Siva(Ft>Anu. 
PurdnOy xliii.). This legend, by which, in its Tamul version, 
tiie circumstance of Brahma having neither temple nor wor- 
shippers is accounted for, is given in Kindersley^s ' Specimen 
of Hindu Mythology' (p. 21). In his travels in search of the 
headof the column, Brahmais said to have found aCaiddairy 
tiower which Siva had, purposely dront from his head. He 
entreated it to bear false witness for him, that he had actu- 
ally found the top of the column. The Aower rashly con- 
senting to the fraud, both returned to Siva, aad asserting 
the falsehood agreed on, Siva, in his juat i-esentment, de- 
creed that Brahma should never ieceive any external wor- 
ship. A very fanciful story about the linga as given in the 
4th voIume of tlie ' As. Res.,* p. 3j58 ; and another, which 
Abbĕ Oubois states to be derived from the ' Lairtga,* but 
which, in fact, is from the * Padma-Purina,* may be found 
m tbis author^s ' Moeurs, &c. des Peuj^es de Tlnde,' vo1. ii., 
p. 417. But tbe pure, original, mystical idea, which muat 
undottbtedly have been expres8ed in the Yedas, is pooriy 
preserved in the Purdnas, and almost entirely lost in the 
daiiy worship of the present Hindus, who, cdthough without 
any admixture of obscene thougbts, adore their stone, or the 
image which they make themseWes itom the day of the 
sacred river where tbey perform their ablutions, in much 
the same way as an African yenerates his fetish. Siva, who 
as the type of the regenerating prineiple is also that of llre» 
which quality ia represented by a triangle with the apex 
upwards (A), is the object of a very ludicrous ceremooy 
when the heat is great. Pearing lest he should set on 
fire the whole world, they put above his idol a basin full of 
water with a small aperture at the bottom, in order that the 
water which drops on him may moderate his ardour. (Du* 
bois, ii., 304.) We need not wonder if tbe linga worship haa 
giveB rise to secU whoM {kractices^e far from admittins 

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S 1 V 


S I V 

any apoiogy There i«, according to Dubois (i. 154), a sect 
called Vtra'Satva, who reject altogether the aulhority of 
the Yedas and the other sacred works of the Uindus, who 
deny the distinction of casts, maintaining that the linga 
renders all men equal ; even a Yaisya, who embraces this 
doctrine, is, in their opinion, equal to a BrShmana. They 
state that wbere the linga exists, there is also the throne 
of the deity, without distinction of ranks and persons; and 
that the humble hut of the labourer where this sacred sign 
exists, is much above the sumptuous palace where it is not 
to be found. This doctrine, which is m direct opposilion to 
the customs of the Hindus, has never had many foI1owers. 

To continue the account of his advcntures: Siva marries 
Pir\'att, and lives with her in the midst of theeternal snows 
of Mount Kailiisa. His heaven is however one of the most 
splendid in Hindu mytholoo^y.and a description of it may be 
found in Ward^s * View' (i. 30); it is a translation from the 
Kritya Tatwa, There also are his two sons ; Ganesa, tho 
leader of the heavenly choristers, and, as Yigneswara, the 
god of diiiiculties, whose head i.s that of an elcphant ; and 
Kartikeya, the six-faced god of war. It Is there that he 
was thus addressed by Brahma and the other gods: — *1 
know that thou, O Lord, art tlie eternal Brahm, that seed 
wiiich, being reccived in the womb of thy Sakli (aptilude to 
conceiye), produced this universe; that thou, united with 
thy Sakti, dost in sport crcate the unirerse from tliy own 
substance, Hke the web from the spider.' Here it was that 
he reduced to ashes the ' tlowery-bowed mind-bewilcher' 
KSma (the god of love), pierced by whose arrows he had 
neglected to avenge the wrong done to him and his consort by 
his Mher-in-law Daksha. On the top of KailSsa it is that 
the worshippers of Siva will be admitted to the sports of the 
inbabitants, where MahSdeva invented for the amusement of 
his bride the heavenly dance,to which his faithful attendant 
Nandi plays the musical accompaniment. Tlierc lie before 
ibe door his yehicle, the white bull, and the tiger on which 
bisccnsort ridea. Though wanting all the splendours of 
the Swarga (Indra*s heaven), the abode of Siva, when drawn 
ia the gluwing colours of the East, is no less gratifying. 
From thence he is supposed to bless his worshippers, * when, 
with Pdrvat! on his knees, he, the lord of the world, on 
whose brow shines the moon throwing its beams over the 
mountain of the north, deigns to allow the Suras and 
Asuras (gods and dtemons) to wear for their frontal orna- 
inent the reAeclion of tlie radiance of the nails of his feet, 
and the Ganga, rushing from Ihe top of his head, refreshes 
the air of his sacred dwelling' (Kathd Sarit Sdgara). This 
is a favourite subject among the Hindu painters, and we 
must allow that their conception of it is generally good and 
well executed. 

The religious seryice is the same as that which is used at 
theworshipof Sivaunderhisothertiame8. In performing the 
linga-piija, for that is the Sanscrit name for sacriilce orwor- 
ship, all its variou8 parts are pcrformed in due order. The 
directions for it may be found in the Lainga-Pur^na (i. 25), 
tmnslated by Kennedy (p. 30C) : — • Having bathed in the 
prescribed manner, enter the place of worship ; and having 
performed three suppressions of breath [Yoga], medi- 
tate on that god who has three eyes, five heads, ten arms, 
and is of the colour of pure crystal, arrayed in costly g^r- 
ments, andadorned withallkindsof ornaments: and having 
thus fixed in thymind the real form of Maheswara, proceed 
to worship him with the proper prayers and hymns. Flrst 

rlnkle the place and utensils of Worship with a bunch of 
ifha dipped in perfumed water, repeating at tlie same 
time the sacred monosyilablc Om, and arrange all the uten- 
sils and other things required in the prescribed order ; then 
in due manner repealing the proper In^ocalions, prayers, 
and hymns, preceded by the sacred word Om, prepare the 
oHerings. For the Padiam^ they should consist of Ushiram 
(root of the Ahdropogoii rauricatus), sandal and similar 
sweet-smelling woods, &c. Having then with due rites pre- 
pared a seat, invoke with the prescribed prayers the presencc 
of Parameswara, and present to him the padiam^ the dckama- 
ntyam^ and argyha, Next bathe the linga wiih perfumed 
witers, the panehagavyam (five produces of the cow), cla- 
riRed butter, honey, the juice of the sugar-cane, and, lastly, 
pour over it a pot of pure water consecraled by the requisite 
prayers. Having thos purified it, adorn it with clean gar- 
ments and u sacriRcial string, and then oATer Aowers, per- 
fumes, frankincertse, lamps, fruits. and different kinds of 
prepared eatablcs and ornaments. Thusworship the lingam 
Witn tli« pr«icrib«tt oAerings, inYocationsi prayerB. and 

hymns, and by circumambulating it, and by prostrating 
thyself before Siva represented under this symbol.' Fot 
an explanation of the technical terms hero employed^ we 
refer to Dnbois (i. 199). 

The Puri)nas which the worshippers of Siva are most 
acquainted with, and which havo more or less of a Saiva 
bias, are the Mdtsya, Kaurma, Saiva, I^inga, Skhanda, 
and Agneya, to all of which the term of TOmasa, or worksof 
darkness, is given. Tlie Padma-Purdtia contains tho 
thousand names of Siva at lcngth, and is better known thaii 
the others. None of them however have yet been published, 
and the reader will have to judge of the general tendency 
of these works from the exlracts that we have given. It is 
remarkedthat thcyare not so popular as thePurdnas, which 
contain the narrative8 of Vishnu*s wonderous deeds, and 
that they have not found their way into ihe modern litera- 
ture of India. If therefore the thousand ^isiblc maniresta- 
tions of Siva's presence on earth, under as many different 
names, are known to the present Hindus by tradition only, 
^e shall not be surprised tbat they united tliem all in one 
common typification by means of the linga. There are how- 
cver a few exceptions. A forra of Siva which is espocially 
worshipped by the lower orders, who consider him as tlie 
destroyer of children,is known under the namo of Panchd- 
nana; it is a misshapen stone, anointed and painted, and 
then placed under trees. Another form which is siill prc* 
served is that of the Kdlurdya, the god of forests. He is 
represented as sitting on a tiger, and carrying a bow and 
arrows. The woodcutters worship him lo insure protectiun 
from wild beasts. These numerous names of 8iva have led 
Europeans into a notion contrary to that which induced ihe 
Hindus to make the linga the gencral type for all the foi ms 
of this god ; they naturally enough supposed each of his 
numerous names and pagodas to belong to a distinct and 
separate deity. Hence ihe erroneous hotion about poly- 
theism in India, whilst it is evident, even fi-om thc few pas- 
sages we have quoted, that the originul monotheism of 
Hmdu religion had in the progress of time become pan- 
theism, which is prevalent ail over thc East. Even at 
present the follower of Siva denies ihe divinity of Yishnu, 
and vice versd ; alihough both these gods, now rcpre- 
senting ihe Supreme Being, were only types of divino 
qualities attributed to the TrimOrti. But tlio allcgory 
eventuallv acled too strongly on thc imagination of iho 
people. Brahma, as creator, had finishv.d his work, and 
could not with proprieiy act any more. Siva thcreforo and 
Yishnu were destined to do all that fancy could suggest; 
but still Mahadeva is the only god 1o ihe Saivas. whilst 
NarSyana is the one choscn by tlie YaishnaYus. For this 
we have the express words of the Rndha Tantra, which su) s 
that the form of Arddhanareswara (ha]f man, half woman) 
was assumed by Siva in order to prove that he was tiie one 
Brahma, in whom botb the tbmale and malo powers are 
united. (Rulle, i. 15; Buhlen. i. 150.) This nution of the 
animating and recipient prinbiples being united in onc, has 
been embodied in the statue termed Arddhanart; one half 
of Siva, frum head to fuot, hears all ihe ornaments uf PSr- 
vat! or Bhfivant ; llie olher is exactly the same as that in 
which he is usually exhibited. The Yyat^hra (tiger) of 
Kd!t is also seen under the femalo half of tliis symbul, and 
the bull Naudi lies at the foot of thc man porlion of 

Sects o/ Saivns. — The Dandis aro separated inlo two 
classes. 1, The Dandis proper are the only legitiinate rc- 
presentatives of the fourth asrama, or mendidint life, into 
which the Hindu is to entcr arter passing ihrough thc pre- 
viou8 stages of student, housebolder, and hermit. (Manu, 
vi. 33.) They worship Siva as Bhairava ; the ccremuny of 
initiation consists in a small incision being made in tho inner 
part of the knee, and in drawing ihe blood of the novice 
as an acceptable otTering to the god. 2, The Dasndmi 
Dandis admit only Brahmans into their fraternity, and are 
the primitive mcmbers of the Dandi order. S^nkara, the 
teacher of the caste, has perpetuaied his intluenco by writ- 
ings, the best of which are his Bhdshyas, or Commenlaries 
on the S(itras (aphorisms) of V}dsa, and on the Bhagavad- 
Gtta. They are distiuguished by carrying a small dand (or 
wand), whence they derive their name, and a piece of cloth 
dyed witli red ochre. They shave their hair and beard; 
wear only a cloth round their loins; and subsist upon food 
obtained ready dressed from the houses of ihe Brahmanas. 
Thoir principal studyis that of thc Yedanta works. (^i. 

i?e*., xvii. 169.) _ C^ r\r\cs\o 

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S I V 


S I V 

i The other sects are the Raudras, Ugraa, Bhdktae, Jan- 
gamas, Pdsupatas, and others, eacU of which wears the linga 
on some part of the dress or persoii, and are distinguished 
from each other accordingly. This sign is often worn in 
small cases of silver or hrass. (Dubois, i. 147.) Their 
occupations are generally similar to those of the Dandis 
(for ihe principal poinls in which they differ, see Vishnu). 
Their scripturai authorities are the Siva-Gita, Siva-6anhita, 
Siva-harasya, Rudra Saraoha Tautra, and a great number 
of Tantras which are little known. 

Among the sects of Siva ihere are women who are de- 
Toted to the serviceof their gods, under the name of spouses 
of the gods. They are called linga-vadhvas, and wear the 
stamp of the linga on their thigh. Although known to be 
the concubincs uf the priesis, they enjoy considerable 
respect. (Dubois, i. 179.) 

Among the chief placcs of pilgrimage sacred to Siva, is 
itasi, or Benares, whicb contains the Hnest temple, known 
under thc name of the Pagoda of yis'wes\vara. Chandra 
Sekhara, a mountain near Chittaganga, on which stands a 
temple of Siva, is another place of pilgrimage. The surface 
of a pool of wuter at this place is said to emit inllammable 
air, from the fire of which pilgrims kindle their burnt offer- 
ings, According to a statement of Ward (ii. 130), Ekam- 
rakanana, a place on the borders of Orissa, contains 6000 
temples. Not lcss than 70,000 or 80,000 people are said to 
visit this pluce at the drawing of the car of Jagana^lha, when 
all casttis eat together. 

Of thc festivals of Siva the chief is that called Siva- 
ratri. It lasts three days, which are employed in perform- 
ing various ritcs berore the linga, which they wash four 
timos. The occasion of this is the Bhavishya-Purdna.: ' A 
bird-catcher deiained in a forest in a dark night climbed a 
Biiwa-tree, under which was an image of thejinga; by 
shaking the bjughs of the tree the leaves anddrops of dew 
fell upon thc image; with which Sivawas so much pleased, 
that ho declared the worship of the linga on that night 
should be received as an act of unbounded merit.' (Ward, 
ii. 20 ; Dubuis, ii. 328 and 530.) This takes place on the 
14lh of the iucrease of tho moon in February. For the 
olher festivals common to both sects, see Yishnu. The 
Monday isgenerally cousecrated toNandi (Sivas buU), aud 
uo work is done. 

The shape of the temples of Siva does not diffcr from 
those of the other gods. The chief entrauce into the great 
temple is by a high massive pyramid, the top of which has 
generally the form of a crescent ; it invariably faces the 
east. Beyond the gate there is a large court, at the farther 
extremity of which another gate leads through a pyramid 
of lessheight,butof the same form. A smallyard separates 
it from the temple of the idol. In the middle of it there is 
either a huge bull or a linga carved in stone, raised on a 
pedestal, or put under a canopy supported by four pillars. 
This is the drst ohject of adoralion to the visitors, who then 
pass through a low narrow door iuto the insido of the temple. 
This door is the oiily passage Tor light and air, there being 
no windows. A lamp, which burns night and day, gives 
a tolerable light. The interior of the building is gene- 
rally divided into two parts, somelimes into three, the first 
of which is the raost spacious, and is destined to receive the 
people; the second, or the adyium, in which the idol ro- 
sides, is much smaller and darker, and generally shut, the 
door being opened only by the officiating priest, who, with 
some of his attendants, has alone the right of entering this 
mysterious place for the purpose of washing the image, and 
dressing and bringing offering8 to it. This part is often 
built in the shape of a Tault, but it is so low as to raake a 
prolonged stay in it rather oppressive. 

Among the trees sacrod to Siva the chief are theYepu 
and the Bilwa, the leavc8 of which are oPten brought as 
oiTerings to thc god. The first of these trees has to undergo 
the singular ceremony of being murried to the Aswata (the 
huly Tig-tree) ; the formalities are much the same as those 
which take placeat the raarriages of thc Brahmanas. Siva 
himself is said to be the stera of the Aswata-tree, of which 
Brahma is the root and Yishnu the branches. Besides the 
Vepu und theBilwa, thcre are numberless inanimate objects to Siva. 

It has already been mentioned that the hull is the ani- 
inal which enjoys the grcatest vcneration from the Saivas, 
anrl to which a day in the week is consecrated. 

Thc worshippers of Siva are distinguished from the rest 
of theHindusbyburying thcir dead bodies, instead of burn- 

ing them. The obseauies 'are performed in the following 
manner, if the deceasea is a Saiva Sanhyusi r — The corpse is 
deposited, with its legs crossed, in a large basket made of 
bamboo, which four Brdhmanas carry to the grave, which is 
dug in the neighbourhood of a river or pond. It is about 
six feet deep, and ofa circular form. Theycover the bottom 
of it with a thick layer of salt, upon which the deceased is 
placed iu a sitting position ; the space between hira and tbe 
sides of the grave is then filled with salt up to the chin of 
the corpse, with the view of holding up the head so as not 
to allow of its being moved. A great number of cocoa-nuts 
are then thrown against it until the skull is quite broken. 
when they throw salt upon the pluce so as to hide entirely 
the fractured head. They then erect over the grave a 
kind of tumulus, an elevation about three feet high, on 
the top of which a linga of two feet, made of clay, is placed, 
and immediately consecrated by the mantras (incanta- 
tions) of the Brlhmanas, who present to it kindlcd lamps, 
Howers, incense, bananas, and other offerings. This ccre- 
mony is performed with the accompaniraent of sacned 
hymns, which are sung by those who are present at the 
burial. At the termination of this discordant concert, a ^ it 
is termed by Dubois, he who presides at the ceremony goes 
three times round the linga, inclines himself berore it, and 
expre8ses his hope ' that by virtue of the sacriBce offered to 
the linga, the deceased may be agreeable to Siva,^and that 
being once received by Brahma (paramdtma, the universal 
soul) he may not be obliged to be bornagain.' During two 
days which follow this ceremony, offeriugs are brought to 
the iinga every morniug, and the sacred mantras are re- 
peated. A year a^terwards the ceremony is perfurmed 
again, but with less expense to the family of the de- 

It has been mentioned in the couiae of this article, that 
nothing indecent occurred at the fe8tivals in honour of Siva» 
or in worshipping his type the sacred linga ; but since so 
much has been said in Bupport of an assertion tending to 
throw doubt upon the strict observanco of all the rules of 
decency, and to identify the practices of the linga wor- 
shippers with the phallic cei-emonies of the Greeks, it 
seems proper to state what may have occasioned tbis 

There is indeed in India a sect, which some writers have 
stated to belong to the Saivas, whilst others describe ihem 
as votaries of Yislinu; others again, and apparently with 
more reason,speak of them as iDdependent of either: tbcy 
are called S^ktas, and adore the female organ of generatioii 
under the type of the yoni (pudendum muliebre, a figure 
of stone or wood in the shape of a heart). Their narae 
Sdkta is derived from Sakti, which means power, aptitude, 
and is the name of Siva'8 consort. 

These Sdktasseem to found their religious belief on a pas- 
sage in one of the Upanishads to the Athar^an-Yeda, quoted 
by Windischmann, p. 847 : ' Yoluptatem inaroplexu foemin», 
et voluptatem emissionis et Yoluptatem acquireudi nati fausti,. 
oui desiderium patris post mortem ejus adimpleat, et gau- 
dium quod in illo tempore simul provenit, etiam Brahma 
esse qui scit oportet eum meditari de illa (t>. cum illa yogam 
inire) ;' and certainly in 8ome of their festivals they com- 
mit great excesses. Dubois, an eye-witness, statcs ex- 
pressly that they are held in honour of Yishnu (i. 402). 
The cereraony of the Sakti-puja is perforraed at night witli 
more or lesssecrecy, a minute description of which isgiven 
by Dubois. We shall content oursehes with observing that 
the least odious of these orgies are those where they limit 
themseWea to drinking and eating all that is forbidden them 
by their S(btras, and where men and women violate the most 
sacrcd rules of decency. This is the only instance where the 
worship of the generating principle has been made tbe pretext 
for the most revolting orgies, where the idea degenerated in 
the same manner as it did in Rome and Greece. There 
too the principle was the same— a highly philosophical and 
moral idea. The doctrines of the Egyptians laid the founda- 
tlon of the Eleusinian mysteries; Isis became Demeter» 
Orus the Bacchus lacchus. That same Isis was the Sakti 
of the Hindus: tbe notionwhich this Sanscrit word conveys 
suits exactly the description of the Egyptian goddess by 
Plutarch. According tohim Isis was the generative power 
iBvvafiic), whicli lay dormant until Osiris^s vivifying prin- 
ciplo had reproduced hiraself by her in his son Horus. The 
same idea was in Plato's mind when he said that nature was 
coraposed of three thiugs, and could be represented by a 
triangle. There are stilT some passages of Greek and Ro- 
Digitized by V300QlC 

S I V 


S I W 

nHiii writen which proye that the worship of the phallus had 
in other placesbeen as pare as that of the linga. Tacitus, for 
instanee {Higt,, ii. 3), describes a linga in the temple of Pa- 
phian Yenus witbout being aware of it ; these are his 
words:— *Simulacrum desB non etfiKie humana; continuus 
orbis latiore initio tenuem in ambitum, met» modo ex- 
siugens, et ratio in obscuro;' and Rolle, ii. 342, says, 
without mentioning his authority, 'It was the custom of 
the Greeks to put phalli on the tombs. that the producti- 
▼ity of nature, extinct, or rather, stopped for a short time by 
death, might take a new ]ife.' This coincides exactly with 
the ceremony observed by the Saivas at their funera1s ; it 
does not appear however what kind of images were used 
upon this occasion ; but those which Pliny (xix. 4) men- 
tions, and which he calls saiyrica signa, must have differed 
Irom those which are described as belong ing to the Greeks. 
Anothercircumstancewhich isremarkably hke tbepractice 
of the Hindus whioh we have mentioned, is the custom of 
wearing phalli iii small silver cases to protect children against 
/atdnaiions, as stated by Yarro (Ling, Lai,, vi. 5, p. 99, Bip.). 
Other traces of the linga, as eonsidered by the Hindus, rony 
be found in Socrates (Hist, Eccl^ 5, 1 7), where he relates that 
at the destruction of a temple of Serapis in A]exandria a 
Dumber of signs were found, the purpose of which was not 
understood ; among them there was one in the sbape of a 
ero68, which the heathens stated to be the symbol of a 
ft]lurelife. The Christians,hecontinue8,by the meansofthis 
cn»s made a great number of proselytes. Now this cross 
is the same by wliich we mark the planet Yenus ( $ ), and 
which, when first seen, was supposed to mean the key to 
tbe mysteries. Jab]onsky was the ttrst who understood 
its real import, when he expre8sed himself thus : * Cruci 
ansatee sive phallo adeo similis est lingam illud Brahma- 
num at ovom ovo similius esse nequeat.' 

For the description of the degraded pballic worship we 
TDust refer to the 2nd vol., pp.' 257-274, of the ' Indian An- 
tiquities ' of T. Maurice, who traces the origin of the linga 
Yonhip back to Egypt, and gives a faithful paraphrase of 
tbe account contained in Diodorus Siculus, by wbicli he only 
pruYed how little he knew the Hindu view of the subject. 

The rage for identifying the gods of the Eastem nationt 
vith those of the West has not spared Siva. He was 
Bacchus, and Saturn, aud Pluto; in fact he wat said to be 
almost the entire pantbeon of Greece and Rome and Egypt 
Neither is this to be wondered at, seeing that the Greeks 
and Latins ascril)ed diSerent attributes to different deities. 
The Hihdus have only one to whom to ascribe all attributes. 
Siva is also, and it appears originally, the representative of 
fire. This element penetrates earth and water, represented 
by Brahma and Yishnu, imparts to them some of ite vigour, 
deve]ops their qualities, and brings everything in nature to 
that state of increase, maturity, and perfection which they 
woutd not attain without it. But ceasing to act beneficially 
on tbe created things, they perish : this agent of reproduo- 
tion, when free and visible, consumes the body, the compo- 
sition of which he himsel^ had effected : to this quality he 
owes his tiile of god of destruction. 

The reader who may wish to see the connection of the 
Hindu gods with those of Greece and Rome will find ample 
materials in the papers which Co\, Wilford inserted in the 
earlier volumes of the ' Asiatic Researches :' they cannot 
however be implicitly relied on. 

(Vans Kennedy, Researche% inio Aneient and Hindu 
Mythology ; Ward, View of the Religion, Liieraiure, <J«. 
o/ India; Wilson, Vishnu Purdna — Ox/ord Lectures; 
RoUe, Recherehes sur Bacchus ei les Mysteres ; P. von Boh- 
len, Dan Alte Indien ; Kindersley, Specimen o/Hindu Liiera- 
ture ; Moore, Hindu Bmiheon ; Asiatic Researches ; Dubois, 
Moeurs, ^. des Peuples de l Inde.) 

SIVAS, or SIWAS, a town in Asia Minor, onthe north 
bank of the river Kiail-Irmak, in 39'' 25' N. lat. and 36^ 
5^ E. lon^. ; 165 geographical miles souihwest by west 
from Trebizond, and 87 north-east from Kaisariyeb. It is 
the capital of a pashalic which comprehends the whole east- 
ern part of Asia Minor, and which still bears the name of 
Rum, or Riimiyah, which was applied to thewhole Turkish 
empire before its expansion. The valley of the Kizil-Irm&k, 
tbe antient Halys, here spreads out into a broad and fertile 
plain. The sitoation being level, with the exception of only 
one small eircular elevation in'the south-west, the whole city 
is seen to muchadvantage when approached from the north. 
It is interspersed with trees, without being buried in them, 
hke mo6t of the towns in theae parts. The great number 

of chimneys seen abovd the house-tops indicate that th« 
winter is 8evere ; and the inhabitants aiUrm that it is at 
cold as at Erz-riim. The houses are well-built, partlr 
tiled. partly flatrroofed, and intermingled with gardens. 
These, with the numerous minarets, give a cheerful aspect 
to theplace. The baaaars are extensive and well stocked 
witli goods, including raany of British mannfacture. The 
consumption of Sivas itself, and the circumstance of its fur- 
nishing supplies to many places, causes its transit-trade to 
be exten8ive. Sivas is inhabited by about 6000 ikmilies, of 
whom 1000 or 1100 are Armenians, and the rest Moslems. 
The place was once called Cabira, a name that was changed 
to Diopolis by Pompey, and subse^uenily to Sebasle. 
Sivas is a corruption of the word Sebaste. It was the theatre 
of the great coiitest in 1401 a.d., between Bajaset and Ti- 
mour, in which the former was defeated. An Armenian his- 
torian states that the (own then contained 120,000 souls; 
and t^at it oapitulated to Timour, on condition that their 
lives ^hould be spared, which oondition he most barbarously 

(Mr. Johnston*s Joumal, in the American Missionary 
Herald, Oct 1837; and Mr. CJonsul Suter'8 Joumal, in 
London Geogra^hical Joumal, 1841.) 

SIWAH is tbe modern name of the oasis in the Sabara, 
which was called by ihe Greeks and Romans Ammonium, 
A mmonia, or Ammoniaca, from thecelebratedoracleand tem- 
ple of Jupiter Ammon,with whose worship the Greeks be- 
c^me acquainted through the Cyrenieans. The town of 
Siwah is in 29^ 12' N. lat. and 26* 17' E. long.,and is about 
160 English miles from the sea-coast, and twe]ve days' 
journey from Cairo. The distances between the temple 
of Ammon and severa] of the Egyptian towns are stated 
by the antients thus : from Memphis it was twe]ve days' 
journey (Plin., Hist, Nat., v. 5.) ; from the viUage of Apis, 
flve days* (Strabo, xvii., p. 799); aud from Tbebes, ten days' 
joumey (Herod., iv., 181). The whole oasis is about fif- 
teen geograpbical miles in length and tweWe in breadtb ; 
but Diodorus (xvii. 50) says that the length and breadth are 
about 50 stadia, which would only make a licile more than 
five geographical milea. Nearly the whole of ihe oasis has 
a A-uit^ui soii, and is watered by manv springs of freih as 
well as of salt water, the latter of which probably arise from 
the masses of salt mentioned by Herodotus. The aspect of the 
oasis is that of an undulaiing country, and in the north il is 
surrounded by high limestone hills. The antients speak of 
three things as remarliable in this oasis : Arst, a well, called 
the Well of the Suu, of which the water was warm in the 
morning and evening, and cold atmid-day (Herod.,.iv. 181 ; 
Diodor., xvii. 50 ; Lucr., vi. 849, 8tc.; Pomp. Mcla, i. 8) ; 
secondly, a large palace of the antient kings of the Ammo- 
nians, which was surrounded by a triple wall, and situated 
in the centre of the oasis (Diodor., xvii. 50) ; and tbirdly, the 
temple of Jupiter Ammon, whidi was surrounded by a 
shady grove. Cambyses made an unsuccessHil attempt to 
take the Ammonium (Herod., iii., 25) ; and it was ^isited by 
Alexander the Great. [Alb^ander.] In the reigu of the 
Ptolemies and under the Romans the oasis belonged to 
that nomos or province which was called Libya (Ptolem., iv. 
5). In the time of Strabo (xvii., p.813) the oracle was al- 
most entirely neglected. In the middle ages the Arabs 
called this oasis Santariah. 

The Ammonium, during its most Aourishing state in an- 
tient times, seems to have been well peopled ; and the in- 
habitants are said to have oonsisted of three distinct tribes. 
The southem and western parts were inhabited by iUthio- 
pians, the middle part by tbe Nasamones, and the north by 
a nomadictribe of Libyans. No town howeveri8 mentioned 
in the oasis, but it is stated that its inhabitants lived in 
vi]lagBs (Diodor., xxvii. 50). The description which Dio- 
dorus gives of the beautiful dimate of the oasis, and of itt 
fertility, especially in fruit, is still applicable to it: nearly 
the whole oasis forms one uninterrupted succession of mea- 
dows, Aelds, and palm-groves ; and the gardens produce an 
abundance of the most delicious fruit8. The water however 
is said to be injurious to camels. 

The present inhabitants consist chieAy of Berbers mixed 
with negroes, and all are very sealous Mohammedans. 
Since the year 1820 they havebeen subject to the vioeroy of 
Egypt, to whom they pay an annual tribute of 2000 camel- 
loads of dates and 10,000 Spanish piasters. Their jealousy 
of foreigners has frustrated severa] atteropts of Europeans 
to inyestigate the interior of the oasis. The principal place 
in it beart the name of Siwah, and has about 8000 inhabit 
Digitized b'^ 

81 X 


S I X 

«nts. Tlils, as well lu the sereral ather sinalkr pYaces in 
the oasis, are built apon emitienoes, and snrrounded by 
^alls topTotect tbena from hostile inroads. The houses are 
ail wretehed huts, and the streets narrow and dark. 

Rttins of the antient temple of Ammon, as well as of a 
wall hy which it appeats to have been surrounded, are still 
▼isible. The paihtings, sculptures, and hierogl jphics whioh 
are still preserved on the walls, are copied and described in 
tbe work of Minutoli. There are also ruins of other places, 
especially in the neichbourhood of the modern village of 
Sbargiah, which prc^bly mark tbe sites of the antient 
yil)af es. The Well of the Suh is also near Shargiab, and 
is still remarkable for its varying temperature. Catacombs 
cut in the roeks have been discoYered in four diCTerent parts 
of the oasis. 

In the year 1820 Baron Minntoli undertook a journey to 
Upper E^ypt and the oasis of Siwah ; and some years after, 
his account of it was edited by Tolken, under tbe title 
* Reise zu dem Tempel des Jupiter Ammon und nach Ober- 
iigypten/ Berlin, 1 824, 4to. This work contains a map of 
the oasis. In 1827 Tblken published a supplcmeht to this 
worki in which be endeavours to explam tlie arcbieological 
and mythological points which are mentioned in the work 
of Minutoli. 

SIX CLERKS. The office of «ix Clerks is an office of 
great anliquily connecled with the Court bf Chancery, pro- 
probably as antient as the Court iiself. Tlie number of 
the Six Clerks was limited to six as long ago as the ]2th 
Rich. II. The history of this office illusiratcs the mischief 
of attempting to regulate the supply of legol services to the 
cHent. It exhibits an instance of the prineiples of inter- 
ference and monopoly destroying two 8uccessive classes of 
officers, in spite of the strongest support which the taw and 
the courts oould give to them. 

Tbe Six Clerks were originally the only attorneys of the 
Court. By the common law any person who was impleaded 
in any of the courts of law was bound to appear in person, 
unless he obtained the king's warrant, or a writ from Chan- 
cery enabling him to appear b^ attorney, • by reason whereof,' 
says LordCoked In»i.f 128), *there were but few suits.* 
Thcre are many early statutes still in force enacted for the 
purpose of empowering the subject to appoint an attomey. 
The earliest slatute is that of Merton (a.d. 1295), whereby 
it is * provided and granted that every freeman which oweth 
suit to the county, tithing, hundred, and wapentake, or to 
the court of his lord, may freely make his attoruey to do 
those suits for bim.' Subsequent Acts extended this pri- 
vilege to other parties and other courts; but to this day it 
would appear that by the strict law of the land, except so 
far as it has faUen into desuetude, persons in good health, 
in pleas relating to money, are bound to appear tn pcrson. 
None of ihese statutes however extended to Courts of 
Equity, but, as far as appears, every person who was de- 
sii-ous of relief, or compelled to defend himself in the Court 
of Chancery, was obliged to eraploy one of the Six Clerks as 
his representative. 

In early times great exertions were made to limit the 
niimber or attorneys who Were allowed to practise in each 
court. The increase of litigation which accompanied the 
increase of property was lookcd on as an evil to be checked 
in every possible method ; and the method most relied on 
was that of limitingtlie number oriegal practitioners. The 
wellknown statuleof 1455 (33 Hen. VI., c. 7.,which isslill 
in force) may be referred to as an instance. It recites a 
practice of contentious attorneys to slir up suits for their 
privale proiits, and enacts that there shall he but 8ix cora- 
mon attorneysin Norfolk, six in Suffolk, andtwo in Norwich, 
to be elected and admltted by the chief-justioe. In 1564 
a rule was made by the Court of Common Pleas, that every 
attorney of that court * should satisAe himself with the 
suits in the same, and ibrbear to be towards any causes as 
plftintiff in any other theQueen's Majestie's courts here at 
We»tminster.' As late as the year 1616 a rulewas made, 
' that the number of attorneys of each court be viewed, to 
have them drawn to a competent number in each court, 
and the superiluous number to be removed.* These various 
regulations, so far as they were enforced, could only have 
beeu detrimental to the public ; and as regards the Courts 
of King's Bench and Common Pleas, they seem not to have 
been long insisted on. As to the Exchequer, the principle 
of monopoly was continucd in force down to the year 1830, 
unlil which time eighteen attorneys only were admittcd lo 
tuactise in it* Ai a cons«queDc«, that court was, U«forii 

the year IdSO, scareely at all resorted to. Sinoe that ttnM 
more aetions are eommenced in it than in any other court. 
In the year 1632 a new principle was introduced inlo the 
Common-Law Courta, and all persons wishing to be attor- 
neys were reqatred to serve an attorney under articles for 
6ix years (since reduced to five). The 8ix Clerks' Office 
however did not adopt this method until long after. They 
got over the difficulty by adroitting under-clerka, afterwards 
called sworn clerks, to practise in their names, and they 
shared in some wa^ or other tbe profits with them. In 
1548 an inqui8ition was appointed, to inquire into tbe sup- 
posed exaction8 and abusea of the Court of Chancery, and 
the fee8 theit payable for ttae business of this offiee. A ropy 
of their presentment was printed by order of llie House of 
Commons, 8th February, 1831. It shows that all the fees 
payable for bustness done in this office were at that time 
payable to the Six Clerks; and it contains no allusion what- 
ever to the under-clerks as being in any way known as 
officers of the court. They aeem at that time to have held 
a position with regard to the Six Clerks, quite analogous to 
that the solieitors for a long period were under with regard 
to the sworn clerks, and to"have been the real persons wbo 
prosecuted the causes. They must have beeu numeroas» 
as in 1596 an order was made limiting the number that 
each Six-Clcrk should be allowed to have under him. Sooa 
af>er this the SixClerks, instead of taking clients acoordiug 
to the clients* choice, agreed to divide the business coming 
from time to time into oourt among themselves alphabeti- 
cally. This arrangement shoitrB tbat the scheme of a limited 
number of legalised attorneys for the Court of Chaneery had 
now entirely ceased to operate, and had been converted into 
a mere legal pretext to enable these officer8 to tax all who 
were driven to such Chancery Court for justice. Tbis re- 
gulatiun for dividing the business was, after someyears, sct 
aside on petition of the master of the rolls to thecrown^ as 
a monopoly and a brcach of the liberty of the subject. In 
1630 tbeofficeof Six-Clerkwa8, if not a sinecure, at least aii 
appointment of great value. From a ridiculous story told 
aboutSir Julius Cassar, the master of the roIl8,in Claren- 
don'8 * Rebellion' (vol. i., p. 52), it appears that the appoint- 
ment at that time sold for so large a sum as 6000/. About 
this time the under or sworn clerks, or clerks in court (for 
all these naraes apply to tbem), began to be frequently 
mentioned in the orders regulating the court, and soon 
grew into a very important body. The under-clerks were 
the parties who knew the merits of the different causes, nnd 
were interested in getting the work done, so as to gain the 
fees from the cUents. The Six Clerks had begun to sink 
into the lethargy of sinecurists. Many orders were made 
to spur them iuto activity, but all in vain. Tbe following 
may be instanced — the lOth of Lord Coventry's ordera 
(1635): ' The Six Clerks, who are the only attomeysof thia 
court, ought to inform tbemsekes oontinually of the state 
and proceeding of their clients' causes, whereby they may 
be able to defend their clients, aud to give account to the 
court, as the attorneys in all other courts do, and not leave 
the care and knowledge thereof upon their under-clerks, 
who attend not in court; and the clients» andsuch as follow 
iheir cause, are toacquaint their attorneys for that purpose.' 
Order of 1650: * Whereos only Mr. Hales, oneof the Six 
Clerks of this court, gave his attendance this morning aC 
the sitting of the court, at the entering into the hcaring of 
the cause wherein Kitcbin is plaintiff against Meredith 
defendant, and the rest of the Six Clerksmade derault : it is 
therefore this present day ordered, that such of tho six 
clerks who so made defau1t of their attendance and serTice 
to this court, at the beginning of that cause, be fined ten 
shillings a-piece to the poor, and the usher of the court is 
to receive the same to the use aforesaid.' 

The Six Cierks, in a paper given in by them to the Chan> 
cery Commissioners of 1825 (&ept, Appx. 1), No. 20), af(er 
communicating thetr present duties, state that * From tlie 
flrst establishment of the Six Clerks, up to the Rebellion in 
the rei^n of King Charles I., many other important duties 
were attachcd to their office. During the usurpaiion how- 
ever a part of the duties was assigned to certain new ofli- 
cers eniitled the swom clerks, who have ever sinceconiinued 
the execution thereof.* The Six Clerks iu this statemeut 
have flxed rather too early a date to the legal transfcr. Great 
effortswere made for reform of legal procedure during tha 
(^ommonwealth. Among others there was an ordinance for 
aholishing the office of Six-Clerk in 1654, but it terminated» 
with the othu ordiBanm of tho ComiiKmwMlth, at the R«* 

Digitized b\ 


S I X 


S I X 

toratton, and the judges endeaToured Tun>rouBly to reinsli^e 
the Six Clerks in their old position. By an order of Lord 
Clarendon» of 1 665» made ' On taking into oonsideration tho 
nianif6ld disorders and undue practices which of the late 
tioies haTe crept into the Six Clerks' Office, to the great 
dishonour of this court, the obstruction of justice, and the 
damage of the dient/ the alphabetical ciyision was re- 
enactod. * And beeause it is ver>' nianifesit that these mis- 
deoieanors and enormities are gotten into the office of the 
8iz Qfirks bjr the iiberty and licence which the inferior derks 
have of late assumed to themselves»' the numbers were to 
be limited to tweWe under-clerks to each Six-Ciierk. It ts 
obTious however that the decrepitude of a rotten constitu- 
tion rendered these eATorts nugatory. In orders about tbis 
time tbe under-clerks are sometiraes referred to incidentally 
as the * attomeys of the parties/ though it is strongly re- 
peated that * the Six Clerks are the only attorneys of this 
court.* In 1668 the Six Clerks submitted to tbeir fate ; an 
order was made fuUy reoognising the under-olerks, and di- 
Tiding the offifie-fees between tliem and the Six Clerks. Tbe 
Six Cierks, having secured their own monopoW, bad, by the 
year 1 689, become the agressors, aad had schemed to in- 
ere^se their inoome by admitting other persons, as well as 
the sworn or under clerks, to practise in their names. Tiiis 
was a bone of cont«ntion for many years. Before J693 the 
under-clerks had obtaiued the pri?ilege of iUling up all the 
Tscancies in the office by taking artieled clerks themselve8. 
From this time the office of Six-Clerk has beoome a complete 
sinecure, and the Six Clerks are on)y raentioned in the court^s 
aanaU wLth respect to the fees that they are entitled to 
demand from suitors, as door-keepers, as it were, to the court. 
Their busiuess, sucb as it is, for a long time bas been 
managed by one or two private cjlerks, employed as clerks 
to the wb<^e body of Six Clerks; and the Six Clerks have 
signed tbe necessary documents for each otber, .each being 
it the oliices for two months only in the y.ear. The office 
is yirtiially abolished by Lord Brougham*s Act, 3 & 4 
Wb. IV., c 94« s. 28» which enacts thal: Tacancies sball not 
be filled up till the number of Six Cl^rks is reduced to two. 
Nearly tb^ same slory has to be told over again with r^ 
^erenoe to the sworn clerks. For a long Ume these under- 
elerks were tbe prinoipal soUcitorsof the court; and until 
the middle of the last century the chief busioess of the 
court was transacted by them without the ia(erve^tion of 
a solicitor. The same principle of monopoly has with them 
led to nearly the results that it did with their titular suj)eriocs. 
A vested rigbt to fees in the various stages of equity pro- 
ceediogs brought about an inattention to business, wbich 
has led lo the transfer of the prosecution of suits to the 

In 1693 aa,ew half-officialcharacter was given to the articled 
elerks of the under-clerks. They were legalised under the 
name of ' waiting derks.' This new body soon began, as the 
foUowing extract from an order of the master of the rcJls of 
1693 wiU show, to imitate towards their owu masters the 
insolenc^ which the sworn clerks had thirty years before 
shown to their superiors the Six Clerks: — * Whereas com- 
piaint ha^h been made by tbe petition of the sworn derks 
of tbis oourt to the right hon. the master of the rolls» that 
diTers of their under-clerks baTe of late behaTed themselTes 
after a bold, inaolent, rude, and disorderly manner in the 
Six Clerks' Office, as well towards their respectiTc masters 
as to others the sworn clerks, and to the suitors of the court 
attending the despatch of their business tliere, by unman- 
n^ly and abusiTe language, breaking of windows, cutting 
desks, breaking down seats, throwing stones and ocher things 
at the said sworn derks and their clients, whereby, and 
by making rude and indeoent noises, tbey oflen lorced them 
to leave the said office, and caused the aame to be shut up 
in the most nsual time of busiDess, and when the oourt hath 
been sitting, to the great acandal thereof, and damage of 
tbe said sworn derks and their dients, and contrary to the 
dttty of the said under-derks, and the antient and laudable 
usago of the said office: ond whereas complaint hatb been 
likewise made to His Hotnor by petition of the under-derks 
that the Stx Olearks do take and employ persons to be their 
waiting-derks who haTe not been artided derks, or ever 
educated and employed in the said offioe; and that several 
of the sworn derks have and do not only take more than 
one articled derk, which they, by the riiles and orrlers of 
the said court for the gOTemment of tbe said office, ought 
not to dO| but do likewise carr^ the reoocds oiit of the said 

offiee, and cause th# same to be copied at under-iates by 
persons out of the office, rather than to allow to their under- 
derks their due foes for copying thereof.* It was accordingly, 
amongst other things, ordered ' that no under-derk in the 
said office shall from heneeforth during the time of his 
derkship pnesume to wear any sword, eitber in or out of the 
said office, within the cities of London or Westminster, or 
the liberlies thereof ; or to be coTered,or wear his hat in tbe 
said office, in the presence of any one of the swom clerks ; 
but tbat all the said under-derks shall, during all the 
time of their respectiTo clerkships, as well in their masters' 
seats as elsewhere in the said office, be uncoTered, and 
behave themselTes orderly,soberIy, and with respect towards 
all the said sworn clerks and suitors of the said court : and 
in case any of the said urider-derks shall be idle in the said 
office,out of their masters' seats, they shall, upon the admo- 
nition or command of any of tbe said sworn derks, itnme- 
diately repair to their masters* seats, and quietly sit and 
attend their business tbere, frora seven of the clock in ihe 
morning in sumraer, and eight in the winter, till twelTe of 
tlie clock at noon. nnd from two of the clock in the after^ 
noon until such tirae at night as tbeir respectiTe masters 
shall think fit.' 

There is still nnother class of workers of a serai-semi- 
official chara/ster, even now not recoguised by the court — the 
sworn clerks' agente. These gentlemen really now perform 
almost all the reraaining duties of the offipe which tlie in- 
trusion of the office of solicitor has lefc to it, except taxing 
tlie costs ; and are paid (it would appear illegally) by sorae 
share of the fee8 received. The necessity for these agents 
seems to prove thajt a monopo)y officer cannot work. Af(er 
so mai^y successive attempts by the court to bave each suc- 
cessive class of officers do their duty in person, it is at last 
in the main done by geutIet;Den who are mere privaie per- 
sons, hdd no official situation, and are liable in point of law 
to be turned away at any momeni. 

An effort was made on tbe occasion of the Chancery Com- 
mission of 1825 by several eminent solicitors to get the 
offices of Six-Clerk and cJerk iti co.urt abolished. It was 
b^roadly stated in evidence by a solicitor of celehrity that 
Mr. S. (a gentlemao whose mind bad failed hini) was 
' quite as good a derk in court aAer he was a lunatic;* and 
tlvB expense of tbe oiSice to tb^ suitor was insisted on. The 
commission, inAuenced (as one of their number has lately 
dedared) by Lord Eldon, stated they saw no reason to in- 
terfere with these o^ces ; and they have remained to the 
present day. It is now however oondemAed by the unani- 
mous Toice of the whole pro^ession, and its fall roay be 
shortly exnected. At present the dient has stiU to use the 
Six-Clerk s name as his attorney. He therefore pays hisown 
solicitor for his serTices ; he pays a clerk in oourt (and his 
partner, the real working agent) iar letting the solicitor get, 
in his name, to t)ie Six-Cterk for liberty to use the Six-Clerk's 
name, and he pays the Six-Clerk for this liberty also. 
Therefore what was once fair emdjument bas now become 
plunder. It is mainly to the existence of such legal abuses 
as have bere been pointed out, that we must look to account 
for the astonishing fact that more suit^s annually appiied 
to tbe C!ourt of Chanoery for aid 100 yeacs ago than do now. 
So little does personal talent affect the office of clerk in 
oourt, that an executor of a clerk in oourt can sdl the prao- 
tice of his testator to another derk in court, almost with a 
certainty that not a dient wiil he lost, bowever mean may 
be the talents of the purchaser. 

The emolnments of the office have long been a subject of 
apeculation among the profe8sion of the law. They were 
represented by Lord Eldon s commission as caustng ' a very 
triAin^ expense to the suitors.' The aocuracy of this repre- 
sentatioo was suspeoted, and orders were made on Tarious 
occasions by the House of Commons for the Six Clerks and 
derks in court to return the amount of their receipts, but 
the return could never be procured, until, in the year 1840, 
a adicitor, by a Tariety of calculations, demonstrated that 
the amount must be between 58,000/. and 63,000/. a year. 
The return at last bas been d>tained, and it turns out to 
have been, for the year 1839, 59,967/. Bs, 9d., with some 
extra fees receiTcd by the Six Clerks not induded in the 
leturn. (See Retum, printed by order of the House of 
Commons, ,1840.) The Six Clerks receiTe only a small 
amount of the whole sum, about 1300/. a year each. One 
of the derks in oourt alone appears to be in the gross annual 
receipt of aboTe 10,0tt0/« 

Digitized by 


S I X 


S K E 

For further information as to thit ofBoe, the reader is re- 
ferred to the case *Ex-parte the Six Clerks,' 3 \e%ey\ 
*Reports,' 619; to the ' Keports of ihe Commlssioners un 
the Ottices of Courts of Justice' of 1 816 ; to the * Report of 
1825 of the Chancery Commission ;' to Beameii'8 * Orders of 
the Court of Chancery ;' and to several recent pamphlets 
by Mn.Spence, Mr. rield, Mr. Merivale, and Mr. Waine- 
wright; and to a powerful speech on Eouity Reform, 
made in the end of the session of 1840, by Mr. Pemberton, 
since published in a separate form. 

SIaTH, a musical ioterval, a concord, the ratio of which 
is 5 : 3. [Concord; Hariiony.] 

Of the Sixth there are three kinds ; the Minor Sixth, 
the Mc^or Sixth, and the Extreme Sharp Sixth. The 
first (E, c) ts composed of three tones and two semitones; 
the second (c, a), of four tones and oue semitone ; the ihird 
(c, A (), of Tour tones and two semitones. £x. : — 










SIXTUS I. is recorded as bishop of Rome afler A1exan- 
der I., about the beginnin^ of the second century of our 
sDra, but the prcciBe epoch is not ascertained, and nothing 
more is known of him. 

SIXTUS II. succeeded Stephen I., a.d. 257. He is satd 
to have been by birth an Atbenian, and a philosopher of the 
Academy until he became a con\ert to Christianity. He 
suifered martyrdom in the persecution of the Christians 
under the emperor Yalerianus, a.d. 258. 

SIXTUS III. succeeded Celestine I., a.d. 431. He en- 
dcavoured, though with little suceess, to settle the dispute 
between Cynl, bishop of Alexandria, and John, bisbop of 
Antioch, conoerning the Nestorians. Several of his letters 
are eontained tn Constant's collection. He died in 440. 

SIXTUS IV. (Cardinal Prancesco della Rovere), a Fran- 
ciscan monk, succeeded Paul II. in 1471. He greatly en- 
riched his nephews, or sons, according to some, one of 
whom was afterwards pope under the name of Julius II. 
He seized Citti di Castello from its lord, Nicool6 Yitelli, 
and took Porli. Imola, and other places. He afterwards 
supported the conspiraey of the Pazzi against Lorenzo de' 
Meaici, and his nephew Cardinal Riario was present in the 
church when Giuliano, Lorenzo's brother, was assassinated. 
l*he conspiracy however failed of its principal object^ for 
Lorenzo was saved, and the conspirators were put to death, 
including SaWiati, archbishop of Pisa, who was one of the 
leaders. Riario was 8aved by Lorenzo's interposition, and 
merely conAned for a time. 8ixtus, on hearing the news, 
excommunicated Lorenso, and alt the magistrates of Flo- 
rence and their abettors, for having hung the archbishop. 
Tbe clergy of Plorence took the part of Lorenso, and being 
assembl^ in convocation or synod held for the occa?ion, 
thev siv^ned an act of accusation jirounded upon depositions 
ana statements of fact8 proving Sixtus to have been acces- 
sory to the conspiracy and the murder of Giuliano. This 
curious document, the original of whicb, in the hand-wriling 
of Greniite d'Urbino, bishop of Arezzo, exists in the archives 
of Florence, is given by Pabroni and Roscoe in their re- 
spective biogramiies of Lorenzo. The expressions used by 
the clergy of rlorence, in speaking of the head of the 
cliurch, are stronger than any of those used hDlf a ccntury 
later by Luther and the other reformerB. Another docu- 
meni, drawn up by Bartolomeo Scala, chancellor of the 
republic of Plorence, corroborates the statements in the 
Plorentine synod, by giving an historical memorial of all 
the proceedings of that celebrated conspiracy. Pope Sixtus 
induced Perdinand, king of Naples, to join his troops to 
the papal forces against Plorence, but tbe Plorentines 
braved the storm, until Lorenzo took the bold resolution of 
proceeding to Naples alone, to plead the cause of his 
country before King Ferdinand, in which he succeeded. 
Sixtus, being forsaken by his ally, and alarmed at the same 
time at the progress of the Turks, who had landed at 
Oiranto, was fain to agree to a reoonciliation with the Flo- 
rentines. In 1482 Sixtu8 entered into another intrigue 
with the Venetians, for the purpose of depriving Duke Er- 
cole of Este o^ his domiuion of rerrara, which he wished to 
bcstow upon Couut Girolamo Riario, anolhero^ his nephews. 

This led to a war, in which the king of Naples and tbe 
Florentines supported the duke of Perrara against the 
pope and the Yenetians. The emperor however interposed, 
threatening to call together a general council of the chutbb, 
upon which Sixtu8 tbought it advisable to detach himi>elf 
from the Yenetians, and makeaseparate peaoe with theduke 
of Ferrara. He then advised the Yenetians to do the same, 
and as they disregarded his oounsel, he 8olemn]yexcommu- 
nicated his late allies. In 1484 however the Yenetians 
made peace also, and a few days after Sixtus died. He was 
one of the most turbulent and unscrupulous in the long 
list of pontiATs. 

S1XTUS V. (Cardinal Peliee Peretti of Montalto) suc- 
ceeded Gregory XIII. in 1585. His first care was to purge 
the city and neighbourhood of Rome of the numerous 
outlaws which the supineness of his predecessors had en- 
couraged. He resorted to summary means, he employed 
spies and armed men, and he soon extirpated by the 
sword and the halter the noxiou8 brood. The name of 
* Papa Sisto,' as connected with his summary justice, has 
continued proverbial at Rome to the present day. Being a 
sbrewd politician, he disliked the overgrown power of Spain, 
and was not displeased at the ataunch opposition whieh 
Philip II. received from Elizabeth of England, whom Six- 
tus however formally excommunicated as a heretic. He 
embellished Rome with numerous and U8eful struciures, 
among others the present building of the Yatican library. 
(Booca, De Sixti V, Edi/iciie, in his Bibliotheca Vaticana.) 
He published a new edition of the Septuagint, 1587, and 
one of the Yulgate with improvement8, 1590 ; and lie him- 
sc)f edited the works of St Ambrose, and is said also to 
have superintended an Italian translation of the Bible, which 
was condemned by the SpaniBh Inquisition, between which 
bodv and Sixtus tliere was little sympathy. SixtuB died 
in August, 1589. His life has been written by Leti, Tem- 
pesti, Robardi, and others. As a temporal prince he waa 
distinguished in his age. 

SIZAR, a term used in the University of Cambridge for 
a class of Btudents who are admitted on easier terms as to 
pecuniary matters than others. These pecuniary ad^antages 
arise from diATerent sources in dilTerent Colleges, and are of 
different value. Originally certain duties were required of 
the students so admitted, approaching to the character of 
menial, but these have been long discontinued. A similar 
class of Btudents at Oxford are called Servitor8. The word 
is supposed to be derived from size^ which is used in the 
Univer8ity to denote an allowance of provision8 at the col- 
lege buttery ; and tbat from the verb to as9ize, which is 
much the same as the modern assesSt which means appor^ 

SKATE. Tbis name, as well as the term Ray, is used in 
England to designate numerous fishes with carlilaginoua 
skeletons, having tiie bodv much depressed and more or 
less approacbing to a rhomDoidal form. Tbe eyes and tem- 
poral oriAces are on the upper surface, and the mouth, 
nostrils, branchial and anal apertures are situated on the 
under suriace of the body; the tail is long aiid slendcr, 
generally ^urnished with two (analogues of the dorsal Ans) 
and sometimes three flns, and usually armed with spines. 
Tho peculiar form of the skate arises chieAy from the great 
size and expan6ion of the pectoral Ans ; these extend from 
the head to the base of the tail, and are dilated in or near 
the middie in such a manner as to give (combined wiih the 
poin(ed snout) that rhomboidal forra so peculiar to these 
fishes. The jaws are as it were paved with teeth, and these 
npproach more or less to a rhomboidal form, and are llat, 
but in the adult males (at least of many of tlie species) 
those nearest the centre assume a pointed form. 

The young of the skate, says Mr. Yarrell, are producetl 
towards the latter part of the spring or during summer. 
They are depositcd by the parent tish in their horny cases, 
like those of some of the sharks; but they are more 
square in form. These horny cases of the young skates are 
by some called pur8e8,and ou the coast of Cumberland have 
the name of skate-barrows, from the resemblance they 
bear to a four-handed machine by which two men cany 
goods. As the young skate increases in 8ize, the angular 
parts of the body are curved over. 

Nine species of skates, or rays, are found on the British 
coast, the distinguisbing characters of which are carcfully 
pointed out in Mr. Yaneirs History qf Brilish Bishes, 

SKEEN. [ChristianiaJ 

Digitized by 


S K E 


S K E 

8KBLET0N (rrom mW/I dry'), is the name applied 
to thoae harder parts of organized bodies which form the 
frmmework upon which the softer tissues are fixed. It is 
more particularly applied to the collection of bones which 
in an animal either serve as fixed points for the attachment 
of the soft parts, or form cavities for enclosing and protect- 
ing important organs, or constitute tbe apparatiis of snp- 
port and the pas8ive instruments of voluntary motion. 

The present article wtU treat of the skeleton of man, 
as a standard with which to compare those of otber ani- 
mals described in the several articles on natural history 
and comparative anatomy. On this comparison of skeletons 
many of the most important facts of the latter science de- 
pend; forthe bones, being the least destructible of the 
tissues are the most convenient organs to examine in the 
different classes of the higher animals ; and in accordance 
with the rule of the exact adaptation of all the parts of an 
organized body to each other, the skeleton of each animal 
alTords general indications of the characters of every other 
organ in its body. And not only so ; but each bone, accord- 
ing to the same rule. affords indications of the characters of 
the rest of the skeleton, and theretbre, though less cer- 
tainly, of the other organs of the body. Hence it is that, 
by an examination of a part of the skeleton of an extinct 
animal, geologists are enabled to form very probable sup- 
posittons of tne form of the whole ; knowing by certain 
marks on the bones, that they served for the attachment of 
muscles of corresponding form and strenglh, and that 
these muscles were adapted for pecaliar movements, which 
tgain were most probably employed for certain purposes 
ciosely connected with the mode of 1ife and the whole 
«dapted organization of the animal. 
Fig, 1. 

The human skeleton is divided into three principal parts: 
tbe trunk (2), the head (1), and the e^treroilies (3 and 4). 
Neither the whole jiumber of bones composing it, nor that 
in each main di^ision, can be exact1y statcd, for many 
which arc in early 1ife separated, are subsequent1y united ; 
but as an approximation, the following enumeration may be 
adopted: — Cranium, 8; face, 14; internal ears, 8 ; vertebral 
colunin, 24; chest, 26; pehis, 11 ; upper extreraities, 68; 
lower extremities, 64: in the whole, 223. 

The trunk is composed of the spine or vertebral column 
P. Ct No. 1368. 

(exton(1ing from aio d in the annexed Fig. 2), tho ehes^ 
including ihe ribs and steruum or breast-bone {e), aud the 

peh i«, the circle of bones on which the spine rests. Tho 
spine is the column of bones which, in the erect posture, 
supports the head on its summit (a), and rests with its base 
id) upon the sacrum. It consists of 24 bones. called verte- 
bra> (from rerto, I lurn), because it is their motion upon 
each other which enables the trunk to be turned round. 
Of ihe 24, the 7 uppcr (a to b) are called cerviral, the 12 
middie (b to c) dorsal, and the 5 lowest (c to d) lumbar, 
yertebrpp. With the exccption of ihe Iwo first, ihey are all 
connected by interposed discs of a very elastic subst n e, 
the intervertebral cartilages. 

The general characters of Ihe vertebre8 may be best 
studied on one from the lumbar region; in which the fol- 
lowing parts, common to nearly all ,of the 24, are well 
marked : — a body, a ring, a spinous process, two transverse 
processes, four ariiculating processes, and four notches. In 
the annexed plate two lumbar vertebr8e are rcpresented : 
that in the figure A, as seen obliouely from behind, from 
above,and from the right side; ana that in the igire B, as 
seen from above and behind. 

Fig, 3. 

3 : 3 


S K E 


S K £ 

Tbe body (1) is a disk of bone with a nearly oval outline, 
larger above and below than at its middle, and having its 
greatest dimension from side to side. Its texture is spongy, 
invested wiih a thin layer of compact tissue. Its upper and 
lower surfaces. by which it is afii\ed to the two adjacent in- 
tenrertebral cartilages, are nearly flat, and slightly marked 
by radiating lines. At its posterior border the ovaI outline is 
iuterrupted by aslight concavity (2), which furms a portion of 
the ring surrounding the spinal marrow, and in which there 
are Beveral aperture« larger than those on the rest of the 
body, for the exit of the veinB from the interior. 

To either lide of the posterior part of tbe body, and near 
its upper border. is affixed one of the e^tremities of the 
arch (3) by wbioh tbe ring is conipleted behind. It is com- 
posed of two flat laminiB, which spring from the sidesof tbe 
body, and meet at an obtuse rounded angle in the middle 
line behind, where they bear the spinous process (5). The 
space (4) included between the body and these laminse is 
called the vertebral foramen ; it is occupied by the spinal 
chord; it is of a somewhat triangular ^orm, and in the 
lumbar vertebr» is of large sise. 

Close to the attaehmentsof the laroina) to the body there 
18 in each or their borders a rounded notch (6) ; and when the 
vertebrGe are applied one on another, these notohes form 
oval holes (ihe intervertebral foramina, see next Ggure (8), 
through which the spinal nerves pass, one pair going out 
between each two vertebr8B. [Nerve.] To the rest of the 
laminse are attached the interlaminar ligaments, or liga- 
menta subHava, bands of vcry elastic tissue by which the 
spaces betwcen the adjucent arches arc fillGd up, and the 
spinal canal completed behindi asit is by the intervertebra] 
cartilages before. 

llie spinous process (5) is a broad Aat ouadrilateral por- 
tion of bonedirected horizontally backwaras from the raeet- 
ing of the laminse. Its posterior border is thickened, and 
to it, as well as to the upper and lower borders, are attaclied 
strong ligaments binding the spinous process of cach ver- 
tebra to those next above and below it. The transverse 
processes (7) project horizontally outwards on eilher sidc; 
tliey are ihin and long, and are enlargcd and rou^h at their 
cnds, to which several strong muscles and ligamentsare at- 
tached. The articulating processes are llat and oval ; each 
has a smooth surface, by which it is connected with the 
trorresponding part of the next vertebra above or below. 
Tho upper pair (8) are set most widely apart, and their ar- 
ticulating surfaces are ooncave and turned inwards; the 
lower pair (9) are nearer together, and have their articula- 
ling surface8 turned outwards. When the lumbar vertebr8D 
ure put together, the lower proeesses of each are lockcd 
withm the upper processes of the one next below, so that 
scarcely any lateral or rotatory motion ia in this part of the 
spine possible. 

The dorsal vertebr8D, which in the adjacent platc are 
drawn, as seen in A and B, firom behind and from the ieft 


side, and in C from before and Irom tbe same side, hvfe t)ie 
same general characters as the lumbar, but are distinguished 
from them by tbe ^llowing : — 

The body (1) is small but deep, and longer from before 
backwards than in any other direction ; its general outline 
is heart-shaped ; it has at each border, just in front of the 
attachment of the laminsa, a shallow depreasion (2); and 
when the vertebr8e are set together, tbe depresstons on 
eitber side of eaeh adjacent pair form one cavity, into whieh 
the head of one of the ribs(C 3) is received for articulation. 
The laminse are broad and thick ; the vertebral fortmen is 
oval and sroall. Tbe spinous process (5) is long and narrow, 
and projects obllquely downwards ; those of adjaoent Ter- 
tebriD are imbricated at their bases (Fig. Bj. Tbe transverae 
prooesses (6) are long and directed backwards as well as 
outwards ; each of them (except those of the two last verte- 
brsB) has a smooih 8urface in front of its outer extremity, by 
wbich it articulates with tbe tuberde of the oorresponding 
rib. The articulating prooesses (7), both superior and in- 
ferior, are equally wide apart ; the former bave their smootb 
suriiBices turned backwards, the latter theirs forwards. TUc 
notches and foramina are smaller than in the lumbar ver< 

The cervical ^ertebrae, of wbieh one is represented in the 
adjacent cut, as seen fvom bebind and above, are dislin- 
guished by the body (2) being small, broad, and shallow 


and wider above than below. In its upper 8urface also it 
has two elevations (1) betweenwbich the lower part of tbe 
Yertebra next above is receivcd. The laminse (3) of the 
arch are long and narrow, and enclose a large somewhat 
triangular vertebral foramen (4). The spinous process is 
short and bifurcated. The trans^erse processes (6) are 
short, horizontal, and bifurcated ; and each has a foramen 
at its base, through which the vertebral artery passes. The 
superior ariicular processes have their smooth oval surfaces 
dirccted backwards and inwards, and they receire between 
them the inferior processes of the vertebra next above, 
whose articular surfaces are tumed in the opposite direction. 
But these distinctive characters of the several scts of 
vertebr8B are only general: ihey are merged at the ex- 
tremes of each set, the lowest dorsal being very like the 
upper lumbar, and the upper dorsal like ihe lowest cervical. 
Some single vertebr8e, moreover, have particular characters. 
The first of the cervical set, or Atlas, is scarcely more than 
a tlat ring of bone with two long trans^erse processes, two 
superior articulating processes, with large oval concave sur- 
fuces opposed to tliose of tho occipital bone, and two infe- 
rior, with large liat hori/ontnl surPaccs, which articulate 
wiih ihose ot the second vertebra. By the former joint the 
cliief movcments of dcpression and elevation of ihe head 
upon the neck are perraitted; by the latter, those of rota- 
tion. The second cervical vertebra (naraed axis, or V. 
dentata) has a large pointed process, which rises from 
the upper part of its bo<ly, and is enclosed in a ring formed 
by the anterior half of the Atlas, and a transverse ligaroent 
passing from one side to the other of its body. In this ring 
the proccss of the ax!s rolales freely ; or rather, the Atlas, 
with the head supported on it, moves round that process, 
and upon the Hat supcrior articulating surfaces of the axis. 
The seventh cervical yertebra has a remarkably longspinous 
process, to which is attached the ligamentum nuchse, a 
strong elastic band for the support of the head when 
inclined forwards, but which, as well as the spinous pro- 
cesses of all the adjacent vertebr8D, is mnch more developed 
in animals that move horiiontally and graze, than in man. 
This vertebra isalso marked by having a small rib-like pro- 
cess in frontof its transYerse process ; it is a rudimental rib, 
and is analogous to the cervical ribs of serpents and maiiy 
other aniroals in whom the chest is more elongated than in 
man. The first and the three last dorsal vertebr8B have eacb, 
at the upper borders of the body, auriaces for articulation 

S K E 


S K E 

wilh ibe wliole liead of the corresponding rib. The fiflh 
lunibar has ils lower surface cut obliquely upwards to arti- 
culate with the top of thc sacrum and forni the promontory 
of the pelyis. 

Viewed as a whole, the huraan vertebral column forms a 
kind of pyramid with its base at the sacrum, and its trun- 
cated summit at the hcad. It is not however rcgularly 
pyraraidal ; for, as seen from thefront, it becomesgradually 
smaller from the base to tlie fourth dorsal vertebra; then it 
widens to Ihe seventh cervical, and then again becomes 
narrower to the second. In the adiilt it has well-marked 
curvatures. (See Fig. 2.) From the head it is fii*8t curved 
slighlly forwards to the last cervical vertebra ; then its dor- 
sal portion forras an arch with its convexity backwards and 
ending at the last dorsal; and then again in the lumbar 
region it arches forwai-ds to the basc of the last lumbar 
vertebra. These directions of the column have relations to 
ihe naturally erect posture of the human body [M an] : in 
correspondence with them the bodies of the cervical and 
Inmbar vertebrcB, and their intervcrtebral cartilages, arc 
tliicker before ihan behind, and those of the dorsal thicker 
behintl than before. 

The spine serves several oiHces in thc cconomy. One is 
that of guarding the spinal marrow, which, wiih thc roots 
of its nerves, is enclosed in the long canal formed by the 
superposed rings of the several verlebra}. The spini cere- 
brate form of nervous syslem, which consists of a brain nnd 
longiludiual axis, bo;h placed on the s.ame side of ihc diges- 
iive caual, is intimately connectĕd with all the restof the or- 
ganizatiuu of the animals in which it exists; and being 
always enclosed in a skull and spinal canal, the vcrtel)ral 
column is takeu as the most ohviou8 character of the four 
classes cf animals which have this plan of nervou8 syslern. 
These lhorefore, namely, mammals, birds, fi&h, and reptiles, 
arc called vertebrata; and the other portion of the animal 
kmgdom, whatever be the plan of Ihen* nervous centres, in- 

The spine is also the main support of all the rest of the 
skeleton. The head, the ribs, and thc pelvis dircctly arti- 
culate with it; and through the medium of the pehis and 
sternum, it suspends bolh the lower and upper extremilies. 
It is the passive instruraentof all the motions of Ihe trunk, 
and the centre about which each of the limbs as a whole is 
moved. For these purposes it is adupted by corabining 
firmness with f!exibility and lightness. FIexibility is ob- 
tained by its being composed of so many pieces soiiaratcd 
fiom each other by layersof elastic tissue; and ils stren^th 
is secured by tliese layers, which are at ihc same time firm 
boiids of union, and by numerous olher strong ligainents 
piibsing from bone to bone. In its own moveraents, extcnt 
U combined with security by each verlebra (except the first) 
having but little motion on those next to it; the larger 
Diovements being the result of the corabination of a number 
•jf such small ones. The directionsof the processes and the 
diverse modes in which they are locked one within anolher, 
determine the degrees in which, in each purt of the oolumn, 
the several molions of 11e\ion and extension in all diicc- 
tions, and of rotation, can be performed. The pyramidal 
fjrm of the whole is adapted to the accumulaled weight 
whieh the lower verlebrro have to bear. The curvaturc in 
the back increases the capacity of the chest. The spinous 
and tran8verse processes especially serve for the atlach- 
rnents of muscles of the head, chest, back, shoulders, and 
peUis. The elastic cartilagcs interposed between the bcdies 
break thc shock of any vioIence upon one eiid of the body, 
and botli they and the interlaminar ligaments tend to keep 
the spine straight, and so diminish the muscular action 
necessary to hold the body erect. 

Tlie base of the spinal coluran rests on the top of the 
jacTura {Pig* 2, g), which, though comraonly described as 
part of the pelvis, is indeed a continuation of the column. 
and is composed of five or six rudimental Yertebrin, which 
aHerabout the tenth year become consolidatcd. The sacrum 
(Fig. 6, A) has a triangular outline, the base being above ; and 
it articulates with the last lumbar vertebra, so as to form an 
obtuse angle, the promontory, by means of an intervcrtebral 
Eubstance and the other parts comraon to the rest of the 
vertebral joints. Its anterior surfacc, which in the erect 
posture looks obliquely downwards, is concave, and on it 
are fourorfive transverse lines, the traccs of thc divisions 
bctween the bodics of the original vertebrae. At each end of 
these lines are as many holes (the anterior sacral foramina), 
vhicb give passage to the anterlor braiichcs of the »acral 

nertes. Oiltside these holes the lacruTn has a smooth aur- 
face compoeed of the coalesced transverfe processes of its 
8cveral vertebra). Along the posterior convex surfaoe, the 
sacrum presents con-esponding traces of tt« composition. Its 
upper border is surmounted by two re{^ularly-formed arti- 
cular processes which are connected with those of the last 
lumbar vertebra, and leading downwards from these, in 
convergingp lines on either side of the middle, is a series of 
slight eIevation8, ihc traces of other rudimental articular 
prucesBcs. Along the raiddle line are three or four higher 
ridges, the traces of spinous processcs, and between these 
and the former are on either side four or five foramina, 
which give passage to thc posterior branches of the sacral 
nerves. These and the anterior sacral foramina already 
mentionedare analogousto theintervertebral foramina; and 
they both lead inlo the sacral canal, which runs through 
the whole length of the sacrum, and contains the cauda 
ccjuina, or tuft of the last roots of the spinal nerves. Tho 
outline of the sacral canal is triangular; it grows smaller 
fiom above downwai-ds, and isclosed in behind by a layer 
aiialogous to the arches of the rcgular vertebrro. It is con- 
tinuous above with the spinal canal, and below is, in the dry 
bones, open in the raiddle line, ihe arch of the last sacral 
vertebra being deRcient ; but in the recent suhject is closed 
by dura matcr and dense ligament. The sides of the sacrum 
are thick above, and become gradually thinner below. In 
thc formcr situation they are tnarked by large rou«i[h oval 
surraces, dirccted bnckwards and somewhut outwards, tiy 
wliich thc sacrura isou either side articulated immoveably 
wiih thc iliac bones to forni the sacro-iliac symphyses. The 
lower end of the sacrum has a plain oval surface, which is 
fil!cd to thc uppcr surlhce of the ttrst bone of the coccyx. 

Thc cocc\x is the lowcst part of the whole Tortebral 
column. Its bones form the iuterior framo of the lail in 
brutes, but in man are small, short, and not more than four 
or five in numher. The uppermost is by far the largest, and 
is surmounled by two processes called cornua, the extre- 
milies of which are adapted to those of two similnr proces^es 
by which the sides of the lower end of the sacral canal are 
bouuded. The three or four lower pieces of the coccyx have a 
somewhat oval outline, and are raiher deeper than Ihey are 
broad. Up to a laie period of Iife they are articulated 
movcably with thin layers of inierposcd cartilage. 

The sacrum and co(cyx form tlic niiddle f)osterior part of 
the pelvis ; its sidcs and front are formcd by the boncs called 
ossa innouiinata {Fig. G, 13). Bach of these is in the young 
subjert composed of ihree parts, which ore usnally described 
sepurutely, as the ilium, or haunch bone (a), the ischium (6), 
and the pubes (c). These three meet at the acetabulum ( l), 
the hemispherical cavily in which the head of thethigh bone 
is lodged, and of which the ischium forms nearly ihree- 
fifths, the ilium somewhat more than one firth, and the 
pubes rather less than one-fiflh. 

Hg". 6. 

The ilium forro8 the upper broad and expanded part of 
the peUis. Its outline is somewhat fan-shaped, and in the 
greater part of its extent it is llat and thin. That surface 
which is directe*d for\vards and inwards towards the cavity 
of the pelvis is slightly concave, and gives altachraent to 
the strong iliac rauscle by which the thigh is rai.sed towards 
the pelvis. Its npper border has a thick strong rira (2), the 
cribla ilii, to which parts of Ihe Ihree broad muscles of tho 

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abdomen are nltached. and which ser^e» for a fixed point 
towards which the ribR are drawn down by thoBe rouscles in 
Btrong expiration8. Tlie extremities of this rim, and the 
anterior and posterior edges of tho ilium, into which it is 
continued, have at eiiher end two strong projections for the 
attachment of muscles oP the thigh, which are named spinous 
processes. In Fig. 6, 3 is the anterior suporior, and 4 the 
anterior inferior spinous process; 5 is the posteuor superior 
spinous process, and 6 the posterior infenor. At the pos- 
terior part of the inner aspect of the ilium is a rough oval 
8urface, which is fixed behind that at the back of the sa- 
crum, with which its fore part forms the sacro-iliac sym- 
physis (see Fig. 2). From the upper part of this symphysis 
a line, continuous wilh that of the top of the sacrum and the 
promontory of the peWis, paases in a curve across the lower 
part of tbe ilium to the upper and inner edge of the pubes, 
along which it is continued to the middle line at the sym- 
physis pubrs. This line, by which the peWis is divided into 
an upper and a lower cavity, is called the brim, and the 
space it encloses is named Ihe upper strait of the pelvi8 (see 
Fig. 2). At and just below ihe brim is the thickest part of 
the ilium ; ils inner surface, which is opposite the acetabu- 
lum, is smooth, and gives attachment to muscles of the 
peWis and thigh. Tlie outer and back surface of the ilium 
(which is represented in Fig, 6, B) forms the haunch, that 
is. that expansion of bone which is feU above the hip-joint. 
It is marked by curved lines for the attachment of the 
strong elutei muscles of the buttock, and of the ligamenls 
connecting it with the sacrum and last lumbar vertebra. At 
its lowest and narrowest part it swells outwards, and is then 
suddenly and deeply hoUowcd, to form the upper part of 
the wall of the acetabulum. In this cavity it is united with 
the pubes before, and the ischium behind, by tiat surfaces, 
which in the' adult bones are indicated only by slightly ele- 
vated lines tending to the deepest part of the cavity. 

The ischium is the bone on whose lowest part, or tuberosity, 
the body rests in sitting. It is described as composed of 
two principal portions : a body (7), consisting of the tuberosity 
and the tbick strong part above it; and a ramus (8), which 
passes from the tuberosity .obliquely upwards, forward8, and 
inwards. The upper part of the body is united tp the lower 
part of the ihum, and its outer and anterior 8urface is 
deeply hollowed to form the lower and baok part of the 
acetabulum. At its posterior and inner border there is a 
strong pointed process, the spine of the ischium (9), to which 
one of the main ligaments of the pelvis, the lesser sacro-sci- 
atic, is attached. Aboye the spine, the body of this bone and 
the adjacent posterior border of the ilium as far as its poste- 
rior inferior spinous process, are cut out in a crescentic form ; 
they thus form the ischiatic notch, and, with the ligament 
just mentioned and the outer border of the sacrum, enclose 
an oval aperture, the great ischialic foramen, through which 
there pass from the pelvis to the thigh the pyriform muscle, 
and the gluteal, ischiatic, and pudic blood-ves8el8 and nerres. 
Below the spine, another foramen, the lesser ischiatic, is en- 
closed between the same and another stronger ligament^ the 
great sacro-sciatic, and the lower part of the body of the 
ischium; through tbis, together with some yessels and 
nerves, passes the internal obturator muscle, which, on its 
way to the femur, winds round a sraooth oval 8urface on 
the back of the ischium directly below its spine. The pos- 
terior thick surface of the body is rough for the attachment 
of muscles, especially those of the ham-strings which form 
the greater part of the back of the thigh. From the lowest 
part of the tuberosity, and forming aii acute angle with it, 
ascends the ramus, which at its anterior extremity (10) 
unites with thc descending ramus of the pubes. 

The pubes form8 the anterior part of each os innomina- 
tum, and is composed of abody (11), and a descending ramus 
(12). The body is the upper, anterior, and largerpart. At its 
outer extremity it artioulates with the ilium iust below the 
anterior and inferior spine, from which it descends in an 
even gentle curve, over which the iliac and psoas muscles, 
the chief vessels, and one of the principal nerves of the 
thigh, pass beneath the crural arch. Its outer end is hol- 
lowed to form part of the acetabulum. The horizontal part 
of the body has a somewhat pyramidal form with three 
sides. Along its posterior and uppcr border is the line 
whicli forms part of the brim of the pelvis. Near the ter- 
mination of this line is an elevation, the spine of the pubes, 
for the atiachmem of one end of the crural arch, the strong 
^'igament already mcntioned, whose other end is fixed to tbe 
anterior superior spine of the ilium. The inner ends of the 

bodiet of the two pubic bones are opposed by fiat oval sur- 
faces, which, with ligaments and a strong intermediate car- 
tilage, form the 8\-mphysis publs. From below and the side 
of this, the ramus descends outwards and backwards to meet 
the ascending ramus of the iscTiium, with whirh ii forms one 
flat and thin beam. Be'tween these rami below, the body of 
tbe pubes above and on the inner side, and the meeting of 
the pubes and ischium at the acetabulum on the outer side, 
is an oval aperture, ihe foramen ovale or obturatorium(l3), 
which in the recent body is nearly closed by the obturator 
ligament, and of which the borders, as well as the surfaces 
of the ligament, give attachment to the two obturator 
muscles. which thence proceed to the back of the ihigh-bone, 
which it is their office to rotate outwards. The space in- 
cluded between the rami of the pubes and ischia on either 
side and in front, and the great saci*o-sciatic ligaments. 
passing from both borders of the ?acrum and coccyx to ihe 
tuberosities of the ischia, behind, is nnmed the lesser aper- 
ture or strait of the pelvis. The meeting of the two rami 
in the middle line makes the angle of the pubes. 

The general purposes served by the pelvis are — ^to support 
the abdominal viscera, to enclose and guard those in its own 
cavity, to give insertion to muscles of the abdomen, back, 
and thighs, and to be such an intermedium between the 
rest of the trunk and the lower limbs that the latter may 
move fieely and yet firmly support the body. For the three 
fir8t of these purposes its adaptation is obviou8. Fot the 
last, the peWis is fitted by its posterior half forming an arch 
on whose summit the spine is supported, and whose pillars 
rest on the heads of the thigh bones. Of this arch the 
sacruro, impacted between the ilia and held firm1y by the 
ligaments of the symphysis, forms a kind of keystone, fitted 
tightly enough to bear, tbrough the medium of the spine. 
the welght of the trunk and of great additional burdena. 
The pillars of the arch are terminated by the acetabula. 
which rest on the femora; and the direction in which tho 
weight is thus transmitted from the sacrum to the thighs is 
that in which the strongest and thickest part of the ilium 
(in the line of the brim of the pelvis) is placed. Each ace- 
tabulum forms part of a sphere hollowed out at the meeting 
of the three component bones of the os innominatum. Its 
depth is increased at the upper and back part (where th« 
chief pressure falls) by the swelling out of the ilium; an^ 
all round, by the cotyloid ligament, a band of tough fibrou s 
tissue, by which the bone is bordered. It in a measure em- 
velopes the head of the femur, which is fitted into it air-tigh», 
and 80 closely that even after all the ligaments tfre removerl, 
they cannot without much force be separated. In the di y 
bones however the border of the acetabulum is not a cona- 
plete circle ; there is a notch where the ischium and pubes 
meet at the fore and lower part, to which the round liga- 
ment is in part attached. The head of the femur thus 
moves in the freest manner in the acetabulum by a perfect 
ball-and-socket joint; and if the thigh-bones be fixed, then 
it is by the rollingof the peWis on their heads that the body 
is swayed en masse. 

The particular circumstances in the structure of the 
peWis which are especially adapted to the erect posture, such 
as its hollow expanded sides, the oblique direction of its 
cavity, its width, the strength and position of the tuberosities 
of the ischia, &c., are described in the article Man. Its 
relation to gestation and parturition may also be here 
omitted, except to say that it is in reference to its share \\\ 
these processes that the pelvis is larger in all its dimensiona 
in women than in men. 

The last main division of the trunk is the Chest or 
Thorax, composed of the dorsal vertebr8e behind, the ster- 
nuro in front, and the 12 ribs and their cartilages on either 
side. (See Fig. 7.) AU the ribs articulate wiih the spine, 
but only thc 7 uppermost on each side have distinct con- 
nections with the sternum ; these are therefore called True 
ribs, and the five lower on each side False ribs.^Of these 
last, the 3 upper have their cartilages united before they 
reach the sternum ; and the two lower, which are sometimep 
called Hoating ribs, have short cartilages which are not a* 
tached to the sternum at all. 

In each of the greater numberof the ribs there are a neau» 
a neck, a tuberosity, an angle. a body or shaft, anu a carti- 
lage. The head is that part which articulates witn the ver- 
tebral column. It is lar^cr than the neck, anU its articu- 
lating Burfaceha8asomewhatoval outlinerandi«divided into 
two parta by a transverse elevation. This eievai^d line corre- 
sponds to the intervertebral cartilage, towhicti itisafiixe<l 

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bj a ligameDt The motion permitted at the joint between 
tbe head of the rib and the border of each of the vertebrtB 
iiext above and below it is not exten8ive ; but it is 8ufficient 
to give the body of each rib, which has therelation of a long 
]ever to the joint as a fu]crum, a wide sweep outwards and 
upwards in the act of deep inBpiration. Proceeding onwards 
from the head, and passing over the neclt, which is the 
tmallest and roundest part of the rib, the next object is tbe 
tubercle, an elevation on the posterior Burface, by which the 
rib ia articulated with the end of the transverse process of 
the vertebra next below it. Parther outward is the anele. 
an ob]ique projectins; line at which each rib turns somewhat 
more upwards and becomes Aatter. The remainder of the 
rib is its shaft. This is thin and Hat ; its 8urface8 are both 
nearly smooth, the outer being slightly convex, the inner as 
ilightly concave; the upper edge is rounded; the lower 
(wbich is also directed somewhat outwards) is sharp, and, 
from the angle inwards, is grooved on its inner aspect, where 
the intercostal ves8els and nerves lie. The end of the 
osseous part of each rib has a rough 8urface, to which is 
adapted one end of the costal cartilage, of which the other 
end (except in the instances already mentioned) is attached 
to the stemum. The costal cartilages have each the same 
general form and direction as the part of the rib to which 
they are appended ; they may be regarded as mere prolonga- 
tions of the ribs, the purpose of their being cartilaginous 
instead of bony being that of giving more elasticity to the 
walls of the chest. Each of them, except the first, is arti- 
culated with a slight capacity of motion to a depression on 
tbe border of the sternum. 

The direction of the body of the rib is firAt downwards 
and backwards, forming an arc of a sniall circle, to the 
angle, at or near which it seems twisted on itseU, and then 
sweeps round ^orwards and a little upwards in the arc of a 
larger circle. The distance from the head to the part at 
which this change of direction takes place, is greater in the 
lower than in the upper ribs, and in thesame progression is 
gradually increased tne obliquiW of the ascent of the carti- 
lages towards the sternum. The length of the ribs and 
their cartilages together becomes regularly greater from 
the first, that is, the uppermost, to the 8eventh or eigthth, 
the rest become gradually shorter, especially in their os- 
seous parts. 

Some of the ribs have particular characters in which they 
denate from the general description. The heads of the 
first, e]eventh, and twe1fih, have but one articular surface. 
being each conuected with but one vertebra ; the first and | 
tweirth liave no angles, the second and eleventh scarceiy 
any. The Arst forms nearly the ha]f of a eircle of a very 
small radius compared with those of the ribs belowit; its 
8urfaces are horizontal ; the upper is marked by two grooves 
oTer wliich the subclarian artery and vein pass, and by an 
impression between them to which the anterior scalenus 
rouscle is attached ; the lower surface has no groo^e ; the 
stcmal end is very broad ; the head is small. The second 
rib presents characters intermediate between those of tho 
ilrst and those of the true ribs below it 

Tbe Stemum, or breast bone, is single only in the adult ; 
in youth it is composed of at least two pieees (of which the 
upper {Fig. 7*, A) is named manubrium), and in the foetus 
of many more. Ck>n8idered asone bone, its form is elongated, 
broader aod thicker above thanbelow, wbere it terminates in 


a long narrow nrocess, which is generally cartilaginous, and 
is named the 6nsiform or xiphoid cartilage (B). The an- 
terior surface of the sternum is marked by four transverse 
lines (3, 4, 5, 6) wbich indicate the diyisions betwecn the 
five principal parts of which it is coraposed. These raarks 
are repeated on the posterior surrace. Along its borders 
there are (proceeding from above downwards), first, at each 
of the angles between its upper and lateial edges, a shallow 
depression (1) into which the extremity of the clavicle is 
received; Ihen imraediately below ihis an oval depressed 
8urface (2) to which the cartilage of the first rib is fixed ; and 
lastly, along each side six other similar surraces separated 
by notches with which the cartilages of ihe six ^ollowing 
ribs articulate. Of these six, the four upper are placed at 
the ends of the trans^erse lines; so that each of these ribs 
articulates at its aternal end with two piecesof ihe sternuni, 
just as, at its other extremity, it articulates with two ver- 

The general structure of the chcst, and ils adaptation to 
the niovements of breaihiiig, the most important function 
in which it is particularly engaged, are described in the ar- 
ticle Respiration. 

The Bonos of the Skull ure divided into two chief set.*, 
¥ig, 8. 

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tlioso of tho Cranium, or case for the brain, and Ihose of 
tlie Face. They are represented in the annexed sketches 
scparated, yet iii their natural relative positions, in threc dif* 
ferent aspects : in Fig. 8, as seen from the front ; in Fig. 9, 
as seen in prolile; in Fig, 10, as seen when, afier removing 
the top of the skull, ono looks from above upon ihe bottom 
of its interior 

Fis. 9. 

Fiig. 10. 

Tho Bones of the Craniura are, the Frontal {a\ the two 
Parietal (6). the twoTcmporal (c), the Occipilal ((/), the 
Sphenoid (9\ the Ethmoid (/); thosc of the Aice are. the 
two Na<^al (^), Iho two superior Ma^illaty, or upper Jaw- 
bonea (A), the two Pnlate, tne l«fo Malar (i)» the twoLacry- 
mal {j)s the two inrcriorTurbinated, the Yotncr (^), attd thc 
inlbrior MaKillary (/). 

The frontal bonc (F/o". 11, rr, A) forms the Ibrehead and 
the roof of ihe orbit. The front or frontBl portion is the 
larger. Its anterior 8urface, which is reprcsented in Pig.cL, 
is convex and smooth : it is bnunded below by two archcd, 
thicki and rounded hordei^s, separated by a rough notch in 
the middle hne. The borders (1, 1) are called the orbital 
arches or ridges, and thcy form the front and pruminent 
part of the orl its. The notch (2) is named iho nasal notch ; 

on either side of it are fixed parts of the upper jaw. and in 
the middle the nasal bones, which rcst behind on a process 
called the nasal spine (3). At the ouler extrcmity of cacli 
orbital arch isthe external an<;u1ar process (4, 4), and at the 
inner extremily Ihe internal angular process (5, 5); the 
former is ariiculated wiih thc malar, the latler wilh the up- 
per jaw aiid lacr\mal bones. Ncar the internal proccss is 
ihc Supraorhital Koramen or notch (G, 6), throu^h which 
thc fronlal vesse1s and nerve pass frora the orbit to the 
forebead. Just above it atid by its side is a rounded elevu- 
tion, the frontal protuberance (7), which marks the situa- 
tion of ihe subjacent froutal sinuses, air-cavilies, between 
ihe two laycrs of which ihe bone is composed. They vary 
much in sizc in ditTcrent persons, and communicale witli 
the intcrior of the nose. On either sidc of the middle line, 
and extcnding above the orbital ridge, tho 8urface of the 
bone is airain elevated in the superciliary ridge (8, 8), an 
arched promincnce behind ihe eyebrow. The rest of this 
anterior 8urface is smooth and even, but in different pcrsoiis 
its form is as varied as that of any olher feature. On either 
side it terminates rather abruptly with a curved boider (9), 
whicli forms the front boundary of the Temporal fossa (10), 
and behind whieh there is a smooth surtaee, to which the 
forc puit uf thc tcmporal muscle is attached. 


L'.,N /■■ ■. " ■ ' •■ ■■- •-.'» 

Theposteriororcerebralsurface of the Frontal bone (Fig. 
11, 6) is ooncmve. Alon^ the middle line there is a hniad 
^rooYec I ), in which a part of the longitudinal sinus [Brain] 
lies ; and at tho fore and lower end of this a ridge, to which 
a process of dura mater called the falx is attached. The 
ridge ends at a hole named the Poramen ccecum. llie rest 
of this surface is marked by depressions and ridges Atting 
to the convolutions of the 8urface of the brain. 

The orbital portions (ft, 3, 3,) of the frontal bone are thin 
plates cxtending almost horizontally backwards fit)m the 
orbital arches. Betwecn thcir inner borders is a space, the 
ethmoid notch, into which the ethmoid bone fits, and just 
anterior to which are the apertures (4, 4) leading into thc 
frontal sinuses. The under 8urface of each plate is con- 
cave, smooth, and even ; and has at its outer and fore part a 
shallow depression, in which the lachrymal ^land is lodgcd, 
and at ils inner and fore part a mark to which the pulley of 
the trochlearis muscle of the eye is attached. The upper 
8urface is marked in correspondence with the irregularities 
of the under part of the anterior lobe of the brain, which 
rests upon it. 

The posterior and upper raargin of the frontal bone {b, 5, 
5) is joined by the coronal suture to the two parietal bones ; 
and it is cut obliquely in such a manner that its edges rest 
upon theirs above, and theirs overlap its bclow. The lower 
part of this margia ii cotered by ihe al» of the sphonoid, 
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wbere they rise into the temporal foss{r. The fi'ontal is 
usually in the adult only a single bone, composed (as all thc 
bones in the middle plane of thc skelelon are) of two equal 
and similar halves: these are developed beparately, and 
they sometimes remain undivided by a continuation of the 
sagittal suture which passes from between the two parietal 
slraigbt down the middle of the Irontal. 

Fig. 12. 

The construction of the Parietal bones, which form all 
the upper and middle part of tlie skull, is very simple. In 
Pig, 1 2 at a the exterior, and at b the interior, of the right 
parietal is represented. Tbey are quadrilateral, and of nearly 
equal thickness throu^hout. The outer convex 8urface is 
ererywhere smooth, except at its lower border (1), where 
it 18 orerlapped by the Temporal bone in the squamou8 
suture, and just above this part, where thcre is a shght 
arched ridge (2), fbr the attachraent of a portion of the tem- 
poral muscle. The inner concave 8urface has impressions 
of tbe eerebral conyolutions, and a deep branchiug groove, 
wbteh, beginning at the fore and lower angle (3), thenee ra- 
iDifies dtffasely. It lodges the middle meningeal artery of 
ihe dura mater. [BrainJ Along the upper border is a broad 
sballow groove (4), which lodges pari of the longitudinal 
sinus, and is continuous with that on thc intehor of the frontal 
bone. The bordera of the parietal bones are all, except the 
lower, deeply and irreguiarly indented; and by the dove- 
tailing of such irregular teeth, they form, with the frontal 
bone in front, the coronal suture, with the occipital behmd, 
tbe lambdoidal, and, in the middle line at their own meet- 
iBg, tbe sagittal. 

Tbe Temporal Bones (jP/^. 13^ as seen from without) are 
placedia the middle, lateral, and inferior parts of the skulL 
They present each three distinguishable parts, which in the 
Hoetus are separated: namely, a Squamous portion (1), 
whicb forms the middle of the side of the skuU ; a Mastoid 
portion (2), which forma the thick protuberaneo that may 
be felt behind the ear ; anda Petrous portion (not visible in 
Fig. 13, bttt in Fig. 10 nuirked c), which passes from the 
lewer part of the 8quamou8 forwards and inwards in the 

base of tho skull. The squamous bone or portion has a 
ruundish form. Its upper edge cover8 in thc lowcr border 
Qf ibo parietal. Its exterior surfaoe is smooth, and give8 

attachment to some of the temporal muscle. At the hinder 
part of its lower border is an oval aperture (3), leadina; to 
the mealus auditorius externus [Ear], a pasBage wliich 
goes foi wards and inwards to tho tympanum in the interior 
of the petious portion. Immedialely anterior to ihis, and 
under the fore-part of the bone. is Ihe Glenoid cavity (4), a 
deep transversely oval hollow, with which the condyle of 
the lower jaw is arliculated, and behind which is a narrow 
chink, the Pissura Giaseri, separating it from a strong 
ridge which runs along the upper surface of the petrous 
bone. In front of the glenoid cavity is a prominence, which 
fonns its border, theTuber articulare (5) ; and from its outer 
part there proceeds horizontally forwards, as if springing 
from the tuber and two other slightly elevated lines running 
backwards, a long narrow portion of bone, the Zygoraatic 
process (6). the enlarged end of which joins a short process 
of the malar bone to form the ssygoma, an arch beneath 
which the temporal muscle plays, and whose size and 
strength are generally in direct proportion to those of that 
muscle, and to the force with which ihe lower jaw is worked 
in gnashing with the teeth. 

Behind the meatus auditorius is the niastoid portion. It 
is prolonged downwards in a sirong conical projection, the 
mastoid process (7) giving insertion to muscles upon and just 
above it, and of which the interior is occupied by nume- 
rous cells coramunicating wiih the cavity of the tympanum. 
Behind and wiihin the mastoid process is the digastric 
groove, to whi^i the musclo of the same name is attached ; 
and farther back anoiher more shallow groove for the Ira- 
chelo-mastoid muscle. 

The cerebral surface of tlie squamous portion has a Ycry 
obliquely cut and groved upper border, which articulales 
wiih the lower border of the parietal bone. On the same 
surfaco orthe mastoid portion is a deep fossa, which lodgcs 
part of the lateral sinus. Both are marked by the imprcs- 
sions of the brain. 

The Petrous proccss or portion of the temporal bono 
{Fig» 10, o), has received its name from ihe peculiar hardness 
of its tissue. It has the foi'm of an irregular three-sided 
pyraraid, directed from eilher side ^orwards and inwarda;, 
and fitling, at tbe base of the skull, into ihe angle left 
beiween the sphenoid and the occipital bones ie and d). 
Its base is af1ixed to ihe intcrior and lower part of tlic 
squamous bone ; its summit fits in the apex of ihe angle 
just mentioned. On its posterior surface ihe most pro- 
minent object is the ovaI aperture of ihe raeatus auditorius 
internus, tbe passage leading to ihe internal ear, and tra- 
Yersed by* the auditory and the facial nerves. On the 
anterior surface there are a shallow groove leading to a 
small holc, through which ihe Yidian nerve and blood- 
Yessels pass, a slighihollowon which theGasscrian ganglion 
of the fifth pair of nerves lies, and a prominejice which 
indicates the position of the superior semicircular canal of 
the ear. On iho inferior surface, which is placed outside 
the skull, ihero are seen, at the posterior and outer border, 
a deep fossa (ihe Jugular), in which the upper part of the 
internal jugular vein is lodged; before aud on the inner 
side of this, and separated from it by a prominent ridge, a 
large oval aperture» through which the internal carotid 
artery passes into a tortuous canal, whose other extremity is 
at the very apex of the bone; between the jugular fossa 
and Ihe mastoid process a hole, the Stylo-mastoid ^oramen, 
through which the facial nerve passes on its way to ihe face, 
after penetrating the bottom of the meatus auditorius in- 
ternus ; and just antcrior to this, a long-pointed process, the 
Siyloid (8), to which several muscles and ligaments are 
attached, and whose base is surrounded by an irregular 
sharp-edged elevation, the Yaginal process (9). 

The anterior border of the petrous bone is articulated with 
the posterior part of the ala of the sphenoid, leaving nn 
iniermediate space, named foramen lacerum medium ; the 
posterior border is similarly united wiih the side of the 
basilar process of ihe occipital bone, leaving anoiher space, 
the foramen lacerum posterius, through which ihe internal 
jugular vein and the nerves of the eighth pair pass. Near 
the angle where the anterior border joins ihe squamous 
bone is an irregularly shaped aperture, to which ihe carti- 
laginous part of the £u3tachian tubo is afiixed. 

The small boues Qf tlie internal Ears, and all the othcr 
parts of the organ of Hearing, which lie within and near 
the petrous bone, are already described. [Ear.] 
. The Occipiial Boue {Fig. 14 is a view of the intern' 
surtace) forms ihe posterior and lower part of the middle 


Digitized by ^ 

S K E 


S K E 

Pig. 14. 

tho skull, a portion being at the outer wall and a portion at 
ihe base. Ils lower and anterior part is narrow, and has a 
rough 8urface (1) in front, which is united with Ihe body of 
the sphenoid bone. Yiewing it at its internal surface, it 
presents, as one proceeds from this surface backwards and 
upwards, a sraooth bollow 8urface, which gradually widens, 
and is limited behind by a large OYal opening. The surface 
(2) is that of the Basilar Process, in which the meduUa 
oblongata and pons Yarolii [BRAiN]rest; the aperture (3) 
ift the Poramen magnum, through which the medulla passes 
inlo the spinal canal, where it is continued into the spinal 
cord. By the sides of this foramen, near where the basilar 
process joins the back and expanded part of the bone, there 
are four foramina, two on either side, the anterior and 
posterior condyloid foramina, of whicb the anterior transmit 
the hypoglossal neryes, on which the motions of the tongue 
depend, and the latter give passage to vein8 communicati ng 
wiih the Yertebral veins. Opposite the fore part of the 
foramen magnum tho basilar process suddenly widens into 
the greater portion of the occipital bone, which forms the 
back of the head. In this part are four large hollows 
(4, 4, 5, 5), of which the two upper lodge the Rurface8 of the 
posterior lobes of the cerebrum, the two lower those of the 
lobes of the ccrebellum. Tbey are separated by two ridges, 
which bisect each other at nearly right angles. The upper 
part of that which runs Yertically haa attached to it a portion 
of Ihe falx major, and to its lower part is affixed the falx 
cerebelli; that which runs transYersely gives insertion to 
the back part of the tentorium cerebelli, whoae anterior 
borders are fixed to the upper angles of the petrous bone. 
By these ridges are broad shallow grooves, which lodge 
parts of the sinuses of the brain. By the upper half of the 
Yertical ridge is the extremity of the longitudinal sinus, the 
grooves for which, in the frontal and parietal bones, are 
already mentioned, and which, at the Internal Occipital 
spine, whcre the ridges bisect each other, meets the inferior 
longitudinal and other sinuses, to form what is named the 
Torcular Herophili, their common point of meeting. From 
this there proceed the two lateral sinuses, which run 
above the transyerse ridge on either side, then cross over 
the posterior inferior angle of each of the parietal bones, 
then lie for a short distanco on the in^ide of the mastoid 
portion of the temporal, from which they pass through the 
foramen lacerum posterius by a special aperture, marked by 
a deep notch in the border of the occipital bone, near the 
angle (6), which separates the basilar from the other 

The inferior and outer surface presents on the basilar 
process numerous irregularities, from which the back part 
of the pharynx is suspended, and into which certain mus- 
cles and ligaments of the front of the spine are inserted. 
The foramen magnum has here an even and grounded bor- 
der ; and by its sidea two elevations, each with a smoolh con- 
vex oval surface, whose larger axis is directed forwards, in- 
wards, and downwards ; these are the Condyles, by which 
the occipital bone articulates moveably with the first verte- 
bra of tbe spine. Near these also are the outer oriBces of 
the anterior and posterior condyloid foramina, and around 
them very rough surfaces for the insertion of ligamcnts and 
muscles. On the outer surfEice of the expanded posterior 
portion of the bone are three ridges, one of which passes 
irora thc bortler of the foramen magnum backwards and 
upwards in correspondence with the internal vertical ridge, 
and is crossed on its way by two transverse arched ridges. 
At Ihe crossing of the upper of these two is a sharp promi- 
nencc, the occipital spine or protuberance. The two trans- 

verse ridges and the spaces below them givc attachment to 
muscles ; the spine, to the ligamentum nuoha). Above the 
upjper ridge the surface is sraooth. 

The upper and lateral borders (7) of the Occipital bone are 
deeply toothed, and form the Lambdoidal Suture, wilhthe 
parietal bones above and the roastoid beiow. In the cour&c 
of this suture there occur, more oflen than in that of any 
other, insulated portions of bone, of various size and forra, 
cailed Ossa Wormiana, surrounded by margins toothcd as 
in the regular line of suture. 

The Sphenoid Bone ( Fig, 10, e) is placed in the middle 
of the baae of iho skull, and has a very complicate form. 
Fig, 15, a, giyes a front, and 6, a back and upper viewof 
it. Its principal parts are describcd as a body (1, l), two 

Fig, 15. 

Greater Alro (2, 2), two Lesser AI» (6, 3, 3), and, on «ach 
side, two Pterygoid Processes (o, 4, 4). Tlie body is the 
central part, and has somewhat tbe ibrm of a bolluw vube. 
Chief part of its upper or cerebral 8urface ia hollowed, 
forming what is called the SellaTureica (6, 4>.aDd kidgmg 
the pituitary gland. [Brain.] It is bounded at lU four 
corners by bluntly pointed prominences called CUnoid Pro 
cesses (see Fig, 10), to whinh prolongations of dura mater 
are attached. Between, and a little in front of the two an- 
terior of these, is a ]evel Burface (6, 5) on which the com- 
misaure of the optic nerve8 rests, and wbich has behind a 
slight elevation, the 01ivary process, and in front a pointed 
one, the Ethmoid spine (6, 6) which fits into the Etbmoid 
bone. The sides of the body slope obliqueIy downwards 
towards the greatalae, and the cavernou8 sinus and internal 
carotid artery of eacli side rest against them. The posterior 
surface (6, 7) of the body is rough, and iinites with the 
end of the basilar process of the occipital. The anterior 
presents the openiugs of large cells which occupy the whole 
interior. These are divided by a middle septum (a, 5), and 
are partly closed in by two amall portions of bone called 
Sphenoidal Cornua; where not thus closed, they open into 
the posterior ethraoidal cells. The under 8urface of the 
body is chieHy fiat, but has a ridge called the aiygous pro- 
cess along the middle line, whicir fits to the Yomer. 

The Greater Alse (2) are affixed by the sides of the body, 
and project from it otitwards, upwards, and forward:}. On 
each there are three principal surfaces, tumed towards the 
brain, the temple, and the orbiU respecti^ely. Tbe inner 
or cerebral (6, 8) is concave, supports part of the middle 
lobe of ihe brain, and presents threo particular oriGces, 
namely : the foramen rotundum, near its anterior and inner 
margin, through which the superior maxillary nerve passes 
from the Grasserian ganglion of the fifth pair; the foramen 
ovaIe, much larger and near the posterior and inner border, 
through which the inferior maxillary nerve goes from the 
same ganglion ; and the foramen spinosum, near the outer 
and posterior angle, which transmits the middle menin- 
geal artery. This outer angle (b, 9), which fits in between 
the petrous and squamous parts of the temporal bone (see 
Fig. 10), is named the spinous process. The outer or tem- 
poral 8urface (o, 6) is slightly hoUowed, and forms part of 
the temporal fossa, rising up at Ihe lower part of the side 
of the skull as far as the anterior inferior angle of the paric- 
tal bone. At its lower bordcr it turns abruptly inwards at 
a slight ridge, below which it is continued to the ptery- 
goid processes. and forms part of the zygomalic fo8sa ; its 
posterior border articulates with the squamous, its anlerior 
with the frontal bone. Thc anterior or orbital surface (a, 7\ 
Digitized b'i * • '' 

S K K 


S K £ 

if lUl and ftinooth, and fonn8 part oP the oiiter wall of the 
orbit, where it articulates with the lualar, fronta], and upper 

j%V boiHiS. 

The Leaser Al» {b, 3, 3) are long, narrow, sharp-pointed 
prec c je ca projecting horisontally outwards irom the fA>nt 
aad upper part of the body. Intemally and behind they 
bear tlie mnterior clinoid processes, beneath which are the 
Optie roramina for transmitting the ophthalmic arteries and 
the optic neryes from the commissure to the orbit. The 
opper surface of these al» is llat, and supports part of the 
brain. The anterior border is articulaled with the orbital 
plates of the frontal bone on either side, and in the raiddle, 
where the ethmoidal spine projects, with the ethmoid bone. 
Tbe poeterior border lies in tbe Pissura Sylvii, between the 
anteriur mnd middte lobes of the brain. The under 8urface 
18 smeoth : between it and the anterior edge of the great 
ala is a gap, the furamen lacerum anterius, transmitting 
Derve8 and a vein to the orbit. 

The Pterygoid processes (o, 4, 4) are direeted downwards 
from the under and outer part of the body. On eacb side 
ihere are two lamellsa, an external and an internal ; they 
in long mnd narrow quadrilateral plates nearly meeting in 
fioiit, wbere they articulate with tne palate bone, and di- 
ter^iog behind so as to leavea space, in which ihe interual 
pjterygoid and circumflexus palati muscles are attached. 
The internal and longer of the lamell» has at its lowest 
eitiemity ahook. tbe Hamular prucess. round which, as on 
■ pullej, the tendon o( the last-mentioned muscle plays. 
At ibe upper nart, where the pterygoid processes join the 
body, is a canal, the Vidian,running from before backwards 
aad transmitting the Yidian nerve. 

Tlie Ethmoid Bone ( Fig, 10./^ is situated in the front 

aod middle part of the base of the skull, between the orbits. 

Mff, 16 gives a proAle view of it from the Ieft side. It pre- 

«eau six different aspects, and for the most part isof a very 

\q[fal spoDgy texture. Its upper 8urface, which is presented 

Itthe brmin, has in fh>nt and in its middle line a strotig 

kiangular process, the Crista Gralli (I), to which tbe front 

if ihe lalx cerebri is attached. The apex of this process is 

hnctod straight upwards; the base is continuous below 

Fig. 16. 

vith tbe perpendicular or nasal plate (2), which divides the 
Eihmoid bone into two equal lateral halves, and which, 
with ihe Vomer, which it joins below, forms the greater 
part of the septum of the nose. The Crista Galli, sloping 
iownwards and backwards, is gradually lost behind, where 
tbe Ethmoid bone receives the spine of the sphenoid. On 
either side of it is a narrow quaarangular plate (the Cribri- 
(brm plate), on which the bulb of one of the oIfactory nerves 
rests. Each is perforated by a number of holes through 
Thich the branches of the olfactory and another smaller 
nenre pass to tbe interior of the nose. In front, and along 
pirt of the border oi each plate, are the oriAces of numerous 
c^k, which, in the entire skull, are closed in by the irontal 
bone and its orbitar plates, and communicate with the 
(tontal sinuses. 

The surface of the upper part of each side of the ethmold 

bme is Tormed by a thin smooth quadrilateral plate, the 

«rbitar plate (3), which forms gieat part of ihe inner wall of 

tbc orbit, and unites above with the corresponding plate of 

the frontal (Icaving two small apertures, the anterior and 

posterior internal orbitar foramina, for the passage of small 

Derve8 and vc8sels), in ?ront with the lacrymal, helow with 

tbe orbitar porlions of the upper jaw and pa!iite bones, and 

bebind with the splienoid. between the oibitar p.nd nasal 

plates, each half of the bone is formed of cclls and folds of 

tery thio lamellsB, which form part of the chambers of the 

iiose, and have the olfactory membrane and nerve8 spread 

out upon thenL [Smbll.] The principal parts are tho 

middle turbinated or spongy bone (4), a roll of thin bone, 

vhichforms thelower borderof the cells; and a smaller but 

nmilar roU higher up, and confined to the back part, called 

tbe superior turbinated or spongy bone (5). Uuder each 

loU at its posterior part is a passage to the cells, called re- 

P. C^ No. 1369. 

spectively the Superior and the Middle Meatus of the noan 
The ethmoidal ccUs communicate in front with the frontaL 
and behind with the sphenoidal cells or sinuses. 

The six bones just described enclose the Brain, forming a 
cavity whose size, compared with that of the crania of brutes, 
is one of the most distinguishing marks of the human 
species. To the protection of the important organs within 
it, as to their chief office, everything in the structure and 
arrangement of the bones of the cranium is adapted. Those 
partsof them which lie exposed to direct external injury are 
formedof three layers, namely, an outer and inner table, and 
an intermediate diploe.* The ouier table is formed of bone 
of ordinary compaciness, such as is not liable to be cracked 
by moderate shocks; the inner, of much harder and more 
britile bone(whence its name of Tabula vitrea), which may 
be more easily cracked, but iess easily cut or pierced. The 
diploe is of a soft spongy tissue, calculated to lessen the 
vibrations that are produced by blows on the outer table, 
hefore they reach the inner and more briitle one. Tbe 
arrangement is thus similar to that by which one might 
safely enclose a substunce liahle to injury eiiher from 
being shaken or cut, wilhin an inner case of baid porcelain, 
a middle one of sofl leather, and an outer one of tough 

The formation of the suturcs seems to have the sameend. 
The outer tablesof theexposedboncs have their edges finely 
dovetailed, and are thus so immoveably held togeiher that 
none but a violently expan8ive force exercised at once on the 
whole iaterior of the cavity can separate them. The inner 
tahies are simply apposed with a very thin intermediate 
layer of cartilage ; ^an arrangement which, as Sir Cbarles 
Bell Twho has written most ingcniouslyon this subject in 
his ' Animal Mechanics')i says, is often imitated in works of 
art, in whirh tough materials, such as wood, are joined by 
mutually filling dentations ; and brittle ones, such as glass 
or marble. by smooth edges and a layer of cement. A similar 
mode of opposition is seen between all the bones of the skuU 
that are not e\po^ed to direct vioIence. 

The top of the skuU presents transversely an arch formed 
by the two parietal bones (see Ftg. 8), whose most prominent 
parts, like those of ihe frontal, occipital, and others, are 
stronger and thicker than any others; a circumstance 
adapted for greater resistance to force, whether applied 
directly against those parts, or to the aummit of the arch 
from whence it would fall chietly on them. The strength of 
this arch is further secured by the lower parts of the parietal 
bones being held in by the over1apping upper borders of the 
temporal and 8phenoidalbones,otherpartsof which, pa^sing 
across the base of the skull, hold the parietal bones, which 
by pressure from above might bemade to start outwards or 
pushed inwards, as beams nold the walls of a house irom 
being driven either in or out hy the weight of the roof. 
Taking the whole upper part of the skull as a dume, the 
same strength of resistance to superincumbent pressure is 
obtained at every part by nearly similar means, especially at 
at the coronal suture, where, as has been already said, the 
parietal bones overlap the ^i-ontal at the supports of its arch, 
and are themsekes overlapped by it at the summit of iheir 
own. In this regardalso may be noticed the strength and 
thickncbs of the angular processes, and of the orbitar arches 
extended between themCsee Fig» 11), which serve as sup- 
ports for the front of tbe dome; and the thickening of the 
bones along the course of the longitudinal and lateral sinuses, 
resembling groins iu masonry. 

The relations of the skuU to the erect posture. the adap- 
tations of the ethmoid and sphenoid hones to the sense of 
smell. and the arrangements of the base of Ihe skuU in 
reference to the ear, the 8everal nerves, &c., are considered 
elsewhere. [Brain; Ear; Man; Smell, &c.] 

The second chief division of the Skull includes the bones 
of tbe Face, theprincipal of which are represented in Figs. 
8and 17. 

The Nasal Bones (Pigs. 8, 9, 17, g) form the upper part 
of the bridge of the nose. They are narrow and quaori- 
lateral ; thick above, where they fit into the na>al noich of 
the frontal bone ; broad and thin below. The outer bo. der 
of each articulates with thatof the ascending processof the 
upper jaw-bone ; the inner is in contact with that of iho 
other ; the lower are in contact with the cartilages that form 
the rest of the groundwork of the nose. The anterior sur- 

* This mrranifenieiit doea uot exist iu ettlier tlie cliild or the oM ptrioa In 
the form«>r nll Uie buiies ore tutt{{hHa<l elAstio ; iii thi* laiirr the diploe u Siled 
up by Uard bone, and tbe whole cianittm is thercrore mnru liable to rmctuie. 

VoL. XXII.— M, ' 

Digitized b\ 

) imcnue. 

S K R 



S K E 

of th» lidale bone. The inner or nasal a^peot preseuU, 
belov, a rough sorlace by wbich the bone is united to its 
fellow on the opposite side, and which is deeper in front ihan 
behind. U » sttrmouoted by a ridjge wbich ejUenda fVom 
befi>re backtwards, .and hetween which and that of ihe otber 
bone is a horTom groowe lo receive the vomer. The aAtorior 
part Qf jdbe ridge (7) is called the aaterior nasal apine, and 
otoae bf k is ihe foramen incisi^um, which leads down to 
tbe roG^ Qf the moutb. and transmita tbe anterior palatine 
oer^^e. On the ou4er aide af the ridge it a concave smooth 
aurface, the upper aur^aoe Qf the palatine process, of wbich 
t*be lowai- surface forms. as alr^dAr sai^, the «>of of ihe 
mouth. From the outer part of tSMs aurface, which /orius 
|)art of ihe lioor of llie noalrils, the bone rises almo^t veni- 
cally towardi tlie nasal 84>ine and tbe inner edge cif the orbital 
plete. and, at about its middle. presents a la<ge aperlure • 
leading inio the Autrum Highmori, a«avity owupyiiig ibe 
wliole interior of the body of the bone. 

Tlve Palate bones are placed backward between the superior 
ma^iUary aud the pterygoid procedses of the bpbenoid. The 

faee ts concare from aboTe downwards, and convex from side 
4o wde ; the posterior has opposite directiona, and in the 
middle line, where the two bones are in contact, is applied 
«n the nasal spine of ihe frontal, and the edge of the perpen- 
dksttUir ptete of the ethmoid bone. 

JF/>. 18. 

Tbe Supenor Maxillary or Upper Jaw bones (^Pigs.S, 9, 
}7,h) £orm the greatea* part of the front of ihe face. Fig. 18 
^tveBa view of the outer part of ihat of the lpfi sule. This 
aurface is bounded below hy a narrow border, the Alveolar 
border 4>r prooess (1), in which the upper teeth are set in 
tbeir soclMte. Iia outline i» an elliptical arc and from it 
the outeraudaceascends to tlie orbil, of which it foims tlie 
iuoerand great part of the lower margiii ('Z). It is un- 
evenly depj»8sed in two or thiee places for the aUachment 
of muaclea of tlie face. At the outer part, near the orbit, it 
pnasents a rougb sur&ce, tbe Malar eminence (8), by which 
it 18 united with the oheek-bone. Below and in front of 
this 18 a depression called Fossa canina, and on its inner 
sida, just below tlie orbital margin, is the In^m-orbital fora- 
men, tbrougb wbich the superior maxillary nerve passes 
to tbe £»oe. The anterior border of this external surfaoe 
first aacands verticaUy where the two bones are in contact 
in tbe middleline (see Fig. 8); then issuddenlycut out in 
a creaoeotie arcb (4)ao as to leave between the two the large 
aparture into ih» nasal cavitiea, and then again aseends 
whene tbe u{>per nuutillary bone unites with the nasal of the 
same side. This asoending part is called the nasal process 
(5); itaaummit is fixed in tbe nasal notch of the frontal 
bone ; its outer surface looks towards tbe orbit, is deeply 

ĕrooved, and with the lacrymal bone, to which its posterior 
order is attached, fonns a channel lor the lacrymal duct ; 
its inner auriace is directed towards tbe cavity of tbe nose, 
hasan oval roughness whicb is united with the inferior tur- 
binated boue, and above closes some of tbe anterior eth- 
moidal cells. Below and behind the malar eminence the 
surface is excavated to form part of the zygomatic fossa ; 
and above this it swells out and is perforated by numerous 
ioKamina, througb which tbe neryes of tbe upper teeth 

The upper, or orbitar, aurface (6), consists of a thin plate, 
foniung the ttoor of the orbit, and presenting a groove whicb 
laade U> tbe infra-orbital canal, and a depression for tbe in- 
sertion of tbe iuferior oblique muscle of tlie eye. The 
under or |»alatine suriace is rough and concave, and forms 
part of the roof of the moutb. Its euter border is arobed, 
and bounded by the alveolar process; the inner is strai^ht, 
«nd ia aet af|fainst tbat of tbe opnosite side in the middle 
line; tbe pQ8t«rtor is united with tbe corresponding process 

low«r, borisontal, or palatine portion (1) ofieacb ie attacbed 
behind the paUtine prooess of tbe upper jaw, to which it ia 
similar in form, and it oom^letes the back part of tbe roof 
of the mouth or bord palate. and of the iloor of tbe oostrils. 
Its posterior bordei' has the Velum palati [Palats] attached 
to it: its under aurface |>resent6 two toramina, through 
which the posterior palatine nerve6 pass. From iis outer 
border a thin plate (2) ascends vertically; where it eom- 
mences tbere ia, behind, a rough process (3). articulating with 
and AUincj up the gap between the pterygoid processes of 
ihe sphenoid. (B"^. 1 5, a. 4, 4.) The nasal or inner surface 
of this ascending portion articulates with the inferior turbi- 
nated bone, and form» part of tbe outer wall of the nostrils ; 
the outer surface articulates with the back and inner part 
of thc Kiiperior maKillary bone, and forms with it the pos- 
terior palatine canal. The upper border bas a notch. which» 
in ihe entire skull, is completed by the sphenoid bone into 
a hole, called the spbeno-palatine, for the transmission of 
nerves of the sarae name : behind rt is a triangular process 
(5), of whicb one surface articulates with the body of the 
sphenoid ; and hefore it is another (4), of whose surroices 
one doses some of the ethmoid celk, and anoiher forms a 
small part of the back and tloor of the orbiL 

The Malar or Cheek Bones {Fig».b, 9, 17, £) (brm the most 
promineni part of the cheeks. Tlie form uf each is quadian- 
!gular. The front surface is slightly convex, and has small 
apertures for vessels and nerves : the back covers the front 
of the sygomatic fos8a : tlie upper &ur£ace is the narrowest, 
and forms part of the floor of the orbit. of which also parl 
of the front border is formed by the upper margin of thia 
bone. By its posierior surfaoe and inner border the malar 
is united to the upper jaw-bone. as already described ; nnd 
by its posterior and outer angle to the ^ygomatic proi-ess of 
the teraporal hone {Fig, 13, 6), witb which it forms the 

The LaorymalBones(fyor. 9./)are twosmall thin laniella 
of bone atthe fore partof the inner wallof the orbit. Each of 
them in some measure resembles a thumb nail. whence 
tbey are also called Ungual Bones. Each is composed of 
two parts: the anterior is deeply grooved on the 8urface 
turned towards the orbit, and contributes to the formation 
of the lacrymal canal witb the nasal process of the upper 
jaw-bone, with which its anterior margin articulates. The 
posterior part is ^t, and doses tho&e of the ethmoidal 
cells which lieanterior to its orbital plate. Thepo«terior 
margin of this part articulates with the ethmoid bone, the 
upper with the orbital plate of tbe frontal, and the lower 
with that of tbe npper jaw-bone. 

The Inferior Turbinaied or Spongy Bones are thin rougb 
lamellaB, whose bwer border is rolled up somewbat like a 
scroll. They lie witbin the nasal ca^ities, and, except m, 
being larger, thej clotelj resemble tba bones of tbe aame 

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nme wLich are appended to tlie elbm^id. Tlwy are 
•tteehed st eithcr end to tbe inner surfaces of Ihe nasal 
ipr^aes of the upper jaw aiMl palate bones, atw^ in ihe 
niddle, to the lacTynial and thelower portio» of the orbital 
plateof the eihaioid bone : wpon theee they aie suspended 
before the a^M^tui^e of the Antrum, whicb^ ia iU entite 
ikuU» they nearly coaceai Like all the bones whieh t»rm 
part of tha ca^ities of the nose, they are eoYeeed by mucoas 
aemhcaBe» Beneath their enater conmrve siitfeoe rtn* tfae 
iBferbr Matos of the noae. 

Tbe Yonier (Fi>. 8, *) i» a tbut ^uadrtLaleBal ^UW wbich 
»rvs a coiisiderable part off tbe loiMb^ partition ef tbe 
Bo»e. lu nppet border ia %be tbiokeal, and ie aitticulated 
wtih the asygoa proceaa and under 8urfaoe oi tbe sphenoid 
bone ; the tower border fita i»to tbe groove' betweeu tbe 
rid^ in the apposed surfacea ef the palatine proeesies of 
tbe upper jsw and palaOe bonee ; the anlerior JA)ina the vef- 
tieal pmit e# fhe etiimoid abore» and the eartila|(inous pait 
of tbe aeetum of ihe nose below : the poaterior ia tree, and 
iiiviaea tb» paasag» from tbe neatcila inte the phacynjc 

JF^'g' 20. 

The Tntorinr MaxiUary, or Lower Jaw-Bene iFig0. 8, 9» /, 
tad jFT^. f 0X has a iorm somelhinx likie thal of a horae-shoe. 
It ia Diade up of a body or horiionital portion (IX and a 
raraas» or aacendin^ portion (2). Tbe former ia eenvex 
anteriarly, and on ita very froot pnssenla the prominenoe 
wbieh eontrihutea to form the cbin (3). Tbis is marked m 
■bemiddle Mne by tbe &ympbysis»at wbich the two pcMrtions 
ef whieh the jaw waa firat composed are united. On eitber 
<ideof Ihia iaaslight depression, the Fossa incisiva; and 
Itrther out a bole» ihe meotal (4\ tbrwugh wbich brancbes 
ef the infe7ior dental nerve and vesseU pasa to tbe chia. A 
raised line giYing insertion to museles pas^es heaeeobhquely 
oetwards te tbe upper border ; and on ihe inner surface ibere 
is another line corresponding to thiH, and jiving origin to 
tbe mylo-hyoideua muscle, frora whanee it is callttd tbe 
mylo-byoidean ridt^e. Ou the inner suriace there are aUo 
prominenees near the aymphyaia Tor the insertion Qf muscles. 
Tbe lower border is smooth and rounded ; tbe upper, or 
Alveolar proĕesa» is marked b^' notchea corresponding With 
the aockets of the lower teatb, which are set in il. 

The rami aaeend almeat yertically from the ends of Ibe two 
parta of tbe body. They are broa4 A*t, and quadriUteral. 
At ibe angle (5X where each jeiua the body, tbere are an 
both aurfac€fs rough promitiences ; the esternid gives at* 
taohment to ihe maMeter, ihe internal to tba intarnal ptery- 
goid BBUicle. The internal surfaee bas alsc^ near Ihe eod ef 
uie mylo-hyoidean ridge, a hole» tbe in6»rior dental (6), 
ibrough vrhiob the nerve of lfae same name paasea into Ibe 
interior of Ihe jaw, from which it again emerges al the 
meBtal hele (4). Laading froiB Ihe dental forameQ is a 
small groove ibr a braneh of the dental nerve. Tbe aaterior 
border of the ramna terminatea in a ^arp projection, tbe 
Ooronotd process (7, 7). to whieh Ibe tempora) muscle is at- 
tadied ; the posterior, in a transyeraely oval process, with a 
imooth summit, tbe Condvle (8, B\ which articulatea wilh 
fuU freedoro of motkm in the glenoid cavity of the temporal 
bone. Below this is tbe Neck (9X to wbich ibe eKternal 
pterygold mutele is in part attached ; and the space between 
tbe eondyle and the coronoid proceaa is the Sigmeid noleh 
(10. 10). 

Tbe bonea of tbe iaoe 8erve as a groundwork to many 
parts wtiose strnetnres and ^unciions are already described 
tn seperaie artielea; and since. in eaeh case, tbe parts which 
the benes take are at the aame time considered, an aocount 
«)f their adaptation to the several oSicea performed b^ the 
dilfereiitf ortions 0f the face is not heretMcessary. Tbeir re- 
hitk)na to ^ ieatures are described in the artiele Man. 

Tbe last main division of tbe Skeleton eonsista of tbe 
Upper and Lower £xUemities {Fig. 1 ; 3, 4). Tbe upper 
are coraposed of tbe Scapula. Cnaviole, Humerus, Radiua, 
Ulna, Carpuji, Melacarpus, aod Eingers. The scapula and 
clavicle are analogous to tbe Ossa iunominata iu tbe lower 

Ffg. 21. 

The Scapula, or sboulder-blade, off wbich. in J^g, 21, tbe 
back is represented, wiih parts of tbe clavicle and hUmerus, 
is triangular in its outline, aod fUt, being formed of two 
compacl layers, and an iutermediate diploe, varied in thick- 
ness. It has tbree borders or Coats», a superk>r (1), poste- 
rior (2), wbich lies nearly parallel witb the apine, and an 
inferior (3X which is also the longent They are all thicker 
than the body of the bone, aud give insertion to various 
muscles mering the sboulder. From the posterior border, 
about one-tbird fiom tbe upper and two thirds from the 
lower angle» tbere cororoenees a ridge called tbe Spine (4), 
which, as it passes along the back of the soapula towards 
the outer angle, gradually increases in depth, and at its 
end, projecting beyond and above the angle. beais a sirong 
archeii process, called the Acroniiou (5). whicb articulai«s 
with the cIavicle,overhaniisthe sboulder joinr,and gives at- 
tachroont to soroe of its muscles and ligaroents. The spine 
divides the back of the scapula into two parts, of which the 
lower is much the lar^er, and which are named, accoitling 
to their posiiion, Supra- (6) and Infra- (7) Spinous Fo88Q. 
They give origin to muscles of the same names. The an- 
terior 8urface, or belly of thc scapula, is sliKhtly conca\e, and 
give& insertion to the subscapularis rouscle, for the attach- 
ment of whose several parts it is marked byalternate longi- 
tudinal elevatians and depressions. At the outer angle ihe 
bone is terminated by the Glenoid Cuvity (8), an ovate sur- 
face slightly hullowed, narrower above tban below, and with 
wbich the nead of the humerus (9) articulates with very ex- 
tensive f^eedom of motion. Its border is tbick, and is ren- 
dered deeper in the recent subject by a rim of Abro-carti- 
lage, tbe glenokl ligaroent, similar to that which borders 
Ibe acetabulum. Between this border and the base of the 
spine tbe scapula is narrower than eUewhere ; and tbis part 
is called the Neck. From the superior costa, near ihis 
neck, a long and strong curved process, the Coracoid, pro- 
jecta forwards, and |^ives attachment to 8everal muscles and 
lisamenta; and at its root there is in the superior costa 
a nole, or a notch, through which the supra scapular nerve 
(and sometiroes ita accompanying vessels) pass. 

The scapula is attached to tbe trunk only through the 
medium or the clavicle, and by the muscles which conncii 
it to tbe spine and ribs. It can therefore slide freely on tbe 
back of the cbest; and, to a certain ei^tent, il folIoWi» all ibe 
larger movements of the humerus, so that its glenoid cavity 
aird tbe bead of that bone, which Iiave but a small surfkce 
of mutual contact, alroost always preserve the same rela- 
tion to eaob ether, and are less likely to be dislocated than 
tbey would be if tbe scapula were more closely fixed. 

The Clavicle, or Collar-bone, extends tran^tersely fh)m 
the notch in the upper angle of the sternum to tbe anterior 
and outer margiu of the acroroion (Fig. 21). With both 
of these its ends are articulated with a rooderate extent of 
mobility; witb tbe sternum, by the apex of a broad tci- 
anguUr aurface; witb the acroinion, bY a small tlat oval sur- 
face on its posterior e dge. The Clavicie has nearly the dkec- 

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tions of Ihe double-cuired line of beauty, being Blightly 
arched forwelrds at the sternal, and backwards at the sca- 
^uTar, hatf. At the former it is thick, strong, and trian- 
gular; in the latter, broad and tiattened. On the upper 
sui^ace, w^ich Hes just nnder the skin, it issmooth ; on the 
lower it has, near its sternal end, a mark where a hgament 
flxing it to the first rib is attached ; farther out a larger 
clevaiion, to which the 8ubclavian muscle is fixed: and 
Tiear ihe acromial and, olher prominences, lo which the 
ligaments connecting it with the coracoid process of the sca- 
pula (which projects just below it) are afBxed. 

Tlie chief purpose of the Clavicle is to keep the arm at a 
distance from the trunk for all its butward motions ; and in 
adaptation to this, its length and strengih form one of the 
most characteristic leatures of the human skeleton. 

The Humerus, the bone of iho upper arm {Fig. 22, A). is 
articulated above with the scapula by a hemispherical 

Fig. 22. 

smooth portion called the Head (1), which is bounded at 
its outer and lower partby a narrowgroovc ralled theNeck. 
The axis of thc head form8 with thal of the 8haft or body of 
the bone an angle of about 130°. Close by the neck, ihe 
upper and outer part orthe shaft is purmounted by two Tu- 
berosities : the larger and postcrior (2) has three tlat surface8, 
to each of which a rauscle from Ihe scapula is attached ; the 
lesser (3) gives attachment to the subscapularis muscle- 
The rest of the upper part of the shafi is round and nearly 
smooth; but just above the middle of its outer surface is a 
rough elevation (4), to which the deltoid, the chief muscle 
of the shoulder, is attached. About half-way down, the 
shaft begins to be tlatter and widur, and at either border of 
it commence sharp ridges. which, as they descend. become 
promineut, and wnich terminate below at the External (5) 
and Iniernal (6) Condyles. Each of the Condyles gives 
insertion to a ligamcnt and several muscles of the fore*arm ; 
theinner is the more prominent, but the outer is the lars;er. 
Between the condyles is the inferior articular surface, which 
is coraposed of two parts for- articulating separately with 
each of ihe bones of thc fore-arra. On the outer side, just 
within theexternal condyle, lhesurface has a smooih rounded 
prominence or tuberosity (7), against which ihe summit of 
the head of the radius is apposed ; raore inwards there is a 
deep groove (8) separated from ihe tuberosiiy by a slight 
ridge, and from the inner condyle by one much more pro- 
minent, in which the raised poriion of the sigmoid cavity of 
the ulna moves as in a hinge-joint. This part pf the joint 
is named ihe Trochlea. Both before and behind it is 
bounded above by a depression : into that on the posterior 
surface, which is the deeper, the olecranon of the ulna is 
received when the fore arm isextended; and into ihe an- 
terior, the coronoid process of the same bone, when the fore- 
arm is much bent. 

The Fore-arm contains two bones, the Radius and the 
"Ulna {Fig, 22, B, C): the former being that wiih which the 
movemcntsof rotation are effected; ihe latter, that which 
takea the chief part in tiexion and e^lension. The radius 
(B), when the-palm of the hand is turned forwards, is on 
the outer side of the arm ; and it is the shorter of the two 
bones. At its upper end it has a circular disk, the Head (1), 
h<>llowed on its upper surface, where it articulates with the 
tuberosity on the lower end of the Humerus (A, 7), and 

smpolh on its circumference, whero it is eneirded by aring 
within which it rotates, and which is ^rmed in part by the 
ttlna, and in part by a ligament. Ju6t below thn is tbe 
Neck (2), of which the upper part is similarly encircled; 
and below it, on the anterior and inner surteee h a knob, 
theTubercle(3). to which the tendon of ihe biceps, lhechief 
tiexor muscle of the fore-arm, is attached. Yet lower, tbe 
shaft (6; 6) of the radius becomes ihree-sided, and as it 
descends grows wider. At its lowest part it is much ex- 
panded, is Aattened before and behind, and terminates witb 
a prominent border to which ligaments of the 'wrist-joint «re 
attached. The posterior and outer surftices of this lower 
end are deeply grooved for the passage of tendons : and the 
latter is prolonged into a blunt-pointed procest, thc Siyloid 
(4), to which the extemal lateral Hgament is attached. The 
inner surface has a small smooth cavity, ihe Semiitinar, 
which articulates with the outer part of the lower head of tbe 
Ulna. The terminal 8urface (at 5) is Bmootb» tomeirhil 
triangular, and slightly hoUowed ; it articulatea with tbe 
carpus, and is continuous over the inner border with tbat 
which articulates wilh the ulna. 

The Ulna (C) is situated on the inner side of the foro-ann. 
At its upper and larger extremity it has a broad and decp 
crescentic notch, the Greater Sigmoid Cavity (1) whoM 
smooth surface is divided into two parts by a middle Tidgc, 
and which is received in the trochlea of the H umerus. It is 
bounded at either end by a sharp process. The upper aiKi 
posterior is the larger, and is named the Oleeranon (2); it 
tbrms the rough prominence behind the elbow; and wben 
the arm is extended, its point, which is curred forward*, 
rests in the fossa at the back of the humerus. The lower 
and anterior (3) is the Coronoid Process, whose point, when 
the arm is fully bent, rests in the anterior fossa oi tbe 
humerus. On tbe outer sido the smooth 8urface of tbe 
great sigmoid cavity is continued over a small oval ooncaTe : 
portion of the side of the bone just behind the coronoid pro- 
cess. This is the Lesser sigmoid cavity; upon which ibe 
side of the head of the radius rotatcs, and to whose borders 
the coronary ligament by which that head is encircled, is 
attached. Tbe body or shaft (4, 4) of the ulna grows 
smaller flrom above downwards, and is for the mosl part 
three-sided ; its external and sharp margin giving origin lo 
the interosseous ligament, which, being attached also to tbe 
opposed margin of the radius. fills up the spaoe between 
these bones. At its lower cnd, the ulna becomes nearly 
cylindrical and then is a Uttle enlarged: at its terminaiion 
it presents a double articular surtace; one, on the end 
which is nearly circular, and (through the mcdiuni ofa 
fibro-cartilage)arlicuIaie8 wilhpart of thecarpus; theolaer, 
on the outer bonler, which is narrow and convex, and is 
received in the Kemilunar cavitv of the radius. The inner 
border of this lower exiremity bears a short and blunl pnh 
cess, the Styloid (5), to wbich tbe internal lateral ligameiit 
of the wrisl-joint is fixed. 

The motionsof which thePore-arm is capabl& are Flexioa 
and £xtention, and Rotation oti its axis. The two formcr 
are effected at the hinge-like joint between the Greater 
Sigmoid cavity of ihe Ulna and the Trochlea of the Hume- 
rus ; the head of the radius moving at the same tinie for' 
wards and backwards on the lower tuberosity. Tbe elbot 
afibrds tbe best specimen of a hinge-joint in tbe body, foT 
no lateral motion is permitted in it, the ulna being locke<l in 
the groove between the two side-ridges of the trochlea. Ro- 
tation, by which also the rotation of the hand is effected, Jj 
performed by the upper head of ihe radius moving round 
in the ring formed by the coronary ligament and the iesser 
sigmoid cavity of the ulna ; and by its lower head at the 
same time being carried round on the ouler border of tbe 
lower head of the ulna. In this movement the ulna is aliaost 
fixed, its lower end only being carried outwards as that oi 
the radius is moved far mwards, when in extreme pronation 
of the hand the two bones are made to cross each oiber. 

The Hand (22, D) consists of the Orpus, Metacarpus, 
and Pingers. The Carpus (1, 1) is composed of eight small 
bones arranged in two rows, and so nearly immoveably 
united by ligaments, that, except in being more elastic, they 
serve the purpose of a single bony arch. Those of ihe fln»t 
row, which lie nearest to tne fore-arm,are(from theouterto 
the inner side) the Scaphoid, Lunar, Cuneiforro, and rist- 
formbones: those of the second row, following the sanie 
order, are named Trapezium. Trapezoid, Magnum, and un- 
ciform. The three first-named articulate with tlie radiu» 
directly and with the ulna indiPM^Jy ; the traperium nwa 

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garTace of peculiar fonn, concaTe fh>in side to side and coo- 
Tex /rom beTore baickirardst by wbich tbe tbumb, articu- 
ktiag with it» is permilted to havo a very wide extent of roo- 

Tiie Metaearpus (beiween 2 and 2) is coraposed of five 
bones, whioh are called by number according to the order 
m whieb they stand ; that of the thumb being taken as the 
firBt. Earh is desciibed as consisting of a body and an 
opper and lower heads. The form of the upper head is 
adapied lo one or more of the bones of the carpus ; that of 
the lower is in all very convex, ond rather narrow. The 
body is oompressed from side to side, and is broader behind 
tban hef«>re. and on its dorsal Ihan on its palmar aspect. 
The ftrst metacarpal bone only has free mobihty. 

The Bones of the Pingers are called Ptialanges. The 
thumb bas two, each of the Ongers three. Their form and 
proportiooate sises are plainly exhibited in Pigure 22, D. 
Tbey •rei artioulated with each otber, and with the meta- 
carpal bones. so as to permit free extension and flexion, 
and ftt the jointa between the phaUnges and metacarpus 
ihere is also permitted a oertain extent of iateral motion. 
At that between the carpus and fore-arm there is a very 
extenatTe binge-like motioa of flexion and extension, as 
ve!l as a wide lateral motion. 

The general arrangement of the hones of the human 
upper exiremity is adapted to a far more extensive and 
raried set of movement8 than exists in the corresponding 
niember of any other animal ; they have all relation to the 
offioe of the liand, as an instrument not of support, but of 
prebension, and that in its most perfect form. In this view 
tbey are fuUy considered in the article Man. 

Sach of tlie Lower Extremities is formed by a Femur, 
Tibia, Pibula, Palelki, Tarsus, Metatarsus, and Toes. 

Fig. 23. 

The Femur, or Tbigh-bone, A, is the lararest of the Body. 
Ic articulates with the acetabulum of the Os innominatum 
by its head (1)» which forms rather more than half a sphere, 
aod is smootb, except at its summit, where there is a de- 
preision for an interarlicular ligament. It rests upon a 
narrower part, the Neck (2), which descends obliqueIy to the 
summit of the shaft, and is at its base somewhat expanded. 
It is here set between two strong processes called Troclian- 
ters, by which the shaft is surmounted, and its base is 
bordered by two oblique lines, named Intertroohanteric, 
which pass on either surface of the bone, from one to the 
oiher Trochanter. The Greater Trocbanter (3) is the upper- 
most, and lies at the outer part of the bone ; it is thick, 
nia^h, and strong, and gives attachment to the great muscles 
of tbe buttock. Behind it is a deep depression, the Digital 
Fo«a, in wbich the obturator and other muscles to rotate 
the thigb outwards are attached. The Lesser Trochanter 
(4) ia on the inner aspect of the femur, and also gives a 
point of insertion for muscles. At the level of the Tro- 
cbsDteis tbe 8baft is Aattened botb behind and b«fore, but 

below them it is' round and nearly cylindrioal, till, within 
one-fourtb of its length from the lower end. itexpands, and 
again hecomes Aattened. The &haft (5, 5) of each femur is 
directed rather inwards, and is slightly arched forwards; 
its axis makes, with that of the neck and bead, an angle 
of about 120**; iu 8urface is everywhere smooth, except 
bebind, where there is a prominent line, the Linea akpera, 
runnins along the middle, and at either end dividing into 
iwo, wbich above go eacb to one of the trochanters, and 
below eacb to one of the condyles. These conrlylea are the 
processes in which the lower expanded part of the femur 
terminates. The inner condyle (6) is the narrower. and 
descends lower than the outer {7\ whicb '\& the broader and 
strong^er. l^heir nrticular surfaces are united in Tront at a 
concave pulley-like 8urface (8), over which the patella lies; 
below it they diverge, and at the back of ihe feraur are 
separated widely on two very convex prominences, between 
whicb there is a deep and rough fo6sa, in which the Crucial 
ligaments of the knee-joint are fixed. On the sides of tho 
femur, just above the lower border of the condyle, are 
eminences, the Tuberosities (9, 9), to wbicb theexternal and 
intemal lateral ligaraents respectively are attaohed. 

TbeTibia, orShin-bone(/^p-.23. B), is placedon ihe front 
and inner part of the Leg. Its upper part or Head (1) is 
far larger than any other. Its upper surface is nearly oysI, 
its greatest diameter being transYerse; and it presents two 
slightly concave oval smooth 8urfaces (2, 2), on which the 
condyles of the femur rest. Between them is an eminence, 
named the Spine, which fits in between the oondyles. and 
to which, as well as to rough surfaces before and behind 
it, the crucial ligaments and semilunar cartilages are fixed. 
Below and on the sides of the head are Tuberosities on which 
the lateral ligaments are inserted, and behind the external 
tuberosity is a smooth 8urface which articulates wilh the 
head of the fibula. In front, and a little below them, is the 
Tuberole (4), to which the ligamentum patellie is attached. 
Below this the body (5, 5) is triangular, and as it descends, 
becomes smaller : its outer surface is hollowed ; its inner, 
which forms the skin, slightly convex; its posteriorrounded. 
The outer border gives attachment to an interosseous liga- 
ment, which fiUs up the space between it and the opposed 
part of ihe fibula: the anterior is sharp and prominent, and 
is named the Crest. The lower or tarsal extremity is a 
little expanded, and has a somewhat quadrilateral form. Its 
outer aspect has a slightly concaye surface, which is articu- 
lated immoveably with the fibula; the inner is prolonged 
into a bluntly pointed process, the internal malleolus (6), 
which has the internal lateral ligaroent of the ancle fixed 
to its extremity, and a smooth 8urface on its outer side, 
wbich articulates with the astragalus. The anterior surface 
of this extremity is smootb where tendons pass over it ; the 
posterior is flat; the lower or terminal surface (7) is quadri- 
iateral and slightly hollowed ; it rests on and is articulated 
witb the astragalus. 

The Fibula {Fig. 23, B) is siluated at the outer part of the 
leg, and is fixed immoveably by the side of the Tibia. It is 
loug, very slender, for the most pait tbree-sided. and en- 
larged at eitberextremity. The upper extremityor head (1) 
is tbe smaller ; it is rounded, ancl on its upper and inner 
part has an oval smooth surface, with which it articulates 
with the outer tuberde of the Tibia ; the rest of its surface 
is uneven, for the attachment of ligaments and a tendon. 
The lower extremity (2) is longer and more pointed than 
tbe upper ; it forms the external malleolus, or outer ancle, 
to whoae extremity the external lateral ligament of ihe joint 
is attached, and wbose inner surface is articulatcd with ihe 
astragalus; behind it is a deep groove, over wbich the teu- 
dons of some muscles of the leg pass to the sole of the foot. 
Above the malleolus, and on the inner aspect of the fibula, 
is a smooth surface, where it is united with the tibia. 

The Patella, or Knee-pan, bas a somewhat triangularout- 
line. Its narrowest part is below, and is fixed by the liga- 
mentum patellsB to the tubercle of the tibia. Its antei ior 
surface is slightly convex, and looks fibrous, being marked 
by the insertions of the tendons of the ext6nsor muscles of 
the leg ; the posterior is smooth, and divided by a ridge into 
two parts, of which the outer is the larger, and which are 
adapted to the puUey-like surface between the condyles of 
the femur. 

The Tarsus is composed of 6even bones, namely, the 
Astragalus (1), Os Calci8(2), Navicular (3), Cuboid (4), In- 
temal (5), Middle (6), and £xternal (7) Cuneiform Bones. 
These are set together so that they cannot be moved by any 

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Bl%lit for^e, a*d yet ar» poBtMsed of eomiderable elastioity. 
Vm Astragaltts is tlwt on wbicli, thretagh the Tibia, which 
rests upon its upper quadrilateral 8urffkce. the weight of the 
hody Arst falb. With thĕ Tibia above, and the two malle- 
oii on either side of it, it ^ornaathe ancle-joint, a hinge with 
a limited lateri^ inotioii. Ito lower part rests» with two sur- 
Atces of oontact, on the os calcis, whose hinder prominent 
pert (8> fomis the beel ; aad its anterior portion or head is 
reeeived in a cavity, formed by the Davicuhir bone ia front,. 
part of the os ealcis behind, and a Tery sirong Ugament be- 
low and between them. This eavity is at tbe sunhmit of an 
arch whtch tlte tarsus and metalsrsus togetber conthbute to 
form, and of which the snpports are tbe os calei» behind and 
the ends of the metatarsal bones belbre. It is indeed a douhle 
areh, for it has at the sele a coneayitY, both from before 
backwards and fromside to side; and tbe strenglh with 
which tts 8everal porti are jotned is so great, that mw acci- 
dents are rarer than a fnicture or disbcation of any of the 
bones of the tarsue. 

The rest of the bones of the Foot> racludiag those of the 
Metatarsus (9» 9) and the Toea, are in number, arrange- 
tnent and form very simtlar to the Metaearpas aod the Pha- 
langes of the Pingers. The metatarsal bones however are 
longer, more slender, and set more closely side by side than 
the raetacarpal ; and the Pbalanges are all much sbotter, 
and (except the two of the great Toe) smaller. Theii 
movement» are in geaeral the same as tliose of the finger% 
bot less exteTjsite;' neither is tbere any adaptation for so 
free a movement of the ftrst toe as of the thumb. 

For the rcmainder of the mechanism of the booes of tke 
leg the artiole Man may be again referred to. 

lliere are sorae supplemeDtal bones of the ekeleton, 
whioh need but just be mentioned. These are the Sesa- 
moid and the Hyoid bones. Tbe former occur within the 
substailee or in the course ef t^idons which sre much ex* 
erted ; the patella is the largest of them ; the number and 
exi9tence of the others are not certain, but there are almost 
always two at the first jomts of eaeh of the thumbs and 
great toes ; they are smaU, oval, or round, and rough ob all 
their sarfeces, except that bv which tbey artieulate witb the 
bone on which they 1». The Hyoid bone is tbat on \^hich 
the larynx is suspended, and the base of the tongue fixed ; 
it is not articulated, excei>t by long ligamentSk with any 
otber of the bones, and is aeseribed in the articles Larynx 
and ToNouE. In relation to many points in this articte, 
Ihose on Articulations and Bons may be consulted, as well 
as tbose to which distinct referenees are given. 

8KELLEFrEA*ELF. [Bothnia.] 

SKBLTON, JOHN, an English poetof an antientCom- 
berland family, was bom some time in tbe latter part of the 
fifteenlh century. Very few particulars of his life are 
known. The first mention of him is in the pre^ace to Cax- 
ton'8 (ranslation of the ' ^neid,' printed in 1490, ^here he 
is said to have been lately created poet-lanreate in the 
• UnyTersite of Oxenforde.' This honour was a degree in 
grammar coriferred by universities, and not, as ii now the 
caiie, an oASce ih the gift of the crown. ( Warton, Hist, Bng, 
Poeiry^ \xi the account of Skelton ; and Malone, X(/% (tf 
Dryden. i. 63.) Skelton Was ordained deacon in 1498, by 
the bishop of London, and priest the f6llowing year. 
{Bffgfr^ SamgB, EpiM- London., auoted by Btshop Kennet 
in his colleettons ; Lansdowire MSS.) He was afterwards 
admitted toan ad ĕundem degree at Combridge and allowed 
to wear the dresi {jhabitttt) giTetl btm by the king. Tbis 
we must suppose (o have been some badge of rOyal fiivonr 
bestowed on bim by Henry VII., to whose soD Henry VIII. 
he was tutor, being esteemed so great a elassical scholar as 
to obtain tt-om Brasmus the praise of being • Britannicarum 
Literaium Decus et Lumen/ {Bpistle to Hmry VIII., 
prefixed to his Bpigrams, 294, 4to., Basil., 1318.) In 1507 
wc Snd from his own statement in his poems tbat he was 
rector of Diss in Norfolk and curatĕ Gf Trompington in 

In the reign of Henry VIII., if nol during the lifetime of 
his pretlecessor, he was appointed orator regius, as he styles 
himoelf in the title to several of his poems, being, aceording 
to Wartoii, a graduated rhetorician eraplo)'ed in the 8ervice 
of the king, though whether with any salary does not appear ; 
iu one place he is called Reginm Orator C Poems ), in 
a passsge referrlng probably to the battle ef Guinegate, 

Skelton became notorious fVom his coarse and boW invec- 
tive against Cardinal Wolscy and the clcrgy in general, but 

aeeerdinf to tr»dition hiaown conduct a&a prieatwai far 
from being credilable, He was esteemed, observesWood 
lAthenee Oxon,\ in his parish and the diucese mure fi( fur 
the stage than the pew or pulpit ; he is said to have been 
su8j|iended by the bishop of Norwicb» liaying beeu guiliy ot 
' ceriain crimes, as most poets are.' (Wood, Itnd») The 
crimes alleded to ia this passage were probably somelhing 
more than the mere extravaganc«s of buiToonery; he ia 
accused by Fuller of haviiig kept a concubine, or a wife 
(accocding to Delafield^ * Anecdotes of celebrated Jeslers,* 
&c«, MS. Bodl, quoted by Bliss» Ath, OxQn.\ a graver 
offence at that time. The se^ere attack upon Wolbey in tbe 
poen> * Why come ye uot to Court T drew dowii upon bim 
the resentment of tliat great eeclesiastic» who ordered hin 
to be arrested. Skelton took sanctuary at Wesi^minaler, 
fin^r the prolectionof Abbot IsHpi to whomr. in 15 12, he 
dedirated the * PrAcettium Henrici Septimi/ 

He died in tbiaretreat, June 21, 1639, and was inierred 
in the churchyard, with tbe inscriptiun, ' J. Skeltonus 
Yatet Pieriua hie situs est. Aaimaw. egit 21 Junii» Au. 
Dom. MDXXIX.' 

Skelton waa mueh thought of itt his day. We ha;ae 
already auotod ihe praise bealowed o» hin». and ' of the like 
opinion/ says Wood, ' were maoy of hia time. Yet the 
geoerality saw tbat hia witty dieeeuKses were biting; his 
lawghter opprobrious aftd scornf4U, and his jokes cumuiionly 
sliarp and reHecting.' Among the nobility kis patron was 
Algeruen Percy, fimi earl of Northumberlaad, and he haa 
written • long elegy on the death ef that nobleman's 

The chief of bie poema are the ' Crowne of Lawrell ' and 
the * Bouge of Courte,' two cold and tedioos allegoiies ; 
' Why oome ye not to Court?' a satire against Wolsey, and 
tbe * Boke of Colin Clout,' * Ware the Hawk,' &c., attacks 
upon the whole body of the church. In other poems 
Henr^ VIIL's foreign enemies, particularly the Scotcli, are 
the victims of his scurrility, or else some pri\ate grudge is 
eratiAed, as in his abuse of William Lilye the srammarian. 
Most of his productions are enumerated in Wood's * Athenm* 
(Bliss), who says he wrote ' 50 several things.' According to 
Caxton, in the passage quoted above, Se translated the 
Epistles of Cicero, Diodorus Sieulus, and vatious Latiti 

Skelton has becn called origina) and inyentite. He ia 
rather unique; in style there is no known writer through- 
out our literature to whom he can be compared. His poems, 
if they deserve the name, present a strange mixture of 
ribaldry, learning, malice, and "butToonery, unt«1ieved by 
any traces of the higher qualities of satire. Tbe structure 
of his verse is irregular and tuneless ; (he language, a motley 
jargon, at once pedantic and barbarous ; iii tm ' Boke of 
JPhilip Spai'ow,' he coraplains of the rude and unpolished 
state of his native tongue, to the improvement of which bis 
studied obscurity has certainly not contributed. His Latin 
compositions are written with comparative elegance. 

He appears to have been one of the earliest authors in 
this country who addressed themsehes to the nation at 
large, rather than to the nobilily or to any ptrtieular class. 
Hence perhaps the grotesque combination in hit works of 
classical allusions and phraaeology, and of doggrel for tho 
unlettered multitude. Tliat he sbould have been admired 
in an imperfectly civilized age and iu the dearth of better 
literature is not surprising, when we consider that in a crisis 
D^ greai political («citement, soch as tbe Reform«tk>n, any 
stetrical eompositionsai« eaginrW eircblated wbieb cmbod^, 
howerer rudely, the feelhigs ana opirriot^a generallypreva- 
lent amottg the people. 

In thls point of vieiir,Tegarding them as eminently typical 
of the bold and unlieenw^ sph-it of hls time; we may etill 
be interested by the poems of Skelum. They present more- 
over a curioa&ly mlnute picture of the eOrruptMma of the 
tlomish church, to the 'mtnjmy and downtall of whieh they 
probebly mudh contributed, and eontain 8everal allusiona to 
pasBtng events whieh are not wlthout historieal value. In 
the ' British Bibliograpber * (iv. 389) there is a fii]l length 
por trait of Skelton in the dress of hii tlo^, eopied from the 
wood-cut in a work of 8keltoft'i in the British Mnsyiim 
entitled ' A Ryght I^lectable Tratyse npon a goodly CTar- 
rande or Chapelet olT Laurell, by Mayster SkMton, JPoete 
kureat, studyously deyysed at Shery^holton Caatell, «cc. 
Inprynted by rae Ryoharde faukce,' &c., 1323, 4lo. A ItioW 
edition of the Work» of Skeltott, With an introductory Life 
by the Revercnd A. Dyc€f, is Annonnced fer JptiWkratioii. 

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SKEW-BACK« in ciTil engineering, Uie courae of lOtt- 
lonry fonning the abutroent for the Youssoirs of a segmen- 
tal arrh« or, in iron bridgcs, for the ribs. In the latter case 
a plate of cast-iron is usually laid upon the stone skew- 
backa. extending the wbole width of the bridge, and fonn- 
ing a tie to the masonry. On account of the expansion and 
eootraoUon of iron under changes of teinperature, the ribs 
should not, especially in lai^e arches, be fixed to their 
abatments. The ribs of Southwark Bridge, over the 
Thamea, were originally bolted to the masonry of the piers ; 
bat it waa foQnd necessary, on this account, te detach them, 
dttring the progress of the works. 

SKEW-BRIDGE, a bridge in which the passages over 
isd under the arch intersect cach other obliqueIy. In con- 
doeting a road or railway through a district tn which there 
are many nutural or artificial watercom'ses, or in making a 
canal tbrough a country in which roads are frequent, such 
iBleiBections v.ery often oceur. As however thc construc- 
tioD of an obh'gue or skew arch is more difficuU than that 
afoQe built at right angles,«kew-bridges were seldom erected 
before tbe ^eneral introduction of railways : it being more 
otatl to build the bridge at right angles, and to divert the 
eoona of tbe road or of the stream to accommodate it, as 
npratented in Fig, ], in which a 6 is a stream crossed hy 
IBB nad, the seneral direction of which is indicated by the 
4ottei Une ca, In a railway, and sometimes in a common 

ratd or a oanal, such a deviation from the slraight line of 
dimetion is inadmissible, and il tiiererore becomes neces- 
wyiobuilcl tbe brirlge obIiquely, as represented in the plan, 
^. 2- Where space niid nealness do nol require to be con- 
aAmA, an oblique arnh may be ayoided, either by building 
ikm bridge 8quai« with the upper passage, and making the 
ipan ao wide as to allow the stream to pass under it with- 
mC being diverted ; or by building the arch square with 
tke nreani, and of suiRcient length to allow the upper pas- 
ttge to lake an oblique oourse over it ; but either of these is 
a ^amiryespedieBt, althougb well adapted for some situa- 
tioiis. Tbe arches or tunnels by which the Birminsham 
nihpay is conducted under the Hampstead-road and Park- 
slpeet, near the London terminus, are instances of the lat- 
ter kind of eonstruction ; the length of the arches being 
ndi tbat ibey present faces 8quare with the line of rail- 
wiy, noiwithstandii^ the oblique direction of the roads over 
tMD. A aimilar cai^e occurs at Denbigh Hall, on the samc 
liiie, wbere the nilway crosses over the I^ondon and Holy- 
htad load at snch an angle that the difference of direction 
iionly 25^. In this case a long gallery is constructcd un- 
4er the railway, oonsisting of iron ribs or girders, resting 
■pon walU buHt parallel with the turnpike road ; the ribs, 
ind oonsequentIy the faces of the bridge, being at right an- 
l>)es witb it. This galiepy is about two hundred feet long 
vA tbirty-f9ur feet wide ; and b^ its adoption, the necessity 
of building an oblique arch of eighty feet span was avoided. 
Tbe neeessity of increasing the span of an ai*ch accordin^ 
loita d^ree of oblicjuity, by which the expense and dim- 
ealty are materially mcreased, is illustrated by Fig. 3, the 

Fig. 3. 

ground-plan of an oblique ardi across a streaia a h. Here 
it is evident that c ^is theactual span of the arch ; although 
c d, the breadth of the stream, would be the span of a 
straight arch, leating the same widtli of paasage under- 

Very little is known respecting the origin of skew-bridges. 
It has been repeatedly asserted tbat those built by George 
Stephenson on the LiverpooI and Manchester railw^y were 
the first erectioHs of the kind ; but this is certainly incor- 
rect, there being some of earlier date even in Lancashire. 
A paper in the ' Transactions of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers,* vol. i., p. 185, alludes to an oblique archerected 
about the year 1530 by Niool5, called * U Tribolo,' over the 
river Mugnone, near Porta Sangallo, at Plorenoe. It ap- 
pears however that tbe princlple upon which such hridges 
should be constructed was too little understood to render an 
attempt ot constructing them on a large scale advisable. 
The next inforraation the writerhas met with on thesubjcct 
is contained iu the article ' Ohlique Arches,' in Rees*8 
'CydopcDdia;' an article which appears to have escaped the 
notice of modern writers on this branch of engineering 
scieBce. It is written bv an engineer named Oiapman, 
who mentions oblioue bridges as being in use prior to 1787, 
when he introducea a great improvement in their construc- 
tion. Down to that time, as far as he was iulocmed, such 
bridges had always been built in the aame way as common 
8quare arches, the vou8soirs being laid in courses parallel 
with the abutments. How yery defective such au arch 
would be may be seen by reference to Fig. 3, in which lines 
are drawn to indicate the direction of tbe oourses. It is 
evident that here the portion c d/e is the only part of the 
arch supported by the abutments ; the triangular portions 
cdff and e/h being sustained merely by the mortar, aided 
by oeing bonded with the rest of the masonry. Thds plan 
could therefore enly be adopted mr bridgea of very slight 
obliquity, and even then witb considerable ri&k. About tbe 
time mentioned above, Mr. Chapmau was employed as en- 
gineer to the Kildare canal, a branch from the Grand Canal 
of Ireland to the town of Naas, on which it was desired to 
avoid divef ting certain roads which had to be orossed. He 
was therefore ied to think for some melhod of constructing 
oblique arches upon a sound principle, of which he con- 
sidered that the leading feature must be tbat tbe joints of 
the vous6oir8, whether of biick or atone, should he rectan- 
gular with the face of the aroh, instead of being parallel 
witb the abutment. Thus the oourses, instead of taking 
ihe direction shown in Fig. 3, were laid in the maiuier in- 
dicated in Fig. 4. One of the first bridges built on thia 
plan, the Finlay bridge, near Naas, erossed tbe canal at an 

angle of only 89**; the oblique span being 25 feet, and 
the height of the arch 5 feet 6 inches. Mr. Chapman 
obsenres that the lines on which the beds of the roussoirs 
lie are obviously spiral lines, and to this circuinstance 
roay be attributed inuch of the singular appearance of 
oblique arches. The Finlay bridge stood well, but the 
ingenious designer did not think it prudent in any other 
case to attempt so great a degree of obIiquity, although he 
built several other bridges on the samc principle, over the 
Grand Canal in Ireland, and over some wide drains in the 
Easl Riding of Yorkshire. He recomraends carrying up 
the masonry as equally as possible from each abutmeiit, in 
order to avoid unequal strams on the centering. 

On the Livei*pool and Manchester railway, out of rather 
more than sixty bridges, about one-fburth were built on tho 
skew; one, built of stone, conducting the turnpike-road 
across the line at Rainhill, being at an angle of onty 34°, by 
which tbe widtb of span ts increased from 30frat, the widtli of 

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tbe railway ftroin wall to wall, to 54 feet, tbe width on the 
oblique face of ihe arch. Skew-bridges have siuce become 
very comnion, and somo have been eiected of even greater 
obliquity. That at Box-moor, on the Birmingham raiiway, 
is sluted. in Roscoe and Lecount*s hisiory of the under- 
taking, to be unrivaUed for obliquity by any otber brick 
arch. Tts angle is 32^ the 8quare span 21 feet, and the 
oblique apan 39 feet. There are also brick arcbes or great 
obliquity on the Greenwich and Blackwall railways, but 
witb their precise angles we are unacquainted. 

The extended use of such structures has led to the pro- 
mulgation of several melhods for forming the vous8oirs with 
acouraoy» and disposing them in the most advanta^eous 
manner. The common iheory, the cre<lit of which is claimed. 
we believe, both by Mr. Nicholson and Mr. Fox, is that ihe 
courses of the stones sdiould form portions of the thread of 
a 8quare-threaded screw, or rather, of a thread somewhat of 
the dovetail form ; the highest point of each thread, or that 
in the crown of the arch, beiug at right angles lo the direc- 
tion of the road. This theory, it is contended by the author 
of the article * Skew-Bridge,* in the recent edition of the 
Encyclopadia Britanmca, is imperfect ; and he intimales 
that, in the presentstate of this branch of science, the most 
perfect way of constructing a skew arch would be to cut the 
atones aa they are wanted, formiug each of them in such a 
manner ' tbat two of its opposite sides, or at least tiie mid- 
die parts of these sides, ahould be as nearly as possible at 
ri<rht angles both to the 8ofBt and also to the direction of 
tbe passage over tbe bridge.' Those who wish for further 
inrormation on this subjecc are referred to Nicholson s 
paper on the Princij)les o/ Oblique Bridges^ presented to 
ihe Britiah Asaociation inlb38; the treatises of Messrs. 
Fox, Hart, and Buck on oblique bridges; and the article just 

From Mr. Buck*8 treatise it appears that the difficulty 
of building skew-bridges increascg with the obliquity of 
tbe angle from 90° to 45°, which is supposed to be the 
most hazardous angle Ibr a scmicircular arch ; but that be- 
yond that point, instead of increasing, it ralher diminishes, 
to about 25° which appears tobc about thonatural lirait for 
a seroi-cylindrical arch. Mr. Buck, whose experience ren- 
ders his opinion highly valuable, considers that oblique 
arches of the elliptical form should not be attempted, as 
they aredeScient in stability, more difficuU to execute,and 
more expen8ive than semicircular or segmental arches. 

The construction of skew-bridges of iron or timber it 
comparatively simplc, the ribs or girders of which such 
bridges aro composed being of the usual construction, laid 
parallel with each other, but the end of each being in ad- 
vance of that next preceding it. Fig. 5 represents ihe 
ground-plan of such a bridge, tbe dotted lines indicating 
the situation of the ribs upon which the platform is sup- 

ported. The extraordinary iron bridge by which the Man- 
chester and Birmingham railwayis conducted over Fair- 
field-8treet, Manchester, at an angle of only 24^° is a 
fine example of this kind of skew-bridge. It consists of 
8ix ribs, of rather more tban 128 feet span, although the 
width of the street is only 48 feer, resting upon very mas- 
6ive abutments of masonry. The total weight of iron in 
this bridge, which is considered to be one of the finest iron 
arches ever built, is 540 tons. It was erected from the de- 
sign of Mr. Buck, who has constructed 8everal other oblique 
bridgea of great 8ize and very acute angles. Timber bridges, 
formed of trussed ribs or girders, are built on the sarae 
principle. One of very great obliquity, on the Sechill rail- 
way, is represented in the second series of Brees's Railway 
Praetice, A somewhat similar mode of constructing skew- 
bridges in brickwork has been introduced by Mr. Gibbs on 
theCroydon railway. The Jolly Sailor bridge, which crosses 
ov«r this linonear Norwood, consists of four separate ribsof 
briokwork, each forming an eUiptical arch of 50 feet span, 
with » V9ned sine of 12 feet 6 inches, supporting a flat 

viaduot of Yorkshire llagstones. Euch of these rib«» irhioh 
are three feet wide on the transverse faee» ts btik squiiis, 
80 ibat the brickwork is of tlie simplesi kinil ; bu4byjiM|i« 
ing the respecti^e abutmeuu pri^ect b«|rooii eaeh mlid* 
accordins; to the oblique direction of the raiiw^, 4iie w^ 
taken coTlectively, form a skew-aroh. lu a bridge emted 
by Mr. Woodhouse on tbe line of the Midland CounlMB 
railway, the same principle is adopted, but the ribs vm 
placed close together, so that no platfora of iiagsto&es is 


SKIMMER. [Ryncbops.] 

SKIN. The skin, or derma, is the outar Qovoriiig of tlie 
body ; and having to senre at once as « deHuMie &}t &eaMr« 
deeply seated structures, as an organ of touch, and as «« 
apparatus for secrelion, il is one oT the most aompooAd of 
all the tissues. 

It is composed of two chief parta:-*-«i va«ciilar bMHS' 
named Cutis, and a superiioial layor nanttd Bpidennia^r 
Culicle, whioh is not vascular. Tiic entia is made iip Ibr 
the most part of fibres and lamibsa, Ulce those ef feMMoai 
cellular tissue. They are much more densely «oyM ttmĔ 
the 8urface than in the deeper pait .of t\m sbio : \m Hm 
former they constitute a very tough wk elastiir MBpact 
raembrane; in the latter they are arnmgei in ineglelar 
large cells, which ia moderately stout penoiis •roJmedwitĔ 
fat, but in the emaciated are collapsed, and form.a.ieeee 
docculent white tissue. This g^neiel form of struotiire)tfe- 
vails tbrough the whole skin ; but in dilBarent peits of ike 
body, and still more in differeut persons, thc denaity. m^ 
thicknes.s of ils layers, the si7.e of the cella. the auaetif . 
of fat which they contain in the deeper parts. aad tiie fiitt«%- 
ness or ooarseuess of the tissue oomposing theoi» vary eeo^ 

The external surface of the skin presents a variet^ of 
wrinkles. The larger of these are produced by the «BUHt : 
of muscles, which in many parts throw tbe skin into £»lds| 
others result from its loss of elasticity in old age, ajid tha 
removal of the fatbeneath it; and agaia otbeis, wbiclMH»' 
seen most plaiuly on the palms and the balls of the Awgpm» 
and on the corresponding parts of ibe Toot» run iu %fKf^\^§m 
parallel arches, and indicate the arrangeaent Qf euhpeoeet • 
rows of sensilive papill», with wbich ibe wbaha rnilaar inf 
the skin is beset, and which in the perts just named» eiMl 
iu 8ome others, are arranged in regolar double lioes. ta 
their most dei^loped state, on tbe balls of the Aogers fi>r 
example, the papillaa are vei7 finc conical prooesses, staadiag 

somewliat obliauely, and sodenseiy sot, Uuit tbeir saauiute 
form a seemingly smooth 8Ui'faoe. On these parts eeeh eie» 
valed line whiob one sees on the surfaee has beneath it tmo 

rows of papillae ; for when looked at dosely, eaeh sueh ridgo 
shows on its summit a Uttle furrow dotted wiih mJAute aper* 
tures, and which fits into the space between the fows of 
papill». Over the rast of the body the papilUe aie nauoli 
smaller, and are irregulaily arranged. £verywhepa hes* 
ever they are the most vascuUr part of tUe skin, eaeh pa* 
pilla receiving a distiuct loop &om the sub^cent network of 
blood-ve&sels. It is in them also that the grealer part of iiie 
very numerous nerves of the skin terminate; for though 
every part of ihe skin be sonsitive,yet the ))apille ace so in 
the highest degree, aud aie tbe chief ineiruments hy wbieh 
the sense of touch is exercised. [Sensss ; Nsrye.] It is 
through their being so much devtdoped, that tbe tipe of ttM 
Angers are adapted for tbe perception of the finest tmjuies- 
sions of the sense ; though even they have le»s delicate pei^ 
ception than the tip of the tongue, on wiaich simiier^ttl 
laijger and more pointed papills» are set^ 

The chief secretory apparatus of the ^kin co|)6ialeof the 
perspiratory glands, whicb are dispoaed ever i(a wbot^ eat- 
tent, but, like the papillaB. a^e largest and mosl: numerooa 
in the palms and soles. By lookiug on the surfao6 of tha 
cuticle covering these parts, ooe may see, especMlly^en a 
warra day, or when perapiriug freely, a uumber of minute 
orifice8 between and upon the tops of the aeehed iidpeo 
already described. These are the oriAces of ihe glaads 
by which the perspiration is secreted, and sometimes oae 
may squeeze through them a drop of the eiear orystel 
fluid which the glands produce. £ach oridce leada lo a 
fine tube of somewhat ess diameter then itsel^ wlrieh 
passea down through the epidermis, and into tbe deefwr 
parts of the skiu, making on its way several spiral turns, 
and ending in a slighily «nlarged ciosed sac. In the sole 
each such tube maltes £roai 1$ toiUi spiral tiurns; in the 

Digitized by CrrOOOlC 

S K f 


S K I 

em, from 6 to 10 ; in otlier parls, fewor : in tho riglit hand 
wpmA tmkn ane tnttde from (eft to right ; in the Ieft, ft-om 
ri^ t» M. Tkwre are about 25 of these oriAces in a 
■ 1— w Hwm «r flM surlkce of the tip of the (bre-finger ; and 
•Mrt r» !■ tiw MHbe eiNice hetween the baaes of tbe fin- 
pn : l >k iif terdbre tle whole superAciea of tbe body at 
l4sfa«MlMt, it k probaMe tbat, « Bichhorn ealculated, 
titare «» not lessKhaii ten ninions of these glands scattered 
tlHNniij^ tlie skhi. 

It ia in tlieai tkat the perspiration is being eonstantly 
ibnaed, thoagh it moat generally passes away as fast as it is 
prodttoed in an inrisible yaponr, and during health coUects 
ia tlw Ibrtti of sweat only when it is Tery rapidly (brroed, as 
to inga o ti ?! oseiwso, or wben the surrounaing atmosphere 
ii ^knaĕy «itttnited wtth moisture. The (luid of the per- 
ipmlaon ia eoniposed of wmter, with tery small quantities of 
aMMd oad •aline nuiner, loine free lactic acid, nitrogen, 
aod earbonic neid. By thus removin£r carbonio acid from the 
, te aiin is, no&t to the longs, the most important and 
itoiy orgnn of tho body ; some recent experi- 
prored ttakt aAimala prerented from perspiring 
ttion 08 eortainly, though not so rapidly, as when 
io obelmeted. Tho qimntity of perspira- 
onnia to abont two pounds in 24 bours ; but 
it iHinhli lo oonsidnnblo ▼ariations, aecording to the habits 
ef <m JmdiTiilimy tho sCato of tbe atmosphere, the activity 
sf olllmr irtMidB, «Mdi aa the langs and kidneys, and other 

sn e io t i o n firom tho skin is tbat of the oily seba- 
or by wbnch its snrlboe is always kept in a slight 
4iM0 gronay, oo that water adheres to it only in drops, 
mi dMO nol eaaHy soak Into the substance of the epider- 
«iBb Tkb ■ohaeeena ghmds by wbich this secretion is pro- 
taod, «i wiil aa the hair-fol1i«iies on which they are almost 
s}nafa nttondant, are already described. [Hair.] 

~ m of dnid by these secretions m>m the skin is in 

auro compenmted by the absorption which it also 

It ia uneertain how rauch, if any, of the vapour 

«llho ntinoophete around us is thus imbibed; but it is 

I tlmt wo ahin ahsorbs Muids placed for a short time 

i orith it, and this so rapidly, that (especially after 

> B pereeptible inerease of weight is ob&erved 

' M hoon immersed iii a bath. The obstacle 

lont and considerable nbsorption of tluid is 

4y impoiMtrahlo loyer of epidermis ; and bence the 

moot rapiAy absorbed are those which most 

throi^ it, sucb as watcr, after having been 

into ila deopest layers, vapours of sulphuretled 

^.n, Mlrocnranie aeid, fltc., oits rubbed upon it, or 

MMo whieh deetroy its texture. 

I ioeretiotts, there are produced from the vessels 
of tho ohin motertah of whieb are Ibrmed certaiu appen- 
ilagoa ftr ils protection and ether purposes, such as the 
cuiielob tho hair, and the nails. 

Tho etitk, or opidermia, is an insensible and non-vas- 
eahv mnm hr oH o , which is laid orer the wbole of tho exter- 
Bol snKheo of tho bodv in a hiyer, the thickness of which 
is wiod o eoo rd i n g to mo protection required for the well- 
boimt ^f ^ Ottl^oeont eotis. The under surface, which 
liea nont to tho entis, is accurately fttted into all its irregu- 
Inrilioo, ond sonda prolongattons down into tbe interior of all 
itseiuids ond MIMoo; the outer suriace, which is exposed 
to motion, is eomparotively smooth. The epidermis is com- 
poood of sorerol tayors of cells : of the two layers into which 
it mi^ eommdnly in an ordinary dissection be split, the 
^1od rote moeosum, or rete Malpigbii ; the upper 
Ooroportien]ariy,epidermis. In the deeper layers 
tbo opidormia is composed ontirely of minute polygonal 
eeUo» ndheiing hy their edges, and containing nuclei and a 
thin Ihud; in tho layora nearer the surface are cells of the 
snmo hind, bnt lorpir and tlatter ; and those on the very 
ouisr onrHwe are dry and scale-like ; they have lost almost 
all ttooo of Ibmit and becoming loose, are removed by 
i ot osnedy the samo roto as, under ordinary circum- 
jMiioolhi are produced at the suriace next the 
I tho epidormis is subject to constant and rapid 
im osib, M imt as they dry and are removed in 
tho ftm of Morf [Scurp] Arom its exterior, being replaced 
by WM onM at its interior; and thos, whatever waste 
(nnhiii ositoin Kmits) it is snbjoet to, its thickness is not 
diminiihnd. but rothor, m tho wasle is increased, so is its 
thickiioss» till it attains that degree whieh is competent to 
tho protoetion of the subjacent cnlis; as auy ono may see 
P. C^ No, 1370. 

in thc palms oP his hands, soon aft&r he hasbegunlo occupy 
himse1f in a more ihan usually laboriou^ baudicrai^. 

The epidermis is the seat of the cbarracteristic national 
colours of the skin, as well as of the colours of f^ckles and 
other superAcial marks. In dark-complexioned races, espe- 
cially in negroes, it is very thick. and its cells are filled with 
minute blackor otherwise coloured pigment-granules^ many 
of which also lie loose among them. The thickness of tbe 
epidermis in these tribes renders it less penetrable by the 
rays of heat ; and it is hence (and not on account Qf its colour, 
which would have an opposite eATect) that a negro can bear 
the exposure of his skin to a degree of solar heat which 
blisters that of a European. 

The hairs are already described in a separate i rticle. The' 
nails are thin laminea of horny tissue, prodiced by the 
cutis on the back of the ends of the fingei s and toes. 
Under each of the more perfect of the nails, si ch as those 
of the fingers and the great toe, the cutis ha i a peculiar 
structure, called the matrix of the nail, compc «ed of large 
sRarpIy pointed and very vascular papillsB, w lich at tlie 
root are arranged irregularly, but at the body of tho nail are 
placed in close-set rows or longitudinal ridges. By all (his 
vascular surface the substance of the nnil is produced ia 
minute cells, which subsequently coalesce anl form the 
dense, obscurcly fibrous, and transparent masi of the hody 
of the nail. The crescentic opaquo part at tli d root of the: 
naii owes its whiteness in part to its own subi tance, whicli 
in the decper layers is softer and more opaque han in those 
of the body, and in part to tbe surface beueatk it being less- 
vascular than the rest. 

The under sui-face of the nail is grooved or otherwise; 
marked in correspondence with the matri>, to which it 
closely fits ; the outer surface, exposed to f iction, is concu- 
paratively smooth, tbough still it presents traces of the- 
ridges in which, when it was at the under jurface, it was> 
formcd ; for the nails are produced in the method a» 
the cuticle; as fast as their exposed surfacf« or the^r cnds 
are worn away, tbey are replaced by layera. gpowing froni 
the matrix ; and the whole mass of the uaiL, growing at 
once from below its body and from its roct, is constantly 
pushed forwards and thickened, at the veiy same rate as 
its free extremity is cut or worn down» and its body tlunned 
by friclion. 

SKINNER, STEPHEN, M.D., bom in23, di^id 1667, 
a skilful physician and a very learned philologist. He was 
born in London or the neighbourhood ; studJed in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, where he wasacommoner of Christ Churcli ; 
but the civil war coming on, he left Oxford wilhout taking 
a degree, and traveUed abroad, occasionally remaining some 
time at the foreign universities. In 1646 he returned to 
Oxford, and took the usual academical degices ; ader which 
he again went abroad, living in France, Italy, Germany. 
and the Netherlands; frequenting tlie courts of princes and 
the halls of the universitie8, being highly esteemed both for' 
his learning and his general deportment. He took the? 
degree of M.D. at Heidelberg. and atterwards at Oxrord, int 
1656. He then settled at lancoln, wbere be engagod im 
the practice of medicine with great success ; but bis careeir 
was short. In the beginning of autumn in 1667 febriie 
complaints were very prevalent in Lincolnshire, and ht, 
among others, was fatally attacked. He died on the &th of 
September in that year, at the age of forty-four. to the great 
regret of liis friends, to whom tbe innocenceof his life and 
the cheerfulness of bis disposition bad endeared him. 

His early decease was a great loss also to the world, for 
he was applying his vast stores of philological knowledgo 
to tlie illustration of his native language ; and had roade 
no inconsiderable progress in a work which was designed to 
serve as an etymolosical dictionary of the language. This 
manuscript came aner bis death into the hands orThomas 
Henshaw, E$q., of Kensineton, who had a disposition to 
the same kind of studies, and who made additions to it. He 
also superintended the publication of it, which was effected 
in 1671, in a folio volume, under the tille of.* Etymolo- 
gicon Linguae AngUcanae.' Dr. Skinner's work has tbo 
great disadvantage of baving been left unfinished by the 
author, who, it mav be presumed, would have struck out, m 
well as added, as his knowledge advanced and the general 

grinciples of philology became more distinctly perceived. 
y him, which would probably have been the case bad ho 
proceeded in his work. As it is. it is to be regarded ratber m 
containing aneedotes of the language tban as a systomatic 
body of English etymologies; but it contains numerous- 


Digitized by V:iOOQIC 

S K 


S K U 

valuable suggcstions, and many later English etymologists 
have made use bf his labours. The etymological part of Dr. 
Johnson'8 Dictionary is almost wholly derived from Skinner 
and Junius. 


8K1RRET. rSiUM.] 

SKODRE'. [ScuTARi.] 

SKORODITE. Cupreous Arseniate of Iron, Occurs 
crystbllised and massive. Primary form a right rhombic 
prism. Cleavage parallel to the primary planes, indistinct. 
Fracture uneven. Hardness, scratches carbonate of lime, 
and is scratched by Huor-spar. Rather brittle. Colour 
bluisb-green of different degrees of intensity, also blackish- 
green, brown, and black. Streak white. Lustre vilreous. 
Transparent; translucent; opaque. Speciftc gravily 3*162 to 

Massive varieties, globular, iibrous. radiating. 

By the blow-pipe gwes arsenical vapours, and fuse8 into a 
globule attracted by the maenet. Found in Cornwall, 
Saxony, near Huttenburg in Carinthia, Brazil, &c. 

Analysis by— 

ChenetiT. Plcinu*. 

Arsenic Acid . . 33*5 Arsenious Acid . . . 31*40 

Oxide of Iron . . 27'5 PrOtoxide of Iron . . 36'35 

Oxide of Copper . 22*5 Protoxide of Manganese 4*00 

Water .... 12 Sulphuric Acid . . . 1*54 

Silex(matrix) . 3 Lime 2*00 

-^ — Magnesia 2*00 

98*5 Water 18*00 

Gangue 1*40 

It would appear that diCrerent substances have in this, as 
in other cases, been called by the same name. In one ana- 
lysis we have arsenic and in the other arsenious acid ; one 
contains no oxide of copper, and the other no oxide of man- 
ganese. A specimen examined by R. Phillips contained 
no copper. . 

SKOYORODA O^nown in the Ukraine under the name 
of Gregory Sawicz, or Gregoi-y the son of Sava) was born 
about 1730, of poor parenls, in avillage near Kiew, where 
his father was subdeacon or parish clerU. He was admitted 
at the age of twehe years into the ecclesiadlical ncademy of 
Kiew, in the capacily of a 8ervant, but was soon allowed to 
attend the lectures there, in consideraiion of the talent 
Which he showed. AftGr obtaining the repulation of being 
the best classical scholar of the place, and iu vaiu soUciting 
permission to go abroad, he set out on fuot, without the 
knowledge of his superiors, for Pesth, where he commenced 
the study of the German language, and in six monlhs was 
able to profit by the lectures. His account of these 
lectures qowever shows thera to have been very ineABcient, 
and moreover the fame of WoIf was then at its height and 
attracting students from every pnrt of Germany to Halle. 
Skovoroc& wcnt to Halle, whcre he devoted three years to 
raetaphysical and theological studies; and that his country 
might prorit by the advantages which he derived from foreign 
learning, he made at this tirae Iranslations from the Homi- 
iies of St. Chrysostora, and composed moral fables wliieh 
have been handed down orally by the inhabitants of the 
Ukraine, the surest possible test of their popularily. After 
four years he rcturned to Kiew, but was not re-admitted 
in(o the academy, nor appointed to any post in which his 
cnergies might find e^ercise. TJpon this he applied himself 
\o mitigate the pcrsecutions of theUnited Greeks, concern- 
ingwhom a few details are necessary. 

This scct had arisen in Russia from a kind of politico- 
religious compact between the Holy See and ihe sovereign of 
Russia about the ycar 1610, for the purpose of reducing 
Russia under the napal dominion. In order to effect this, 
the two powers established a medium sect, partly Romanist, 
partly Greek : the pope sent Jesuits to teach the necessary 
doctrine; and the emperor Wladislaw, by a powcr over the 
consciences of his people which wo can scarcely understand, 
iraposed this body of doctrine as the creed of the provinces 
on the border of Russia and Poland, whose situation had 
alreadv exposed them to the intluences of both parties. 
The Unites (as the mĕmbers of the Greek Church who ac- 
knowledge the supremacy of the pope are called in Russia) 
had already appeared in the north of Itnly, in Illyria, and 
Croatia; but nowhere under similar circumstances. In 
Russia this sect became a sort of ralMn^oint for the 
members of both cburches, teaching the KusBiana gra- 

dually to confound distinctions of doctrine, and so to think 
little of the purer faith and system handed down to them 
by their ancestors. It has existed tp the present day; 
and 80 late as 1840 the emperor of Russia, by a dispensing 
power as strange as tbat which be exercised originally, 
decreed that the United Greeks should exist no more. But 
in the reign of Catherine II., under which Skovorodd lived, 
the pppression of the inhabitants of the Ukraine (who had 
lost the privileges guaranteed to them by Peter the Great 
after the battle of PoItava) had so far spoiled their disposition, 
as to render them willing in theirturn to oppress any one who 
was weak enough to fear them. The United Greeks, who 
had from the commencement of the sect lived under the 
protection of the throne, were selected as the objects of their 
persecution. The most rational way of checking these per- 
secutions was to destroy the spirit which gave them birth. 
To this task Skovorodi applied himself: in the mixed 
character of priest and minstrel, he proceedcd from village 
to vilIagQ through his native Ukraine, preaching the words 
of peace, sin^ing the religious songs which he haa composed 
for them, and inculcating the same truths under the attrao- 
tive form of fables. Still he constantly refused to head tho 
sect of tbe Unites, as his object was not to create or foster 
schism, but merely to give both parties tbe benefit of his 
lessons. By this timc tbe inAuence which bc had justly 
acquired had pleaded strongly in bis favour, and the aca- 
demy conferred on him the vicarage of his native village. In 
this station he prohibited all rigour against the perseculed 
Unites, and enaeavoured to gain them over by his doctrines, 
which were enforced by an eloauence unequalled in tbe pul- 
pit of South Russia. This at the same time gave an impulse 
to the clergy of the province, which however unhappily 
ceased with his death. £ven wben ordered by tbe synod, 
he refused to use the meana of persecution, and his refusal 
led to his ejection from the cure whicli his exertions had so 
greatly benefited. His occupation being gone, he resoUed 
to indulge a long-felt desire to visit Kome, the nurse of 
doctors and confessors, and to view her who, in his eyes. bad 
been glorious as the queen of nationa. But almost imme- 
diately on his arrival in that city he was recalled by the 
news of rresh persecutions at home ; his works bowever sbow 
what an impression Christian rather than Pagan Rome 
had left on his mind. His return again checked the fury 
of the opposite parties ; but his exertions, though success- 
ful, were only working out his own ruin. The jealousy of 
the court at St. Petersburg could not allow a siogle indi- 
vidual, in a cuuse however bumane, to stand in tbe way of 
its view8. He was considered as a rebel, and orders for 
bis apprehension were issued, which be evaded by takin^ 
refuge at the country residence of a noble who had oiten 
pressed him to become tutor to his son. This sanctuary or 
ieudal power could not be invaded even by tbe imperial 
authority, and he misht still have lived in a dimmisbed 
sphere of usefulness, but he died at the early age of foriy- 
eight, and traditions say that he foretold his own death tbe 
day before it occurred, and dug his grave in the garden, 
unwilling to give this last trouble to the frienda to whom be 
tliought he had long enough been aburden. 

He was the only author in Little Russia who has yet 
written in prose : his work called * Symphonon * is a solilaiy 
instance of that kind of composition, and it has the advan- 
tage over the works written in Great Ruasia in heing formed 
rather on the antient Greek model than on tbat of the Latin 
or German languages, a style of which Lomonos8of was the 
founder. His translations have been already notioed. Some 
original essays in the Latin and Russian languages, wbich 
remain, sbow much good taste and eleganoe, with a great 
extent of reading, quaIifications wbich were little known in 
his age or country. Witli tho exception of the common 
songs of war and love, all traditlonal songs of tbe present 
day are attributed by the bandurists (tbe troubadours of the 
Uicraine) to Skovorodd. 

Thc object of this notice is to rescue from utter neglect 
the name of one who in his exertions resembled FeHx 
Neff (wliose name and character have b^come generally 
known through tbe memoir of the Rev. W. S. Gilly), but 
has still further claims on our notice as the fottoder of a 
national literature. 

Further details, garnished with all the romantic eiroum* 
stances with which tradition loves to invest ita heroei^ laay 
be found in the ' Moskowski Teleeranh.* 
SKULL. [Skeleton.] 
SKUNK. [WeaseiaI 

Digitized by 


S K Y 


S K Y 

SKYE, [Hebride^.] 

SKYLIGHT^. Including under this term every mode of 
adintuin^jr light into an apartment through its roof or ceil- 
injo we naay liere briefly notice that particular fashion of 
skyligbt distinguished m Gothic architecture by tbe uame 
of Lantern, thoueh lanterns in Gothic buildings were not 
so much intended to admit light, as to supply ventiIation 
and the means of escape to smoke. Accordingly their 
sides were generally left unglaaed or open. whence such 
Ianiern:i were distinguished by the name of Louvre {rou- 
veTt) ; and though no longer rcquired for its original pur- 
pose, after fireplac^s were introduced, the lantern was still 
retained as a characteristic feature of the hall, not only in 
mooastic and collegiate, but also in domestic architecture, 
irhen that apartment showed itself externally as a distinct 
portion of the building, being carried up as a small turret 
rising out of the ridge of the roof. The lantern over the 
hall of the Middle Tcmple, London, is an example. Lanterns 
of thLi kind appear to have been invariably polygonal in 
plan, octagonal or hexagona], and had apertures or windows 
on all sides. .But the term lantern is occaaionally used in 
two oth($r sicnifications: it is applied to the Icwer part of a 
tover placed at the inlersectioh of the transepts wiCh ihe 
bod^ of a churcji, which, being open below, forms a 
Iofaer portion of thc interior, lighted by windows on each 
side \ ;^nd again to an upper open story, that is, one en- 
tirely fillecl with wiudows, on tlie summit of a tower, and 
frequently forming a superstructure di^crent in plan from 
tbe reat, as at Eotheringay Churoh, aud that at Boston, 
Lincolnshire, in both which examples the lantern forms an 
oetagon placed upon a souare. Tho upper portion of the 
towet pf St. Dunstan*s, Fleet Street, London, may also be 
(leschbed as a lantern. 

Of 6kyli<^hts however, properly so called (that is, which 
are nearly in the same plane as the general, surface of the 
esding), or of lanlerns intended to light the whole of an 
intcrior, without other windows in its side walU, no exam- 
ples are to be met with in our antient architecture; not but 
tbat skylights might be, and probably in some cases havo 
been, introduced iuto buildings in tho Pointed style, wiihout 
duing yiolence to its characler, by merely perforating some 
of the compartroents and tracery in a groined ceiling. As 
one iastsknce at least of the kind, we may meution the con- 
fter\^tory that was at Carlton House, wliich had a roof of 
£u-tra€ery, designed after Ihat of Henry VII.'ti Chapel, the 
wbole of which was perforated and fillea in with glass; but j 
as tbe ceiling itself was low, and three sides of thu building j 
eotuisied entijrely of windows, it conveyed only an im))erfect ; 
id^of the effect that might be produced in an interior of j 
Ihe kind, if ligbted frora above only, parlicularly if ihe per- 
imS^ p^ts of the ceiling were filled in with slained glass. 
Nutwiihstanding both the variety as to design and decoia- 
tioa of which skylighti» are susceptible, and the picturesque 
elEect produced in ,an interior where the light falls in from 
abov^.80 far froai having been turued to account for archi- 
tectural purposes, and sludied as ornamental features, slcy- 
lights liave generally been considered and treated as mere 
sbifUand expedients in building, excusable only when re- 
sorted to from necessity, and for inferior rooms situated 
wbere it was impossible to obtain side-windows. Hence 
scarcely any thing on the subject, hardly the bare mention of 
skylights, is to be met with in architectural works. In Italian 
buildtng» such mode of lighting rooms is almost unknown, 
eTea wSere it recommends itseU* as bt;ing greatly preferable 
to that by side-windows, and irt fact scarcely less than in- 
dispeDsable» as is the case with sculpture and picture gal- 
leritos^staircases, and libraries; and though, as regards these 
last» it i» not very material whether the light is admitted 
from tha side of the room or frora above, Ihe second method 
is attcndod with this advantage, that it allows the bookcases 
U> be continued on all sides of the room. 

For rooms.iu general.tho plan of lighting Ihem from the 
ceUing would not be praclicable ; yet, where suitable oppor- 
lunity oiTers. it should he adopted, not only for the sake 
of wriely of effect, but also as affording great scope for 
oruamental design. . ,. ,. . ., 

Searcely anytlung of the kind occurs m Italian arctiitec- 
tU8|» eX4;ept it be in the form of a cupola over ^ central 
sabon. [Saloon.] Neither is the vory best effect ysually 
studied in Italian cupolas and domes, the light being gene- 
rally admitted partly through small apertures m the con- 
cave of the dome itseU, or through a mere lantern on its 
>ummit, and partly through upright windows iu ihe tam- 

bour or cylindrical wall immediately beneath it ; instead of 
being concentrated and diffused through a single large 
opening, as in Ihe Pantheon at Rome, which, though pro- 
fessedly so much admired, has very rarely indeed been foI- 
lowed as a model by the architects of Italy. The same 
remark applies to their followers in other counlries: so far 
from studiou.sly availing themseWes of opportunities of 
lighting interiors from above, and varying the means of 
accomplishing it according to the particular occasion or 
design, they have lather avoided everything of the kind. 
Even where it would seem the most direct mode of obtain- 
ing light, as in the case where a dome is introduced, the 
effect that might be so produced is more frequently Ihan 
not quite neutraliacd, if not destroyed, by tlie chief light 
being derived from lateral windows. Of this we have aa 
instance in St. Stephen's, Walbrook, which, whatever merit 
it may possess in regard to proportions, most assuredly does 
not exhibit the most rcfined tasle, the small oval holes 
in the walls, ser^in^ as windows. being in fact so many 
blemishes in the design. In that and most other example's 
of the same kind the lantern is so narrow or small in dia- 
meter compared with the dome, that it seems as much iii- 
tended to obstruct as to admit light, and applied rather with 
a view to external than to internal effect and utility, — as an 
arcbitectural finish to the outside of the dome, tban in order 
to light the inside of the building. 

It seems indeed a strange kind of perverseness, that whilo 
lighting interiors entirely from above has been eniployed 
not only for picture and sculpture galleries, but also for 
concert-rooms, lecture-rooms, and other places intehded to 
accommodate an auditory or congregalion, it should hardly 
in any instance have been applied to churches, though by 
gelting rid of apertures in the walls, noiscs and sounds from 
the strect would be excluded. If ihe style of the building 
be Groihic, such mode of course becomes out of the ques- 
tion; for windows in the walls themselves eire then essen- 
iial, being not only characteristic features, but one chief 
source of decoration, while owing to iheir being divided by 
muUions into compartments, and more or less iilled up 
with Iracery, the glare of light is properly aitempercci. 
With regard to other styles, Grecian or Itilian, ihe case is 
widely aifferent: in them the windows are internally no 
betler than so many gaps — mere glazed aperiures, wbich, 
so far from contributing to decoration, have not even any 
kind of finishing bestowed upon ihem, neither architrave, 
mouldings, nor cornices. 

The only instanco that weare actiuainted wiih of a church 
lighted entirely from above, without latcral windows, is that 
of St. Peter-le-Poor, Broad Sireet, London, which is a ro- 
tunda, covered by a cove,and a large circular lantern, whose 
tambour forms a sort of clereslory, consisting of a conti- 
nuous series of arched windows, while the ceiling makes a 
very flat or slightly concave dorae. In point of design this 
example is not parlicularly ta»leful, but the principie de- 
8erves attention. Olher ideas of a similar nature have occa- 
sionally been thrown out, though not carried to the same 
extent: the centre of ihe interior of St. Mary WooInoth's 
is covered by a square clerestory lanlcrn, having a large 
semicircular window on each of its sides, — a peculiarity pro- 
bably forced upon the archilect (Hawk.smoor)on account of 
its being desirable to have no windows on thc side towards 
Lombard Street, and it is only to be regrelted that any 
were allowed on the opposite ohe, as tho whole inlerior 
would have been malerially improved by the omission of 
them. A more recent instance is that of Hanover Chapcl, 
Regent Street, London, which has what may be conve- 
niently distinguished by the lerrn ianterndome, viz. a dome 
where the light is admitted neithcr through a smaller lan- 
tern, or other aperture at its apex, nor through windows in 
a tambour beneath it, but by a series of windows or glazed 
panels in the lower part of ihe concave of the dome itself, 
similarly curved, and therefore narrower at top than below, 
Taken by itseH this is a very pleasing feature of the inle- 
rioi", but its effect is counteracted by the nuraerous windows 
on the sides» which, in addition to being more plain openings 
in the walls, destroy all architectural repose, by the spotiy 
cross-lights which lliey occasion. tJnder such circumslances, 
it is to be wished that the architect could notpossibly obtain 
light except from abovo. Fortunately this is sometiraes the 
case, if not in regard to churches, in other spacious apart- 
nients, where it has been turned to more or less account u} 
the design, and the necessity of lighting tliera, if not iiii- 
raediately ^pgiti tho ceiling, at lcast through thc upper par^ 

s K y 


iOil4lif:\«f^]iU/bei9 glTeu rise^ to new ideas aiid nov9l aicliiteo- 
^ili^tc9«f6m^i^8- Boai^e waa» we believe, ahnost the ^rst 
4Mblt),»U^i|lille4;<^ give uoiportaneo and deooratiYe cbai-acter 
Wr($^ylig^^>andotffVf'W ^ndows, or windowed eeiliugs, as 
'th«^-ip|ay,be terwed» making them omaoiental feature6 in 
liA». InieriorAt varied in tbeir deeign, and producing great 
diyersilyof strikiqg eiTectB, owasionalW beightened by the 
.}jghf heing transmitl^d through tinted glass, so as to dif- 
iik^.a^arm' suDoy glow over tl^ apartment. The offices 
pt. tlie Bonk of England affbrd raany studies of the kind, 
wiiile l^s own hoose (now the Soanean Museum) shows 
.wbati lve aocomplislied by a similar mode of treatment upon 
a V4^'y limited soale. It cannot be said that the taste wbich 
li« otherwise displayed in internal architecture, even in 
thoso instances, was the most refined, for it was exceedingly 
iincqual ; yet mauy valuable hints may be derived from what 
he did in that way, and it seems to havo had the ^ood resuU 
of inducing otbers to render such method of hghting in- 
teriov6 highly effective and ornamental. 

.How very different thal which is essentially the same 
.mo4e in iuelf, becomes, according as it is treatcd, may be 
4epn in two examples which resemble each other so nearly 
in semeother respects, that the comparison between them 
becomes the more instruclive, and the contrast the more 
^triknng. We have in London two narrow streets of shops, 
Qxclu4ively for foot passengers, covered in above, and con- 
9equ9ntly lit^hted througb tbat covering; but while that 
termed tbe Burlington Arcade is no more than an ordinary 
skylight— just what may be seen in a workshop — continued 
f<^m er\d to end of the building, the roof of the Lowther 
iArcad^is formod ioto a series of arches and elegant pen- 
deniiva di»nies, each of wbich terminates in an eyo or ciccu- 
Ur.skyiight. Somewhat similar to this last, thougb less 
ornweijital ii» design^.is the roof of the Arcade or Gallery 
on thei west side of the Italian Opera-house. 

The> sioiplest aod most ordinary form of skylight consists 
iz\erely o/ a sa^h or framing fixed into an aperture in a roof 
or eeUingi ia a alanting direction. in order to throw oif the 
liain* andeither of one or more planes according to its size 
or other circumstances. If 8quare in plan, a skylight of 
.;bia«Qi;t i» m^ually composed Qf four triangular surmces, like 
a^ jow pyramid; if oblong, Qf four sloping planes, after the 
mannor Qf9.hipped roof, with a ridge. Sometimes the whole 
of ^ 609111, or other arca^is covered' by a glazed ceiling of the 
kii^r merc]%' divideu into such numbcr of compartments or 
separate lignts as its construction may reouire, as is the case 
wijth ^ portioa of the Corn £xchange, Mark-lane. The eflect 
however then beoomes ratber that of an open court than a 
,coxerod hall or room, on which account, convenient as it 
, may baia peculiar cases, it is not at all adapted for apart- 
mentsgenerally which may otherwise require to be so lighted, 
aod least of all for such as are intended to be chietly used by 
night. Yet where the object is not to admit ligbt into 
aeeilad room, but merely to exclude tho weather from what 
must else be an uncovered court, such glazed roofs may 
very properly be applied ; and it is rather strange there should 
W no int^tion of so covering in the area of the new Royal 
,£xdiang», and thereby protecting it from rain and damp. 
. ^ Toattempt to describe all the various forms of skyligbts 
and lantei^ns that have hitherto been employed, would re- 
quire coB&iderable research for examples of them, and also 
that plana and other delineations should be given of some of 
t^e more eomplex designs. Such a sysiematic and complete 
elucidaiion of the subject would form an interesting architec- 
tural volume. Here, on the contrary, we can merely advert 
to some of the principal varieties. Those more generally used 
for picture galleries, libraries, and other apartments of that 
class, are also the simplest in form, being lanterns, not like 
those in Gothic architecture, of narrow and straight propor- 
tions, but spacious and low, and occupying a considerable 
3url^ of the ceiling. The light is admitted through the 
sides of the lantern, which are mostly filled in with panes of 
glass, 80 as to form a window continued on every side, with- 
out other divisions than the bars in its fiame-work. The 
, aides of tbe lantern are made either vcrtical or sloping ; by 
wbiohlatter methodmore light is obtained, the upperceiling, 
erthat Qf the lantern, being thereby reduced, as compared 
. 7iiXh tbe opening of the lantern itself. Therefore in such 
ca^es its sides roay be curved, instead of being made merely 
sIopinH planes. The upper ceiling should be coSered, or 
i(^M)crwise oruamented in accordance with the lower one^ 
. Al^ ratUer in a greater than in a less degree, both on ac- 
count of its Torming a compartment where decoration ia 

92 S K Y 

lookcd for, mnd because the enrichments beslowed upon it 
display themselves to greater efiect. Where, as wiU fre- 
quently happen, more than one lantem is required, the 
centre one may be larcer, that is, louger than the otbera, 
and somewhat loflier aUo, besides being more or less distio- 
guished from them in its decorations. ]f a room be covQd 
and also lighted from above, the lantern may occupy the 
whole horizontal surface, so that its ceiling becomes in a 
manner that of the room. 

Of other forms of lanlerna nnd sk^ligbts in picture and 
sculpture rooms, examples are furnished by those at the 
British Museum, National Gallery, and Fitzwilliam Mu- 
seum, Cambridge, some of which are double skylight^ a 
smaller one being raised over the first one. In a small 
octagon room in the second building there is also an in- 
stance of a^ lantern dome above a square opening in the 
ceiling ; which kind of oontrast is tlie reverse of that sbown 
in one of Soane^s buildinga, where a squar9 lantern is secn 
through an oval opening beneath it. Among other novel 
c()ntrivances, Soane oc^*asionallv introduced narrow skj- 
ligbts or glazed panels around the ceiling of a roomi not ior 
the purpose of lighting the whole of it» but of gbtaining a 
strong light immediately on the upper part of Che walts, 
and on pictures in that situation, an e^ect rendered tbe 
more striking in conse^uence of such openii^ bein^ made 
above the general level of the ceiling, and therefore in some 
measure screened from view. At other times he occasion- 
ally placed a lantern immediately upon the walls of a room, 
that is, he carried up the latter above the roof, opening wia- 
dows in it on every side, immediately below the neiling* 

Somewhat similar to, altbough alao diSerent in effect 
from, the mode just now pointed out, of admitting ligbt 
through openings in tbe border of a ceiling, is that of ob- 
taining it through the cove of a room, as bas been done bj 
Barry in the saloon of the Reform Club-houBe, where t^ie 
whole of the cove is perforated, and fiUed in with small 
panes of cut glass, so as to produce a rich diapered surfaoe 
throughout. Once adopted, the same idea may be varled m 
a great number of ways, by making separate apertures, for 
instance, in the cove, and Alling them in with stained ^nss^ 
so as to produce the effect of painted transparent paneU, 
which efiect migbt be rendered even stiU more striking bjr 
night than by day, by means of lamps or gas-burners placed 
outside. That the same mode of liehting at night roight 
be applied in other cases is su^ciently obvious. 

There are a variety of other modes of lighting rooms froiii 
their ceUings, which we have not yet mentioned, and some 
of which it would be difficuU to describe inteUigibly by 
words ; we shall therefore merely notice one or two of them 
in general tcrms. Of an arcbed skylight ceiling, divided 
into compartments by intersecting ribs, an instance is fur- 
nisbed in one of the offices of tbe mnk of England, built a 
few years ago by Cockerell, and sbown in the * Companion 
to the Almanac,' for 1836. The roof of tbe Pantheon 
Bazaar. Oxford-street, on the contrary, (bougb also arcbed. 
is treated altogether differently; for insteadofbeing glazed 
along its centre, it bas a series of sashes or glaied panels oti 
each side, as sbown in the small section of it bere given 

^ TransTWM SeetioB oT Um Oml Hall of tho Pantheoo, looking «ralliwaii. 

Digitized b^^ 



S L A 

The Waterloo sallery or saloon at Windsor Castle has a 
lallt^' oeiling of nttusual design, not 80 mnch on aocount 
af * tbe sl^le of decoration, as of its arrangement and Ihe 
ittpde in which the light' is admitted. Tho only other 
iM^ee W6' shall add, and it deserves to ht noticed fhr 
the noyelty of the idea, is that of a skylight in a shop ftt 
Soathaniplon, formine a domĕ raised upon fonr eolumns, 
idiiare in ita plan, and semictrcuTar in section, and entirely 
f lled In witli staihed glass of various colours, ibrming a 
inosaic pattem in the Alhambra style, executed, we he- 
Aive, from designe hy Mr. Owen Jones. 

.WtYttOS (2i^poc>. att island fn the^gean, lying to thp 
e^ 6t l^halasia !n Negroponte, and to the west of Psara, 
UEt ii^f^r to the former, in 39* lO' N. lat. and 25^ 12' E. 
tabg. Thĕ earliest Inhabitants were Pelasgians and Carians, 
iCeorditiTjg to Nicdlans, quoted by Stephanus Byzantinus 
tiidSgto^, aiicl Dolopes (Thucyd., i. 98). Homer records the 
«iplare of it by Achi!fes (//., x. 664), who is said to have 
Wen dtsicovo)red there disguiSed in female attire before tbe 
Tiojan war: Tneseus wiis sent into exile to this island, 
4d was ttiUrde^dby Lyc^mddes, its king, who became jea- 
M of t(is pbpolarlty. (Pausan., iii. 6.) In 476 b.c. it was 
^ "aiib^ Ci^otl, wtien the inhabitants were enslayed, and a 
ifey ^aisetittbithep from Athens (Thucyd., i. 98), but not 
toise^ti^snce ctihti orade which directed the removal of 
^Wtiedp^-lhieseus, as Pausanias asserts, for the delivery 
'j^'f]iĕf orade anA the disinterment did not take place till 
n'6r S;vietL yĕa^s aHer the capture. It afterwards passed 
^o/ the hands of the Alhenians, but was restored to them 
Ij^th^ peace of Antalcidas, b.c. 386. It was taken by De- 
m^ras Poliocceles, and again given to Athena, b.c. 196, in 
aa treaty between Rome and Philip of Macedon. (Livy, 

'^ In |h« ditision of the Greek empire by Constantine Por- 

j|l9Tog'ennetu8, Scyrus was placed in the Thema iSgseum 

.yyagrua* and in the Synecdemus of Hierocles, in the Pro- 

"^Ayeia ttelladia Achaioe. After the taking of Constantinople 

^tlie L*atins, it was seiied by Andrew and Jerome Gizi. 

% atterwards formed part of the duchy of Naxo8, and 

%AJfot the Turkish empire. In 1823 the Skyriotes were 

"'' : the islanders who renounced their allegiance to the 

al^d repulsed the troops sent against them with great 

bteK This island was however restored at the close 

Greek wai^ to the Turks, by the protocol of 1829. 

>rding to Dapper the beanngs of Skyros are as fol- 

:— Ten or eleven leagues to the north of Cap Mantelo, 

aci^h-east cape of Euboea ; on the east it is 8ixteen or 

E^eii leaguea from Lesbos, and the same on the north- 

Jtitm Lemnos; and on the north-west .six or seven 

les Trom the island of Skopelo. Tournefort states the 

^, jlnlbrence at sisty miles. On the west side is a large 

li^j vfth 8everal islandjB at the mouth. The harbour here 

iiriBaned Kalai^itsa by the Greeks, and by the Italians Gran 

%ipi^^gja- Opposite to this. on the other side of the island, 

YPiort^AkhUi. The isthmus between these two points 

Ihriaes the island ^ito two parts ; the southem portion is un- 

eihli^bed^ tM of high mountains, intersected by deep 

gi^l^ and mgged and bare, except at their summits, 

vbefe ikkĕy are covĕred with oak, fir, and beech. 

Moant Cocyla, on the east ooast, a little to the sonth of 

Fort Akhili, is 2588 fiiet high» aeeording to some authorities. 

At the southern extrenuty of the island is a port called 

Trimpouchais, a cwroption of Tre Boche, or the three 

Booths. It is snrtounded by wooded hills, and has three 

entcasces» the one ofi each side being about one-third of a 

^e in wtdtl^ and the middle one rather narrower. They 

•11 Bafe and deep. There is about twenty fatUoms water 

te centte of the harhour. 

The nortl^era diviaion of the island is less mountainous. 

the town bf 8t. Gkorge, on the east coast, ODvers the 

uuth and west sides of a high rooky peak, which termi- 

dites abruptly on the sea. On the table summit of this 

lffil are ^dia ruiuB of a castle bnilt duhng the middle ages> 

Mf3*many hoittes, all abaDdened» whioh are used by the 

alMbitants to keep atoies in. The houses of Skyros are flat- 

roofed, of two stories, the lower of stone, the upper of wood, 

.moioBnted by terraces covered with eartb. Tnis hill was 

iivVite of the antient Aeropolis. The remains of Hellenic 

Mlls may be traced round the edge 0f the nrecipioes, parti- 

cnlarto at the north end of the castle, ana others hiafway 

4i«n4be pMk, or among the modern houiea. The greater 

pirt of ihe antient city lay to the east» near the sea. In 

tiiis direction there is a large semicircular bastion almost 

I entire. Thence the wall is coutinued along the slope abov6 
thĕ sea as iar as a round tower, half of which is still 
stahding. Beyond this are the remtins of anotber tower, 
and a wall fh>m eaoh connects tbe eity withthe sea, Uke 
the long walls of Atbens and other antient' citiea Tbur- 
neibrt KVbyage du Levant) makes mehtion of t^« mins of 
a temple of Pallas near tbe town. This goddesa was wor- 
shipped here, as appears from Stotius (AMtl., 1 2Bĕ). 

In the neighbourhood of StGeorge is aplain f€iur square 
miles in extent, which bears corn, grapes, and ttos. There is 
another at Kalamitaa, which is abo Isrtile. On the steep 
ground in the north part of the island madder is grown. 
The wheat of Skyros equal8 in quality that of any island in 
the iSgean. Its productions are, 10,000 barrels of wine in 
a good vintage, three-fourths of which are expor1ed ; 15,000 
kila of com, 2000 of which are exported; 600 kaathars of 
fa8ulia; 2000 okes of wax; 8000 okes of honey; 100,000 
oranges and lemons ; and 400 kanthars of madder. There 
are a few oxen, and about 15,000 head of sheep and goats» 
of which 2000 are annually exported. The taxe8 are 20 
pnrses, paid by 500 families living in St. George. There 
are three kai^ helonging to the island, and many felaecas 
built with the fir of the mountains. The oak timber is only 
used for firewood. (Leake*s TrateU in Northem Greeee,) In 
1813 Scyros had 12 ships, with an average lonnage of 100; 
average number of crews 12 ; of oannon 4. (PouquevilIe, 
Vouage dans la Grĕce.) The inhabitants are good searoen, 
and fond of the chase. They retain roore antient eostoms 
than most of the islanders in the Arohipelago, and aie at- 
tached to the early Greek traditions. The memory of 
Achilles is still preserved in the name Akhili CAx«XXctoy). 
Skyros was much celebrated among the antients for its red 
and white marble, which, as Strabo informs us, was used at 
Rome in preference to white marble. (Strabo, 437, Casaub.) 
There is a bishop, who resides in the desected part of St. 
George. His see is dependent on tbat of Rhodes. Toume- 
fort meutions two monasteries — St. George and St. Dimitri. 

SLANDER consists in the malicious speaking of soeh 
words as render the party who speaks them in the hearing 
of others liable to an action at the suit of the party to whem 
they apply. 

Slander is of two kinds : one, whieh is actionable, as naees« 
sarily importine some general damage to the party who 
is slandeied ; tbe other, which is only actionable where it 
has actually eaused some special damage. The first kind 
includes all such words as impute to a party the commission 
of some erime or misdemeanour fbr which he raieht legally 
be convioted and suAer punishment, either by the general 
law, or by the custom of a particular place, as where one 
asserts that another has committed treason, or felony, or 
peijury, &c. It also ineludes such words spoken of a 
party, with reference to his olBce, profession, or tnde, as 
impute to him malpractice, inoompetence, or bankraptey; 
as of a magistrate, tbat he is partial or corrupt ; of a elergy- 
man, that * he preaches lies in the pulpit ;' of a barrister, that 
' he is a dunce, and will get nothing by the law ;' of a physi- 
cian, that * he is an empiric, a mountebank ;' of an attorney, 
that ' he hath no more law than a goose, bull,' Ace., or that 
* he is no more lawyer than the devil ;' of a trader, that he 
has iailed, or uses deceit in his trade, 8cc. ; or tlMt eharge 
a party with having, at the time being, an in^etious dtt- 
ease which prev6nto his having intercourse with others; 
or that tend to the disberison of a party, as where it is 
said of one who holds lands by descent, that he is illegi- 
timate. Where a party is in possession of lands which he 
desires to sell, he may maintain an action against any one 
who slanders his title to the lands ; as by stating that he 
is not the owner, or that another has a lease of the lands 
or is in possession of a mortgage or other incumbraace upon 
them. With respect to the second class of slander, the law 
will not allow damage to be inferred tnm words whioh are 
not in themseWes actionable, even although the words are 
untrue and spoken maliciously. But if, in consequenee of 
such words being so spokeii, a party has actually sustained 
soroe injury, he may maintain an aotion of slander against 
the person who has uttered them. In such ease the mjury 
must be some certain actual loss, and it must also arise as 
a natural and Iawful consequence of speaking the words. 
No unlawful act done by a third person, although he really 
was moved to do it by the words spoken, is suoh an injury 
as a party can recover for in this action. Thus, the loss of 
the society and entertainment of friends, of an appointment 
to Bome offic6, th^ breach of a mturiage en^Lgement caiued 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

S L A 


S L A 

by tbe slanderer^s statement, are ihjurlcis fot Irtiicb a party 
may recover damages. But be can have nd ^ctibn bccause 
in conse^uence of sucb statement certain persbns, to use an 
illustration of Lord Ellenborough'», • have thrown bim ihto 
a horse-poiMl by way of putiishment for bis ^upposcd irans- 

Witb rospect to botb kiilds of ^ander, it is immaterial 
in wbat way the cbarge is coriveyed, ^beiheir by direct 
statement, or obliqoely, as by queslion, cpithet, oi exclama- 
tioii. But tbe actual words used miist be stated iu the de- 
elaration. and upon the failure to pro^e thcm as stated, tbe 
plaintiff will be rlonsuited at the tfial : it is noi sutScient 
to state tbe meaning and inrerĕnce 6f thc words. They will 
be interpreted in the sense in which they are commonly 
used, but where tbey are susceptibte of two tneanings, one 
innocent, the otber defamatory, the innocent iriterpretation 
is to be preferred. Where words are equivocal either in 
their meaning or their application, a parenthetical explana- 
tion may be inserted in the declaration. This is called an 
innuendo. It may be employed to etplain and deGne, 1;>ut 
not to enlarge or alter. the meaning or application of the 
words spoken. The declaration must state tbe publicatioh 
of tbe words, that is, tliat tbey were spoken in the hearin^ 
of others, and spoken maliciously. Two cannot join in 
bringing one action of slander, except in the Case of husband 
and #ife, or of partners for an injury done to their joint 
trade ; nor can an action be brought agains^ two, 6xcept 
a hasband and wif6, where slanderous words have been 
spoken by tbe wif6. Wbere an action is bruught for slan- 
derous words spoken of a party relativ6 to his 6ffice or pro- 
fession, tbe declahition must state that he was at the timĕ 
of speakirig tbe words in possession of the office or engaged 
in the pro^ssion. And where tbe knowledge df extraneous 
faots 19 necessary to sbo^ the application of tbĕ slander. 
Uiese shoold be Btated iri tbe introductory part of tlie dc- 

In anawer to an nctiori of slandcr the defendant may 
plead tbiM tbe words spoken were true, or that they were 
•poken in tbe eonrse of 4 trial in a court of justice, and 
were pertinent to tbe ca^e; or formed the subject of a con- 
ildential communication, as wbere a party on application 
bond flde states wbat he believes to be true relatiye to the 
cbaracter of a 8erv«nt, or makes known facts merely for 
the porpose of bonestly waming another in whora he is 
interested. (Cora., D/g'., ' Action on the case fot Defama- 
tion/ D. 1, &e.) 

SLANB. [Meath.] 
SLANKY. Rner. EWexfori>.] 

SLATE. By some geological writers the lamihar struc- 
tures wl>if.h prevai] in many straiiAed and in some mela- 
morphic rocks are called slaty or schistose; but, in <^on- 
8equenceof tlie progress of investigation, one of ihese struc- 
tuies. locdlty superinduced in depoiiited strata, which is cha- 
racferi2ed by plaues of cleayag^ generally mceting those of 
deposHion al considerable anglcs. is specially called the slaty 
structure. lf, in the diagram below, c, s, /, represeut iu 

section a series of depdsrtted beds of clay (c), sandstone (*), 
and nodules of limestone (O, airdipping. as the arrow S 
(»outh) 20^ the lines which cross these beds at 
obhque angles, and are more hijjhly inclined, as in the 
arrow K = 60^ are the edgeS of innumerable parallel 
planes of cleavage. which are coritinuous througb ibe finely 
argiilaceou»l»edsc; more or less twisted in and about the 
Ihnesiooe nodules/; more or less interrupled by ihe are- 
naceous beds*, or repiwnted theroin by lines raore nearly 
rcciangled to ihe plane oP deposition. Tlie law bere indi- 
caied of ihe want of coincidence in the planes of cleavage 
and depoa.hon is almost univeisally observed iu nature 
Nearly horizomal strata are ciossed by iiiclined cleavace; 
highly mchned strata are travei^ed by neaily vertij6al cleav. I 

l^ĕ, Iri strata wbicli dip diderent ways from an aus or to 
an axis« tbe cleavage planes are sbmetimes foun4 to bepara^ 
lel tbrougboUt tbe mass on botb sides of the axi0; and«¥en 
where strata are variously contorted, tbev ar? fre<|ueQtly 
dissiected ihrough a great part or tbe wbole of tbeir maia 
by cleavage planes passing in ooe direction. Henoe tbe 
coriclusiori is obvious tbat tbi^ slaty structrire, this mono- 
hedrai symmetiry (if we may not call it crystaUisalion^Kis 
the ^ruit of a general cause ^cting subsequefitly to tbe de- 
position and disturbance of the strata, eapable of pervadii&g 
and rearranging ibe particlesso as to polarise and systena- 
tize ihĕir mutual attractions, but not lo fuse tbem together, 
destroy their origiual dislinctness, or obliterate tbe evideiiee 
of tbeir original condition. Tbis force was so general, tiwt 
alon^ riaany miles of country, as^ forexample, in tbe wbole 
Snowdonian cbain, one particular 4irection (Dortb^oorth- 
east), in North Deyon and Pembrokesbire another (nea^ 
east and west), is found to prevail more or less distinetly in 
all tbe rocks ; ibougb, as belbre observed» arenaceoua and 
pebbly beds are least intiuenced by it, and Itmettoaes are 
unequallv and variously allected. , 

This dependenc^ of tbe slaty struotnre on tbe n«t«re of 
the rock is sometimes very posiiiyely proaounoed* os in 
80 me classes of rock the cleava^ doe« ebange on4 0ven re- 
verse ita inclination wbere oontortions preYaiL (This is 
very observaUe in some cases of cleaV8ge in tbe old red- 
sandstone of Pembrokeshire.) C)n a lxst view it ap peankto 
be equally dependent on geological iitne, sinoe it is |iriii- 
cipally amone tbe older strata tb^t it is well exhiJ»itefl oo k 
large scale ; Dut on tbis bead doubt arises, wben we And 
the Silurian rocks, whicb are no^ alaty «t Ludlow, becoiae 
so riear Llanduvery ; tbe old red-sandstone slaty in>Pem- 
brokeshire and not so in Monmoutbshiie ; the jnonnlaiii- 
liroestone sbales slaty near Tenby and not so in Yorksinr^: 
the lias shales slaty on tbe nortbern abpea of the Alps/ bdi 
nbt so In England. 

Therear^ theri. hcul oonditiona wbich iniluenoe tbe dere* 
lopment of slaty cleavage, and it is essetitial to a gener»! 
solulion of the problem which tbis structnre inToWes, itmt 
these condilions should be determtned. Proi^imity to roelr« 
of igneous origin bas beeu freel^ appealM to fbr tiiis pub> 
pose; but this appears an insutticient and not c)flen appll* 
cable cause, The most;general eondition which Ims occurred 
toourobseaation istbe fBQt of jremarkablo displaeement 
of ih^ stiata 6n one or more anliclinal or synolinal arfes-j 
and^ it is of conhequenceto tbis tnfereno» to remark that 
very often. Bpproximately or even cxaofly, the hori<oAt*t 
edge (* strike*) of the inclined cleavage planes ooincidĕs wlth 
ihe axis of paovement (and tberefore wiih the strike) of the 
stratiAcation.. Presntre in some pecnliar application ap- 
pears to us to be indicated by all the phenomena a« the 
^i and agent in the produotion of slaty cleavage. Only one 
lolerably suocess/ul effort bas heen made experimentally lo 
reproduoe ihis structure by art. Mr. R. W. Fox bas cairse^ 
electncal currenla to traverse a mass of moist day, and has 
observed m coo8equence tbe forination of numerous Assures, 
more or iess simila* lo slaty cleavage, in jilancs parallel to 
the vertical bounding surface8 of the mass, and at rigbf 
angles to tbe eleetrical currentB. The exact application of 
tbis expenmeut is not understood. Perhaps however, con- 
jomedwith the adinission that the gieat movemenls oi 
strata. by wbich apparently si»ty cleavage was determined. 
depeuded on.disturbede^uilibpium of internal heat, whicb 
might.or rather must. have developed electrical currents, 
this solitary experiment may be the commenceraent of' l 
right mode of more extensive inqniry embracin^ the many 
circumstonces of chemical nature, straliAed arrangement, 
disturbed poaition,and proxiiDityof igneous rocks, which 
must all be inoiuded m a good theory o? slaty clcavage. 
J^or economioal purposes there appears liitlc cbance of 
obtBimng m tbe British Islands good slate (properly 90 
called) from any but the antient argiilaceous stratasupcr- 
posedon mica scbist and ^netss, and covered by old red- 
^dstone or mountwn limestone. From tbese strata in 
Scolland, C;umberlamK Weatmoreland, Yorkshire. Charn- 
wood Forest. North Wales abundantly, Soutb Wales, De- 
vonshu[Q. Cornwall, the nortb andsouth of Ireland, slates of 
vaiv>us value are dug. Tlie thin tiagstone of tlie coal forma- 
tion in,manyparts^of England and Wales.the laminatcd 
sajudy lunestoneofSteii«(ield,ColIywiston, &c.,whicb are 
of en called slates. and are exten8ively used in rooAng, aro 
aU oblained byuiaUirai iwtingeparaHel to thestratifl(liion, 
Irue slate is split by wedges from the apparently solid rock 

S L A 


S L A 

along planes ofteD no more di9Coverable than those of a real 
erystal. In colour it is piirple, blue, green, yellowish, or 
almoat wbite, or slriped acroes the planes. In sonie slatea 
(Kest of Sootland» Ingleton, &o.) orystals of oubical iron 
|kfrites are scattered. Much of tbe Cumberiaod slate ap- 
pears luU of fragments (Borrodale), and some cootatns cbi* 
astolite (Skiddaw). 

SLAVE, SLA VBBY. Tbe vord slaTerjrhas various ao^ 
ceptaiions. but its proper meaning seems to be thecondition 
of an indiyidual who is not master of his own actions, and 
vbo ia also the pn>petty of another or others. Such was the 
caBdttion ef the * servi/ or slaves aroonj^ the Romans aad 
Gceeks; stteh is still that of the slaves in Eastern countries, 
and tbat of the negro 8laves in many parts of Africa and 
America. A mitigated form of this condition exists in the 
case of the serb in Russia and Poland, andof a similar class 
in India «nd some other parts of Asia. Tbe Russian and 
Mish iierf is bonnd to tbe soil on which he is bom ; he 
may be sold or let wtth it, but cannot be sold away from it 
withom his eonsent ; he is obliged to work three or four 
dsys itt Ihe ireek for his master, who allows him a pieca of 
land, which he cultivates. He can marry, and his wife and 
eiitl^aii oreunder biH authority tili they are of age. He oan 
faeq«each hia ebattels and Bavings at his death. His hfe is 
protaoleA by tbe taw. The real slaTe, in the Greek and 
«aaHin tiiiMB» bad none of these advantages and securities, 
any more than ibe n^ro shiYe of our own times ; he was 
boo^t and sold in tiie market, and was tranaferred at his 
oner^a pleasure ; he could acquire uo property ; all that fae 
bad vaa kn master's ; all the produoe of his labour belonged 
lo hts ananer, who oould indict corporeal punishroei>t upon 
liim ; he had no right of marrying ; and if hecohabited with 
a>«ttiian, he could be separated from her and his children 
■i mnj time, and the woman and children sold ; he was, in 
shorl» in the aame oondition as any domesticated animal. 
Tha -dialinctlon therefbre between the slaye and the serf is 
essential. The villeins of tbe middle ages were a kind of 
mh, but tbeiroondttion seems to have varied considersbly 
ing to tioses and localities, and in many cases it ap- 
toluiYebeen more advantageou9. The YtUaniorcoloni 
» ia a leas dependeni eondition than the adscriptitii, or 
than tke aotual Russian and Polish serfs. Tliis subjeet 
bonwer is treated under ^illbinaob. 8ervitude of every 
kiBd ia now aboiisbed in the greater part of Europe. In 
tbe pceseot artiole ire treat only of the real slave of antient 
aad modera times. 

Slarary» properly so oalled, appears to have been, from 
tbieftrliest ages, the oondition of a large proportion of man- 
kilid ia almost every oouutry, unttl times comparatively 
tmsenU when it bas been gradually abolished by all Chrts- 
liiui «tatea, at least in Europe. The prevalence of doroestic 
sUveq^coiiatitutefl one great diiSsrence between antient and 
modem aociely. Slavery existad among tbe Jews : it existed 
bdm MQi«s,.if) tbe time of tbe Patriarchs ; and it exisCed, 
and aliu continues to esisi, all over the East. The ' ser- 
lanta' iiientioned in Soripture history were mostly uncondi- 
tijonal and perpetual shiyes : they were strangers, either 
takea prisoners in war or purebased from the neighbouring 
nations. They and their offsprinff were the property of tbeir 
maaten» vho cotUd seU them, and inttiot upon them corpo- 
real punLihment» and even in aome casescould put them to 
death. The three hundied and eighteen senranto bom in 
Abrahan|*s own bouse {GeneM^, xiv, 1 4) were of thiadescrip- 
tion. But the Hebrews bad also ftlaves of their own nation. 
Th<ne were men who sold themseWes through poiverty, or 
they vrere insolvent debtorsi or men who had ooramitted a 
lkefl, and had not the means of making restitution as re- 
qttired by thc^ lavs« wliich waa to double tbe amount, and in 
some casesmuch more. {Emodut^ xxii.) Notonly theperson 
of thedebtor was liable to the daims of theereditor, buthia 
right exteiaded aUo to the debtor's wife and ehildren. Moses 
regulated th^ condition of alavery. He drew a widedistino- 
tion between the alten slave and tbe native servant. The Ht- 
ter could not be a perpetual boodman, but might be redeemed ; 
and il not redeemed, fae beoame firee on the completion of 
the aetenth yaar of his seryitude. Again,every fifly years 
tbe, lubilee cauaed a general emanoipation of all' native 
servanta. puring the Sme of their Berv{tttde they were to 
betre»t^ with kindnesa; «ibr the children of Israel are 
sert^^ita unto me»' saiih the Lord. ' Both thy beitdmen and 
thy hondnaaida which thoui shalt hBve ahall be ef tbe hea- 
then tiuit «re round about you» of them tohall yon buy 
Kynitiwp^ n^ b5y iidmfli4ffr Jioceofnr,oif thi»ahildMinof tbe 

atrangers that de sojoura among you, of them shsll )e buy, 
and of their families that are with you wliich they hegat in 
your land; and they shall be your possession. And ye shali 
take them as an inberitanoe for your chiidren after you, to 
inherit them for a possesaion, they shall be yeur bondmen 
for ever ; but over your brethren the children o( Israel ye 
sball not rule ooe over anotber with rigour. And if a ko- 
joumer or alranger wax riob by thee. and iby broiher that 
dweileth by him wax poor,andsell himself unto tbe 8ti*anger 
or sojouroer by thee, or to the stoek of the stranger's family, 
after that he is sold he may be redeemed again, one of his 

brethreu may redeem him And if he be not redeemed 

ia three yeam, then he shall ^o out in the year of the jubAee, 
bothhe and his children with biro.* (Leviticu8, xxv. 44-54.) 
The souroes of the supply oi slaves have been tbe same 
both in antient and raodern times. In antient times ail 
prisoners were reduced lo slavery, being either distributed 
among the oflloers and raeii of the eonquering army, orsold 
by auction for tbe beneSt of the troops. Ih very reroote 
times, when the earlyiEolian and lonian colonies settled in 
tbe islands of tlie^gean Sea, or on the ooast of Asia Minor, 
it was a frequent practice with them to kiU all the adutt 
mates of the aboriginal population, and to keep the wives 
andchildren. Aa however dealing in slave8 becaroe a profit- 
able trade, tbe vanquislied, instead of bein|^ killed, were sold, 
and tbis waa 9p fkr an improveroent. Another source of 
s]avery was tbe practioe of kidnapping men and women, 
especiaUy young persons, who were seiwd on the eoast, or 
entioed on boai^ by the crews of pirate vessels ; and most 
vesKels were piratieal in the earlier ages. The Pbcenieians, 
and the Etruscans or Tyrrhenians, had the diaraoter of 
being men-stealeTS ; and alse the Cretans, Cilioians, Rho> 
dians, and other roaritime atates. Anothersouroewas, sale 
of men, either by tbemsetves threugh poverty and distress, 
or by their relattyes and superiors, aa is done now by the 
petty African chiet^, who sell not only their prisoners, but 
often their own subjeots, and even their ehildren, to the 
slave-dealerB. The sale of Joseph by hie brethren to the 
Midianite or Arabian merohants, wbo sold him again in 
Egypt, is a proof of tlie antiquity of tbe practioe. 

The sequel also shows. that in Egypt, unlike most other 
countries of antiauity, the life of a slave was protected by 
law ; for Joseph s master, when he had reasbn to believe 
him guilty of a heinous offence, did not put htm to death, 
but sent him to prison, tbere to await his trial, and this in- 
ference is conArmed by Diodorus, who, in speakine of the 
laws of the Egyptians, says, that whoever miirderea a man, 
whether free or 8lave, was punished with death. 

Among the Greekt 8lavery existed from the heroie times, 

and the purchase and use of alave8are repeatedly mentioned 

by Homer. The honsebold of Ulysses was served by slave8, 

over whom their master had power of life anid deatn. The 

use of 8ueh domestics however was confined, in those early 

ages, to the houses of the great, who alone oould afford the 

purchase money. As war and piracy becaroe frequent, 

slave8 taken or bought beoame more plenttAil and cheaper, 

and they were ehietty eroployed in handioraft and household 

labours. The labours of husbandry were perforroed in some 

instanoes by poor freemen for hire, but in roost places, es- 

peoially in the Doric states, by a class of bondmen, the de- 

soendants of the older inhabitants of the country, resem- 

bling the serfe of the middle ages, who lived upon and cul- 

tivated the lands wbich the dorainant or eon^uering race 

had appropriated to themseWes ; they paid a rent to the re- 

spective proprietors, wiiom they also attended in war. They 

oould not be put to death without trial, nor be sold out of the 

country, nor separated from their families ; they could ac- 

auire property, and were often richer than their masters. 

Sueh were tbe Glarot» of Crete, the Penest» of Thessaly 

Proper, and the Helots of Sparta,who roust not be contbunded 

with the Periodci, or oountry inbabitants of Laconica in gene- 

ral, who were politioal subiects of the Dorie comrounity of 

Sparta, without however being bondmen. [Sparta.] In tbo 

coloniesof the Dorians beyond the limitsof Greece, thecondi- 

tion of the eonquereil natives was pften more degraded than 

that of the bondroen of the parent states, beoause the for- 

mer were not Greeks, but barbarians, and they*were reduced 

to the coiidition of slaves. Suoh was tbe case of the Kalli- 

rioi or Kallikurioi of Syraeuse, andof the nativeBitbynian8 

at Byaantiuro. At Heraplea in Pontus, the Mariandyni 

submitted to the Greeks on eondition that they should not 

be sold beyond the borders, and that they ahould pay a fixed 

tribut<^ io tbe ruling race^ 

Digitized by 


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ft t A 

Tbe Dorie tteiat «f Groeoe hwl £» imDBliaMd slatw^ biu 
i^ihent» Corinth, and other commeroial statee had a krge 
lumber, wbo were mostly nalives oi berbaioBs eoiintnes, 
atnww^ing to tbe Ghreek pbraaeology. ThB dame popiilatieii 
w Ait^oa baa been varioiialy esiimated as to Dumbem» and 
it vacied of ooame eoDsideittbly atdittwent periodi, b«it it 
appeam that in Atbeas» at least in tbe lime of its greatest 
power, they weKemuob more numetmiB than the fteemen. 
[Athbns.] From a fragment of Hyperides preoewed by 
Suidas (r< ^wtr^^^mro), the number of slaves appears to 
have been at one time 16M00, wbo wem employed in the 
ilelds and asinea of Attioa aloue. Kven the poorer diisens 
had a slave for their houaebold afiairs. The wealthier 
citiseus had aa many as fifty slaves to each Aunily, and some 
bad roore. We read of pbilosopbers keeping ten slares. There 
were privaie siaves belonging to families, and public slave8 
lielonging to the eommunity or state. The latter were em- 
ployed on board the Aeet, in the docks and araenal» and in the 
ooDStruotion of public buiidings and roads. Pausanias says 
ihat slaves were introduoed for the first time among the 
land fQrces at the battle of llarathon; but tbis was, it 
seems» in the raDks of the Platiaans, for the Athenians dtd 
not iotroduoe them into their armies tiU a later period. At 
the aeafigbt of Arginus» there were many slavea serving 

T!ie Heraan syHlem of ^la^Tei*^ had i^^eiilljiriirea wliicli 
disttngni^hed it from that of iGreece. One dislinction 
eristeS in princinle. The Greeki con^ideted slaveiy to Ue 
derived from tbe law of nature and h-ora permaneht dive^ 
wties in the races of roen. (Aristolle, Ftfl(t,^, i) TUe Ito- 
mans admttted in principle tbat alt men wei^ origidRl\y 
free ilnstiU i.i tit. ii.) by the law of naturd (lure natU- 
rali), and they ascr^yed the rights of masters over tneir sla ves 
entirely to the will of sooiety, to the * jus gentium/ if the 
slaves were eaptive8 taken in war, whom the con^uerors. in- 
stead of killing them, as they might have done, spared fot 
the pnrpoee of selling them, or to the ' jus civile/ when a 
man of fuU age sold himself. It was a rule of RonMin 
law that the off*8pring of a slare womnn fol1owed the 
eondition of the mother. ilnst.i i., tit. 7.) Bmancipatlon 
was much moi« fi!eqnent at Rome than In Greece : the eman- 
cipated slave beeame a freedman (Tibertus), but.whelber he 
became a Roman cithsen, a Latinus, or a Dediticius, de- 
pended on dreumstances. If tbĕ manuniitted 8lave was 
above thirty years of age, 1f ho was the Quiritarian property 
of his manumittor, and if he was manumitted m due form, 
he became a Roman citisen. At Athens, on the contrary,. 
emancipation fh>m the domlnion of the mastĕt was setdom 
ibllowed by the privileges of dtttenship eVen to a limited 

in the Athenian fieet, and they were emancipated alter the | extent, and these privileges co\ild only be c6nferred by 
battle. Again aiCbereiisaa the Athenians graiited liberty \ pnblic authority. It is true, that atRome, ui^der tbe ^ 

to their slaves wbo served in the army. 

81avea were dealt with like any otber property: they 
eould be giveii aa pledMs; they worked either on their 
master*s aaooiuit or on tbeir own» in which latter ease they 

Eid a eertain sum to their master; or they were let out on 
n as aBrvaata or workmeii, or aeat to aerve in tbe navy of 
the atate, tbe naater reeeiviBg payment A>r tbeir service8. 
Mines weie worked by slavea, some of whom belonged to 
Ib^ iasaeaa .«f tbe miae, and tbe reat were bired firom the 
great slava psoprieteni to wbom tbe latter paid a t^nt of so 
mueh a bead» oeaidea prondingilbr tbe maintenanee ef tbe 
alavap wbid» wm oegnMt malter. They werked in chains, 
«nd many of tliam died fiwaa tbe effeet of the uDwhelesome 
atmosphete. Nicias tbeelder bed 1<M)0 shnws in th^ mines 
of Laurium; others hadaeyera&liundredai whom the^ let to 
tbe eonmiPlW fi>r msk ebolua « day eaeb. Ai one time the 
mining slavea of Altioa mut dered. their geairdB, took pos- 
•asaioB of the &rtilie4tiona o£ SuDium, and ravaged the 
•nripundiog eouatiy* (FragmeDtof Posidonins^s Continua- 
tiea af Polybius; aee Boeekh's PubUc Economy qf Athenĕ, 
b. i.) The tbifty*two or tbirtyotbree iroD*workers or aword- 
eatlers of Pemostbenes annually produced a net proOt of 
tbir^ miniBb tbeir. piirebase vahie being 190 minm; whilat 
bia iwenty ebair^makemt wboae ^sdne wna estimated at 40 
minttb brougbt in a net piefit of 12 minta. (Demoathenes 
4gamsi JpMu*, i*) Tne leatheiyworkers of Timarcbus 
brougbt ia to ibeir masier eaeh two oboli a day, and tlieir 
ibaeman tbiee. Tbe maater ^urniabed the raw materials. 
Tbe pnee of alaTea et Aibena varied from ha]f a mina to 
flve and ten miDm e bead : a eommon mining slave, in the 
afe of Oemestheees, ooat from 125 to UO dracbmm. The 
piefita dBrived ffem slave labour muai have been Tory high, 
aa tbe pwner kad io replace bia oapital and to obtain tlie 
usnal mte of iikteieati for his meney, which was a high rate, 
aad tbe slaTe waa enly valuaUe so long as he haa health 
and waa able to werk. TheDe was also the danger of his 
running away» aspeeially in war time. Antigenes of Rhodes 
was ihe first to esiablish an insurance for slBves. For a 
yaarly oontribution for eaeh slave senriug in the army he 
undertook te make good bis price to the owner, in caae of 
bis ruaninjg away« 

The antients were ao habitnated to the sight of s]avery, 
tbat noae of the aaiient philosophers make any objeotion to 

its eustenee. Plato^ in his'Perfeot State/ desires only ^. „_... ^ ^^., 

ibat no Greeka sbould be made slaTes. The only states of ' defeat of O&nn», sla^es were purchased by tbe state and 

Oreeoe in whieh no slsTes appear to haTo been introduced 
were Locris and Pboeis, probably by reason of the poverty 
of the people and the sim|dicity of their manners. 

Tbe Stniaoana and otber aatient Italian natioas bad 
akyea» as is proTod by those of YuUinii revolting against 
ibeir awaterBi aad by ibe traditioB tbai tbe Bruttii were run- 
away akrea ef ibe uicaaiaos. The Campaniana bad both 
alaTea and gladiatora preTiona to ihe Roman eonqttest Bei 
ihe Romans by iheir system of continual war eauaad an 
enoraioaa iail«x of alaTea iato Italy, wbere tbe slaTe pepu- 
latioa ai laai aapenMded almoai eaiiiely tbai of ihe flpee 

pire, A-om the enactment of the X.ex Aelia Sentia, passeA iti 
the time of Angtistus, there were restrictions, !n point of 
number, upon the master*8 power of Dreeing his.bondtiken 
and raising them to the rank of Rotkian cittre^s; still in 
erery age there was a prospect to the slaTO Of beln^ abU to 
obtain his Areedom. 

Tbe slaves of the Romans were called by the natnes of 
8ervi, senrltia, mancipia, famuli, and, as being tei&m^erft oT 
a famiHa, also famtliares. A slave was often cdlĕd ''puĕ^ 
whicbwas sometimes contracted into •por,' A^id adaedtb 
tbe master's name, as *Marcipor/ the slave of lBfardus« 
Slave8 were not considered members of tbe cQittniun(|y: 
they had no rights, and were nbt legaliy oonsidered ii t^t^ 
sons, but as tbings or cbattels. They could neither iu^ no|> 
be sued, and tbey eonld not claim f he pYOtectioi^ of tbe 
tribnnes. When an alleged 8lave claimed'hi8 freedom pn the 
plea of unjust detention, he was obliged to haTe a ^ee tm>- 
tector to sue for him, until Justinian (Codĕ, Vil., tit. t, T^^H^ 
adsertione tollenda') dispensed with that ^onnality. Stavĕs 
had no connubium, that is, they could not contract aRoniaa 
marriage ; tbeir union with a person of tbeir owu rank was 
styled contubemium, and cohabitation with another person 
was notadultery; andeven the Cbristian church for 8everal 
centuries dtd not dedare fhe Talidity and indissolubility of 
slave marriages. At last the emperor Basilius allowed s1avea 
to marry and receive the blessing of tbe priest, and A1extus 
Comnenua renewed the permission. As 8lave8 had nb con- 
nubium, tbey bad not the parental power (patria potestas^ 
orer their offkpring, no ties of blood were rec(^nisea among 
themi except with tespect to incest and parricide, which 
were considered as crimes bv the law of i>ature. Thou^ti 
slaTos were incapable of holdmg property, they were not in- 
eapaeiiated fhmi acauinng property, but what they did ac* 
quire belonged to their masters. They were often allowed 
to enjoy property as their own, ' peculium,* consisting some- 
times of other slaTes, but they held It only by permission, and 
any legal proceedings connected With it oould only be cou- 
dticted in tbe name of the master, who was the only legal 
propriet(Mr. No 8lave could hold a public otBce, and if a 8lave 
unknown to be sucb had obtained a responsible oAice, it was 
a cjuestion among the jurists whetlier his acts would be 
Tslid or nulL Until the latter period of the cepublie, 8laves 
and even freedmen were not admitted into the ranks oT the 
army. In cases of urgent public danger, such as after the 

sent to the army,and if they behaved well, they were eman- 
cipated. (LiTy, xxii. 57, and xxiv. 14-16.) 

Male slsTes were not permitted by law to wear tbe toga 
and buHa, nor females the stola, but otherwise tbere was no 
fixed distinettTe costume fi>r them, and they were moatl}^ 
dressed like poor freeman, who cx>nld not alTord to wear tbe 
toga. A distiwet dress for 8laves had been proposed in tbe 
decline of the lepiibHc, but the proposition waa rejected 
upon some senator adrerting to the danger of sbowing the 
alarrte lio^w mttch soperior in numbers they were to ihe 
freemeR. SlaTeB were fi)rbidden the use of horses, car- 
twg^ cr IHtan (leeticm) wiibin the waBi of tbo eitjr. 



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,^ iif ihscr^ptions att«st tbat monunients were 4>fk«Ki 
g[ted'tb^o ^iamorY o/ dopeased slayea by tbeur nu^iera. 
«^"^"^^rTrj^nds^ sorae of wbicb bear tbeie|ter»I>. 
p[ni|jua/ for.acooi^ing to the l(oiQan princi|iie 
rerjr W^s n/^ by nature, but was the eSeot of law, 
ra^ cgjpsidĕred aa puttiug an end to the legal dia- 
lioh 'tKtween sUves and masten» and the naaes of a 
d ' slave might he an object of reverenee even to a 
»n. Slave^ were orten.buried in the family hurying- 
y^u^ of their Tuastera« The ' sepulchretum ' or burial- 
ta^ita of the slave9 and freedmen of Aucustua aiid his 
wite LiTia, .discovered in 1726 near the Yia Appia, and 
wl^tclj Jtiaa been illustrated by Bianchini and Gori, and 
tdolliijtr in Ihe same neighbourhood also belonging to the 
houaehol^ of(he |^rly^C0l>uur^, find containing at least 3000 

S\k wit^ i)ufperou« inacriptions, which have beeu illus- 
iĕH bj| TaWotti^ throw much light upon tbe condition 
%XA ^omesyojl^a^bits of.KomaA slaves in the ser^ice of great 
J^mine«.'.,j;BiAfccwNi» P^tfCMco.l 
j^nii.JT^ar.aj^tor the, cla^itication and occupations of 
'"Tirit dJYjsipiiwas mto Dublic and private. Public 
' ^.^9f ? <^^^^ helonged to the. state or to public 
af'^p^bvtncg9A municipia,,colle^ia, decuri», &c., 
perbr^^ui hia »overeign capacity, and employed 
^^s^ju\^|npt attached to his houaehold or pri- 
^^, .^l^^iic ^l^ves were either derived from the 
^pi|ire9..tai(eh iu war^ which was reserved for the 
pr^stato. 9,r were acquired by purchase and 
--l^'sSf Put^ti^ slaves pr an inierior description 
.as. rowers on board ihe lleet» or in tbe con- 
repair of roads and national buildings. Tbose 
Brif£d^9C|ript|Qn were empLoyed aa keepers of publio 
- '-"tjp^^ and other property of the stata, or to 
afi|Sf prieats, and other puhlic odicera, as 
l}ictors^,executioner8,watermen, scaYengeri» &c. 
ay^ w^re. generally distributed into urban and 

She^ f^rmer served in the town houses, and the 
'^e o^^oiry- Lonj{ lists of the different duties per- 
ijr j^iayĕa jot each class are given hy Pignorius, ' De 
ef .'eprum apud Teteres llinisteriis,* Amsterdam, 
]f;TDJJfeaV* jSttOperrs Servorum,' ibid,, 1672; and Blair, 
^' I^uirY intb tpe State of Slavery amongat the Ro< 
iB7X<^phuirgtu 1833, whichia a very useful little book. 
vj^ be «nou^ Jbere to say, that for all the necessities of 
^ '''^ IKle, agriculture, and handicraft, and for all the 
^le tuxuries of a reflned and licentious people, there 
_^ _ _^rrtea'ppndingdenoraination of slayea. Xarge sums 
W^yciewion^lly paid for slaves of certain peeuliar kinds, 
tmi «O^^ich we should consider the leaat useful. £u- 
Aucl^ ?![fipV^ays vei'y deai: ; tbe practioe of emasculating 
b^ wa8,porrowedby the Uomana frQm theAsiatics, among 
im6m it; waa a tra^e as caily as the time of Herodotua 
(tu|! i(fo) : i^.cohtinued to the time of Domitian, wlio iorbade 
if; 6{i[tiunuch0 eoutlnuedto be imported from theEast. 
A^Mp^rio/^or foo). \va$ soraetimes sold for 20,U00 nummi, or 
abott? ^60 poiinds* Dwarfs and giants were also in 
grcat r^ueat. Marc Antony paid for a palr of handsome 
youtljia 20b . aesiertia, or UOO pounds. Martial U^., iii. 
62) mentipna a sii:^Ic handsome youtli who cost as much as 
tboie two,/ Actors andactresses and dancers sold very dear, 
as well iSJi femates of great personal attractions, who were 
likelr to bribg in great gaina to their owners by prostitution. 
A gaaiL cook was Yalued at four talents, or 772 pounds. 
Hwcar meh, grammarians» amanuenses, anagnostSB or 
readera. atvd ahorthand-writera, were in considerable re^uest. 
Witl^ rC^jjird .to ordinj^i-y slayea, the pricevaried from fifty lo 
tw^oty pounda, a^rpording tQ their abilities and other cir- 
eiim^Dces.^ The Ipj^est legal valuation of a mau 6lave in 
tfie. llmie'* oir Justinian was twenty solidi, or about sixteen 
potthiSs: .atldJltie ratue seems to hftve been about tbe aame 
inthe/tniie pY Horace (Sai-, ii. 7 ; v. 43). After a yictorioua 
eattipifgn, when thousands of captives were sold at once on 
tbe ^\ /^r tbe purpose of priae-money, to the slaye-dealers 
wfib fonqwe4 tjie armies,. the price sunk very low. Tbu» in 
t]ifi "^tmi^ Q^'XiiieuIIua in Pontus slaves were sold ibr four 
^^St^i^^^iir^tm^ ahillings and seyenpence, a bead; but 
t^ji*itl0 iitaTea, if brou^t to the Roman market, fetcbed 
a.ttja^ib l>mjfipr price. Homerborn slavesr distinguished by 
l&^ii$tiSĕ.^veni»V in contiadistinction to ' «ervi empti/ 
oi^Vtfhitm%i: imported,slavea, were generally tieated wi^i 
-^- - V$^alge&€e b^* tboJr maatera in who^ famiUes tbeiy had 
' "^jMjj.' and,for t^t ve|y ieasont-Tj^lMin 4aken to 

niark^t,. b6rftam iaibriar Takie to the m ip etf W< ft1aip«(i,'-'t^*ng 
eoiiHdeted aaapoilt «nd tyoablesone. Tbe ntmW oT^i^A 
born ia R<uMn imiilies appeara at «11 ttiues to^ha^lRM 
Sur io&rior to thai of tbe im^peited il«ve9. In ^enttMI thĕ 
|^«epagation of ala«es was not Tnnoh CTi»oWffBge^%)^n it ft4 c »fc^ 
maaj of wbom oanaiiered skwea bom «» bodio - to<<ff6H 
mmre tbaa thoae who were imported. Oi^liary ^iiikle^ehurtia 
were iaferior io nunabeni to tbe males, aat Were gea»r«Uy 
ebeaper iii the market . <. < . / 

There waa a brisk trade in slave6 oanM<m Clrotn thee^a^rs 
of A£riea, the Buxine, Syria, aiid Asia MNier. Thio^ieland of 
Delos was at one time a great mart fbr sla^ea, who w«re itn*- 
ported thitherby theCilician pit«teB.(Strabo,^. 668, Casabb'.) 
Tbe Illyriana proeured numerous slaves fertheitaliaiinfir- 
ket. wbom they boogbt or atoie from tbe barbaroos tribe^ 
in their neighbourhood. Thi-ace waa the parent country ef 
numerous alaves, and the selling of ehildren by their pa- 
rents waa an aatient praotice among Ibe Thraoian -tribea. 
(Herod., v. 6.) But the chtef aopply of 8laves wea derfved 
from Aaia and Africa. In most countries it was enBtonft&t<y 
for indigent parenta to aell their ebildren to alave*deaien, 
and even Romaa citizens at timee aold themselvee or tlMMr 
childreu through dtatreaa. Criminals were ako in eertalh 
cases condemned to 8lavery, Uke the galley-s)«<m^ 'ef Otir 
own timea. • .> . ^ • ».. 

Both law and euatom forbad9 prisonera taken in^ltil 
wara, especially in Italy, to be dralt with as AlaVell'* 'aild 
tliia was perhaps one reason of the who)eeale*iiia9mi6r€^ of 
captive8 by SuUaandtbe TriomviTi« latbe WttrbeM^enthe 
party of Othoand YitelUua, Antooiusi wboeeMnMinded^tlye 
army of the latter, baviBg taken Creoiewa^ioiMimd %lMt 
none of the captiTes sbeold he dktoitied, tr|itfiy 'wiiielk <tM 
aoldiera began to kill those who were not prifiitely rtt m Kntt i ki 
by tbeir friend8. ■" • .•.nlA 

In the latter period of the enpiM fre»4)dm<^r«etir^ 
low coodition were glad to seoure a 8ubBiateiice> by* labottiwtl 
theetttateaof the geeat landownere, to^wbith^nAara e(irff^ 
tinued ceaideMe for tbirty ymrii tb«f «nd ttMir<ktatli(to b^ 
came bound by a taeit agi«enent iinder'>tbe name'df 4fd* 
8criptitit, or adaoripti gksbm, aad tbta tm oae of tbie-atmM^ 
of tne 8ervitude of the middle agee. •• -^ -^ ' 

The ouatoroary allewanee4>0feed ibr a^iAav« B^ppĕm ikyhtt¥e 
been four Ronan buabela, ' medii/ ef eem, mostly ^ fky/'pĕ^ 
month for eouatry alayea, and one'R4liiavk> ltbra'erfo«ft4 
daily for tliose in town. SaH and oil wiiia oecaaidnMly ol^ 
lowed, as well ea weak winec Neitbier meai tior vegef(abM 
formed part of their reg^ilar allowanee, but they got) ae^ 
eording to seasons, fruit, suoh as iiga, oUtes, apples, ^eiiV8, 
&o. (Cato, Columella, and Yarro*) Laboimra aiid attt2ftiW 
in the eountry were sbut up at lYigbt in a- beu^e (' ei^astU'^ 
lum'), in which eaeh alavo appears to bave had a ae^rtite^t^Ht / 
Males were kept apart from females, exoopitng tbes^ wbodl 
tbe master allowed to form 'centubemia*'or1emporaryieoti'' 
nectiona. Columella advefftato somadistjnctioii^betweetith^ 
ergastulum for ordinary laboureers and tbat fbr'i(l*be1laVe^1- 
slave8, which latter waa in foot a prtson,' edien wnder gi>>tiivd;- 
but geoerally apeaking tbe ergaatakiin^be Iat«v tinies^ 
the republic and uiidier the empire appeer to''haVe been^ 
no better tban prisons in whieh' ^naemen were- aemetinie^ 
contined after heing kidnapped Tbe ma» ty(^n worliei^ ■hit' 
chains. The overseers of farma and berdsmen ba^se^rMĕ' 
cabina allotted to them. Slave8 enjoyed' relasatiow froni^ 
toil on certain fe8tiviiie8, auch aa the SatomaHa. * [Satur- 


£very individual master had the power of manumitting' 
hia 8lave, and thia he could effeot in aeYeral forms, by Yin- 
dicta, Census, or by Testamentum. AII slave8 manumitted 
by a Roman citizen (aubject to the conditions above men- 
tioned) became Roman citizena and members of bis gens, 
of which they took the name. They laboured bowever 
under 8everal disabilities. They were enrolled in the lowest* 
of the city tribes ; they were ineligible to tbe eonaulsbip and * 
other high oScea; and they were not generaHy admitte^d^ 
into the best aociety. [Libe&tinus.] '*' 

The number of slave8 poseesaed by tbe wealthy Rottahs 
waa enormoua. Some iudividuala a*e aaid to b«vepOB8eM6^^ 
10,006 alaves. Scaurua posaeased abo^e 4(MN> dommrtiti arid!' 
aa many ruatic ala^ea. In the reign of Auguatua, a frife6f^^ 
man who bad auatained great losaeadating the civil wm MAJ' 
41 1 6 8Uvea, beaidea otber property - - '* '•'^' 

The hm AeUa Sentia, as already mentiened, laid Tariotm^, 
reatriolians on maottmiiaion. Amongotbertbiiigait prc^-'^' 
vented person» under twenty yeara of age from matia!^ 

VoL. xxn.— O 

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mitting a slav6 exeept bf the Yindicta, and with the ap- 
probatron oP theConsilium, wliich at Rome consisted of five 
senators and five Roman equite8 of legal age (puberes), and 
in the prQvinc08 conalated of twenty necuporatores, who were 
Roman citi^ens. (Gaius, i. 26, 38.) Tiie Lex Aelia SeQtia 
also made all manumiMlons void whioh were eATeeted to cheat 
oreditors or defraiid patrons of their rights. The Lex Puria 
Caninia, wbiah was passed about a.d. 7, limited the whole 
number of slayes who could be manumitted by testamentto 
100, and when a man had fewer than 500 s1aves, it de- 
termined by a scale the number that he could manumit. 
Tbis Lex only applied to manumission by testament. (Gaius, 
i. 42, &c.) 

In the earlier ages of the Republic, sla^es were not rery 
numerous, and were chioHy employed in household ofiices or 
as operatives in the towns ; and they were generally treated 
like members of the family, and joined their masters in 
oATering prayers and sacrifice8 to the gods. (Horace, Eniĕt.^ 
ii. h 142.) But arter the eonquesl8 of Rorao spreaa be- 
yond the limits of Italy, the iu(lux of captives was so great, 
and their price fell so low, that they were looked upon as a 
cbeap and easily renewed commodity, and treated as such. 
The eondition of the Roman 6lave, generally speaking, be- 
cnme worse in the later ages of the republic than that of the 
slave at Athens. It is worthy of remark that many of the em- 
perors, even some of the worst of them, interfered on behalf of 
the slave. Augustus established eourts for the trial of 8laves 
who were charged with serious oifences, intending thus to 
supersede arbitrary punishment by the masters, bot the 
lai^ was not made obligatory upon the latter to bring their 
siaves before the courts, and was often evaded. The same 
emperor strongly reprobated Yedius Pollio, a Roman knight, 
for santencing a slave to be thrown aUve into a Ash-pond 
to be dcYoured by lampreys, and he took the 8lave into 
his own household. By a law passed in the time of Clau- 
dius, a master who exposed his siok or infirm Blave8 for- 
foited all right over them in the event of thoir recovery. 
The Lex Petronia, probably passed in the time of Augua- 
tus, or in tbe reign of Nero, prohibited masters A-om com- 
pelling their Blaves to fight with wild beasts, except with 
ihe consent of the judicial authorities, and on a 6uf!i- 
cient case being made out against the slave. Domitian 
forbade the mutilation of slave3. Hadrian suppressed the 
ergastula, or piivate prisons for the confinement of slave8 ; 
he also restrained proprietors from selling their sIaycs to 
keepers of gladiators, or to brothel-keepers, exoept as a pun- 
ishment, in wbich case the sanction of a judge (judex) was 
required. The same emperor banisbed a lady of rank for 
five yeta on aocount of her cruelty to her sla^es. Anko- 
ninus Pius adopted an old law of the Athenians, by which 
the judge who should be satisGed of a slave being cruelly 
treated by his owner, had power to obIi(]re the owner to 
sell hira to some other person. Tbe judge howe<ver was 
]eft entirely to his own discretion in determining what mea- 
sure of harshness on the part of tbe owner should be 
u proper ground for judicial interposition. SeptimiusSe- 
verus forbade the forcible subjection of 8laves to prostitu- 
tion. The Cliristian emperors went further in protecting 
the persons of slaves. Constantine placed the wtlful mur- 
der of a 8lave on a level with that of a Areeman ; and Justi- 
nian confirmed this law, including within its provisions cases 
or s1avejS who died under excessive punishment. 0)nstan> 
tine made alao two laws, bolh nearly in the same words, to 
prevent the rorcible separation of the members of aervile 
laroilies by sale or partition of property. One of tbe laws, 
dated a.d. 334, was retained by Justinian in his eode. The 
Church also powerfuliy interfered for the protection of 
slave3, by threatening excommunication against owners who 
j/Ut to death their s)aves without the eonseut of the judge; 
and by aSbrding asylum wtthin sacred preoincts to 8laves 
frora the angerof unmerciful masters. A law of Theo- 
dosius I. authorized a slave who had taken refuge in a 
chureh to ca)I for the protection of the judge, that he might 
proceed unmolested to his tribunal in order that his case 
might be iove8tigated. Afler Cbristianity became tbe pre- 
dominant religion in the Roman world, it exercised in 
various ways a beneGoial inAuence npon the condition of the 
slave8, without bowever interfering, at least iV>r centuries, 
with the institution of 8lavery itself. Even the laws of the 
Christian emperors aboUshing the master'8 power of Iife and 
dealh over his slave were long evaded. Saivianus (De Gu- 
bernaiione Dei, iv.) informs us that in the provinces of Gaul, 
iu the fifib cenlury, masters still fancied that they had a 

right to put tlieir 8lav«8 to death. Macrobius (Satum^ i., 
1 1) makes orte of his Interlocutort, ihough a heathen, ex- 
patiate with great eloquencc on the cruel and unjust treat- 
ment of 8laves. In Spain, in the early period or the Visi- 
gothio kings, the praciice of putting 8lave8 to death still 
existed, for in the • Poro Judieom' (b. vi., tit. 5) it is said 
that as some cniel masters in the impetuosity of thetr pride 
put to death their skves wirhout reason, it is enacted that a 
publie and regular irial shall take place previous to their 
condemnation. 8everal laws and ecclesiastical canons for- 
bade the sale of Christians as slares to Jews or Saracens 
and other unbeliever8. 

The northern tribes which inraded the Westem empire 
had their own slares, who were chieAy Slavonian captires, 
distinct from the 8laves of the Romans or conquered inhabi- 
tants. In eourse of time however the rarious classes of 
slaves merged into one class, that of the • adscripti glebaj,' 
or sert8 of ihe middle eges, and the institution of Roman 
slavery in its unmitigated fbrm became obliterated. The pre- 
cise period of this change cannot be fixed ; it took place at 
various times in di1Verent countries. Sla^^^s were exported 
from Britain to the Continent in the 9axon period, and tbe 
young Engtish slavcs wbom pope Gregory I. saw in ihe mar- 
ket at Rome were probably brought thither by sldve-dealers. 
Giraldua Cambrensis, Willtam of Malmsbury, and others 
accuse the Anglo*Saxons of seUing their iemale 8ervants 
and even their children to strangers, and especially to the 
Irishi and the practice continued even aftet the Norman 
conauest. In the canons of a eouncil held at London, a.p. 
1102, it is said, *Lei no one firom henceibrth presume tni 
carry on that wicked tratlic by which men in England have 
been hilherto sold like brute animals.' (Wilkin^s Coneilia, 
i., p. 383.) 

But elthough the trafiSc in ala^es ceased among. the 
Christian nations of Burope, it continued to be carried on by 
the Yenetians across the Mediterranean in the ace of the 
Crusades. The Yenetians supplied the markets of the Sa- 
racens with slaves purehased from the 81avonian tribes 
which bordered on tbe Adriatie. Besides, as personal 
slavery and the traffic in slave8 continued in all Moham- 
raedan countries, Chrtstian captives taken by Mussulmans 
were sold in Ihe markets of Asia and Northern Africa, and 
have eontinued to be sold till within our own times, wheti 
Christian slavery has been abolished in Barbary, Egypt, and 
the Ottoman empire, by the interference of the Christiaa 
powers, the emancipalion of Greece, and the con^uest ot 
Algiers by the Prench. 

\Vith Ihe discovery of America, a new description of 
slavery and slave-trade ame. Christian nations purcha.<ied 
heathen negroes for the purpose of employing them in the 
mines and plantations of the New World. It was found by 
experience that the natives of America were too weak and 
too indolent to undergo the hard work which their Spanish 
task-masters exacted of them, and that they died in great 
numbers. Las Casas, a Dominican, advocated with a per- 
severing energy hefore tbe court of Spain the cause of the 
American aborigines, and reprobatea the system of the 
* repartimientos,' by which they were distributed in lots 
like cattle among their new masters. [Casas, Bartholoms 
DK LAs] But it was nccessary for the settlements to be 
made proStable in order to satts^y the conquerors, and it 
was suggested that negroes fi*om Afrioa, a more robust and 
active race than the American Indians, might be substituted 
for them. It was stated than an able-bodied negro could 
do as much work as four Indians. The Portuguese wcre at 
that time possessed of a great part of the coast of Africat 
where they easily obtained by force or barter a considerable 
number of 8laves. The trade in 8laves among the nationg 
of Aii'ica had existed fVom time immemorial. It had bcen 
carried on in antient times: the Garamantes used to suppiy 
the sla^e-dealers of Carthage, Cyrene, and Egypt with black 
8laves which they brought from the interior. The dcmand 
for slaves by the Portugueae in the Atlanttc harbours guve 
the trade a nesh direotion. The petty chiefs of the interior 
made predatory incursions into each other*s tenritories, and 
sold their captLves, and sometimes their own subjects, to thc 
European traders. The first negroes wcre imported by the 
Portuguese from Africa to the Weat Indies in 1503, and in 
1511 Perdinand thedJatholic allowed a larger importation. 
These however were private and partial speculations ; it is 
said that Cardinal Ximenes was opposed to the trade because 
he considered it unjust. Charles V. however, being pressea 
on one side by the demaud for laboui in tbe Aiuerican 

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icillemeaU» aad on the other b/ I^ Casiuiatid others who 
p2e«d»d ihe cauae of the Indian natWes, granted to one af 
bis Pleoiish oourtier» the exclufiive privilege of importing 
4000 blacks to the West ludies. 

Tbe Pleming •oid hia firivilege for 25,000 ducats to aome 
Oenoese meiGbantt, who organised a tegular slave-trade 
betweeik ATrica and America. Aa the European settlements 
ia America inoreased and extended« the demand Tor slave8 
iiio inisreaeed; aod aU European nations who had oolonies 
in America shared in the 6lave-trade. The details of that 
irade, the •uffennga of the slaves in their journey from the 
intecior to the ooasti and aftefwards in their t>aasage aeross 
the Atlantii>— their tittAtment in Amerioa, which varied 
D0t oaly acdording to tha disposition of their individual 
aasters» but also aceording to different oolonies, are mat- 
tscs of notoriety Whieh have been ampW discussed in otery 
eenntry of Kurope during tbe last and present centuries. 
It is geaerally understood that the siave8 of tbe Spaniards, 
«peeially in Continental America« were the best treated of 
ilL But the negro slavee in general wel-e e«aetly in the 
msDB eondition as the Roman slave8 of old« being sale- 
iUe, IransCsrable, pawnabke« atid punishable at the will of 
their owners* AesUrictione however were gradualiy intro- 
ĕaeed hy the law of the respeotiYO states, in order to proteot 
iiie life of the negre 8lave against the caprice or brutality df 
hoM owner. In the British oOlouies, etipecially in the latter 
|iaa Qf ihe last century and the beginning of the present, 
aadi WSMS ^w by tbo leeislature ; courts were established 
te hesur the oomplaints of tna slaresi Hogghlg of ^emales wss 
iarbidden» tbe punishment of males was also limited within 
sertaiB bouods^ aad the condition of the 8lave population 
«as greatly ameliorated. Still the advocates of emanoipa- 
tJea o^eeted to the prinoiple of slavery as being unjust aud 
cai^irislian ; and they alao appealed to experience to show 
ihai a human being cannot ee iafely trusted toleljr to the 
■csey of eoeiher^ 

BiU loDS before they attempted to emancipate the slares, 
ibe effbrta of philauthropists were directed to abolish the 
liare treffi0» which desolated Africa, wholly prevented the 
«itaaee ia eivili2ation, and encouraged the nlaltreatment 
fif tha DMroBS in the colonies, by affording an unlimited 
ssp^y, and making it not the planter*s interest to keep up 
kis atoek in the natural way. The attention of raankind 
eaa6rst effectuaUy awakened to the horron of this trade by 
Tbooias Glarkson* His labours, with the aid of the sealous 
men» chietiy Quaker8, who early Joined him, prepared the 
vay £>r Mr. WiIberforce, who brought the suhjeet before 
psrUament in 1788, and althougb, afler his uotice, the 
metton, owins to his aocidental illness^ was Arst broUght 
brward by Mr. Pitt, Mr^ Wilberforce was throughout the 
graat parliamentary leadet* in tho cause, powerfulI]P iup- 
Mrted in the oountry by Thomas Clarkiion and others, as 
kiehard Phillips, George Ilaf rison, WilUam Allenj all of the 
Seeieiy of Priends, Mr. Stephon, who had been in the West 
Indies as a barrister, and Mr. Z. Macaulay, who had been 
goYemor of Sierra Leone, and had alio resided in Jamaica. 
A biU wras Atst carried (brought in by Sir W. Dolben) to 
i£^a)ate tbe Irade until it colild be abolished, and this in 
•;nae degree diminished the horrors of the middle passage. 
Boi the qttesti«i of abolition was repeatedly defeated, 
antil 1804, t^hen Mr. WiU^erioroe first carried the bill 
ihroBgh the Commons ; it was Ihi^wn out in ihe Lords^ and 
oesi yeer it wss sg8un lost eveti in tlie Commons. Mettn- 
wiiile the capttire of the fore^|n oolonies, espeeially the 
DalGb» dnring the war, friglitfully inereased the amount of 
the trade, by opening these scttlemonta to British capital } 
and at one time th<i ^hole importation of s}ave8 by British 
TCMela anioaBted to nearly 6&,00(f yearly, of \ihieh about a 
tinnl vaa ibr tbe supply Qf oiii old oolonies. At lengtb, itt 
ISg^ an ecder in ceundil prohibited Ihe sla^e-irade in the 
eaiM|uered eelonies^ Next year the admiuistration of Lord 
Grenvilie and Mr. Fox carried a bill througb, prohibiting 
Briiish au9){|eets Irom engaging iu the trdde fof Aupplying 
eiiher foi'eign settlementa or the eonqu0red eolonies. A 
resolution moved by Mr. Foxi the laat time he took any 
part in ^blie debate, was also cacrted in 1806, pledging the 
GMiimonstoa total abolition of the tradeelirly nett session, 
aud thia waSk on Lord 6rettville*s metion, aidopted by the 
Lnrds. Aceordingly next year the Geueral Abolition Bill 
vas brooght iu by LocdHowiok(afkervrards Ee«l Oxey),aud 
bemg passed by both housos, received tbe royal assent on 
tbe 25th of March» 1&Q7. .This aot peehibited slave- 
tradiog irom aad aft6r tbe 1b( Qf Jsnnm-y, 1808; buc «s 

it only sttbjeoted oiSsnders to pecutiiiiry nensHies, it was 
found that something more was reouired to put down a 
traffic the gain8of ^hich were ao great as to coter all losses 
by capture. In 1 8 1 Uie House of Common§, on (he motiun 
of Mr. Brougham, passed unaniraously a resoluticm, pledg- 
ing itself early next session effectual)y to preveht ' such 
daring violation8 of the law ;' and he next ye«r carried a 
bill making Blave-trading fe1ony, punishable with fourteen 
years' transportation, or imprtsonraettt with hard labour. 
In 1824 the laws relating to the Blave-trade were con- 
solidated, and it was further declared to be piracy, and 
piinishable capitally, if eommitted within the Admiralty 
jurisdiction. In 1837 this was changed to transportation for 
lil^, by the acts diminishing tbe number of eapital punish- 
ments. Sinee the Felony Act of 1811, the British colonies 
have entirely ceased to have any concern in tbis traffic. If 
any Brltish subjects have engaged in it, or any B^itish capital 
has been embarked in' it, the oienee ha$ been oommitted in 
tbe foreign trade. 

The inliuence of Great Britain was strenuously exerted 
at the peace in 1814 and 1815, and aAerwards at the con- 
gress of Aix-Ia-Chape1le, to obtaiti the ooncuErence-of forcTgn 
powers in the abolition ; and with success thus fhr, that atl 
of them have passed laws prohibiting the traffic, and all, 
except the United States of North America, have agreeci to 
the exerci8e of tt tnutual right ef search, ihe only effectual 
means of putting it down. As the United States were the 
Arst 10 abolish the fbreign trade by law, hating passed theit 
abolitiou act befor^ ours, and as early as the constttatioti 
eave congress the power to do so, it is the more to be 
lamented tbat they should still refuse a right of search, 
whioh France herself has given. and should thus enable 
slave-traders to use thetr flag to a dreadful extent. The 
Duke of Welliilgton, while anibassador at Paris in 1814, 
used every effort to obtain from tbe restored government a 
prohibition of the traffic ; but the Wesi Indiari interest, 
and oommercial jealousy of Bngland, frastrated alt his 
attempts, and Napoleon, during the hundred days, on his 
return from Elbo, first abolished the trade by law. The 
right of seareh has been most honourably granted by the 
revoIutionary goternmetit of 1830. The History oi the 
Abolition 18 to be found in the work tinder that title, by T. 
Clarkson (edition 1834), and (he state of the Ia\t, Ha well as 
the treatmedt of 8laves prautieally in the colonies. is most 
fully treated of in a work on that subject by Mr. Stephen. 
T. Clarkson^s other works on the nature of the traffic, which 
Srst exposed it to the people of this country, were pub- 
lishediu 1787. 

The 8lave-trade was suppressed, but s!avery continued to 
exi8t in the eolonies. Ih 1934 (he British patliament passed 
an aet by whic.h slatery tiras abolijjhed in all British colonies, 
and twenty millions sterling were votea as compcnsation 
money to the owners. . Tbis act stands prominent in the 
history of our agĕ. No other nalioh has imitated the 
eilamjDle. 81avery exists in the French, Ddtch, Spanish, 
and Portugnese colonies, and in (he southern states of the 
North American Uniori. The new republics of Spanish 
America, generally speaking, emanct][>ated their slaves at 
the time of the revolution. As the s1ave population In 
general does not maintain its numbers by natural incrcase, 
and os plantations in America are exten(led, there is a de- 
madd fora ^resh annual importatioA of s1aves from Africa, 
whiĕh aretaken to Bfazil, C>oba,FoertoRico,Monte Video, 
andj it is said, 6la(ide6tineTy and circuitously, slso to Texas. 
Ih a recent work, • The Afric*n Skve-Trade and fls Re- 
medy,' by Sir T. FowelI Btiiton (who, after Mr. WiTber- 
foreĕ*8 retirement, took a most aclive part i(i parliaraent on 
tli^ 0<ibject of 8lavery), it is calculated, apparently on sutH- 
cient data, that not less than 150,000 negro slave8 are 
annuafliy iihp(/rted fr6m Africa into the above-mcnlioned 
eountfieft. in contravention to the lat^s lihd the treaties 
existing betweĕn Great Brhain and Spain and Portugal, the 
local authoriti^s either winking at the practice or being 
unable to preyent it. But another appallhig facC is, that 
since the Blave-trad^ hae be<en declttred to be illegal, the 
auSerings of the slaves on their passage across the Atlantic 
have been greatly incrOased, owibg to its being necessary fbr 
masters of sla^e-traders to conceal their cargoes bv coopiilg 
up the negroes in a small compasS, and btoiuing f ne Britiih 
cruisers; theyare often thrown overboard in a ehase. Thcre 
is a considerable loss of life incident to the sei«ingof slaves hf 
force in the hunting excursion8 afte* negroes, and in the 
warsbetween the chieftains of th* inlĕrior for the purpose of 

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^A^ki^g. cftptiveB. There it a loss oa their Baareb to the sea- 
coiiist ; tbe losa ux the middie paaisage is reokoned on an 
fij\^age at Q<ie*fburth of the oargo ; and, besides this^ there 
ij| A.further loss,after landiagyin what is oalled the 'neaeon- 
u)g ^ uf tbe slayes. At present the Portuguese and Brazilian 
^ag^are openly used» wiih the oonnivance of the aathorities» 
for carrying on the slave-trade. The Spanish flag is also 
used, tbough less openly, and wilh greater caution, owing 
to the Ureaty between EuglaDd and Spain which fomiaily 
aboliabes tbe slave-trade on the part of Spain. A mixed 
commission court of Spaniardsand Britisb exists at Havana 
to try slavei's ; but pretext9 are never wanting to elude the 
provtsions of the treaty. There seems indeed to be a great 
dlMcuUy in obtaining the sincere co*operation of all the 
Christtan powcrs to put down the slave*trade effectually, al- 
tbougbit is oertain tbat in all bul the Portuguese and Spanish 
settlements tbe traffic has now almost entirely ceased. 

Besides the sUve-trade on the Atlantio, there is another 
periodical exportalion of slaves by caravans from Soudan 
to tbe Barbary statea and Egypt, the annual number of 
which is variously estimated at between twenty and thirty 
tbousand. There is also a trade carried on by the subjects 
of the Imam of Muscat, who export s1aves iu Arab vessels 
from Zanzebar and otber ports of the eastern coast of 
Africa« to Arabia, Persia, India, Java, and other places. In 
a despatcb, dated Zan2ebar, May, 1839, Captain Cogan esti- 
mates the slaves annually sold in that market to be no less 
tban 50,000. The Portuguese alao export 8laves from their 
settlement on the Mozambique coast, to Goa» Diu, and their 
otber Indian possessions. 

3y a law of the Kor&n, wbich however is not always ob- 
served in all Mobammedan countries, no Mussulman is 
allowed to enslave one of bis own faith. The Moslem 
aegi:o kiugdoms of Soudan supply the slave'trade at the 
expense of their pagan subjects or neighbours, whom they 
sell to the Moorish traders^ There is no likelihood that 
Mohammedau powers will ever suppress this trade of their 
owu accord. 

There is also a considerable interoal slave-trade in tbe 
United States of North America. Negroes are purchascd 
in Marylaud and . Yirginia, aud some other of the slave- 
hjoldingstates, andcarried to the more fertile lands of Ala- 
bam3.Xouisiana, aud other aouthern states. 

It is maintained by some that the African slave-trade 
cannot be effectually put down by force, and tbat tbe only 
chanee of its ultimate suppression is by civilizing central 
Atrica» by encouraging agricultural industry and legitimatc 
brancbes of commerce, and at the same time spreading 
educatioA and Christianity ; and also by giving the pro- 
tection .of the British Hag to those negroes who would avail 
themseive8 of it. It is certain that if other oountries wiil 
uot exert thembelves toenforce these laws^ tbe abolition 
must be postponed to* this remote period. The Africans 
sell raen because they have no other means of procuring 
Buropean commodities, and there seems no doubt that one 
r^isttU of tbe slave-trade is to keep central Africa in astate of 
bacbarism. We re&r for evidence of this, and of the na- 
ture of tbe traffic generally, to the numerous authorities 
uuoted in Sir T. Buxton's book, aiid to tbe works of T. 
Clarkson, and Mossrs. Wilberibroe, J. Stephen, Brougham, 
and Macanlay. 

Tbe amount. of tbe slave population now existing in 
America is not easily asoertained. By the census of 1835 
Brazil coutained 2,100,000 slaves. The slaves in Cuba, iu 
1B26, were, aocording to Humboldt, about 260,000. In the 
United States, in 1830, the number of slaves was a little 
more than two millions. For more precise details we refer 
to the separate heads of each state, Carolina, Geo&oia, 

YlROlNlA. &C. 

Societies for the ultimate and uni^ersal abolition of 
slavery exist in England, Franoe, and the United Siates, 
and they publish theirReports; and a oongress was held in 
iDodon, June, 1840, of delegates from many countries to 
confer upon the means of effecting it. The American So- 
ciety has formed a colony called Liberia, near Cape Mesu- 
rado, on the west coast of Africa, where negroes who have 
obtained their freedom in the United States are sent, if they 
ara wdliug to go. The English government has a colony 
for a similar purpose at Sierra Leone, where negroes who 
have been seized on board slavers by English cruizers are 
settled. [SiERRA Leone.1 

SLAYONIA is a province of the Austrian dominions, 
which, thoiigh incorporated with the kingdom of Huugary, 

is Btill styled in oAieial doouments the kinedom of Slavonia. 
It is situated between 44'' 50' and 46° 12^N. lat., and be- 
tween 17'' and 20° 40' £. long. It is bounded on the wett 
hy Croatia, on the uorth and east by Hungary, and on tiie 
south by Turkey. It is separated from Hungary by theDrare 
and the Danube, from Turkey by the Save, and bas tbe IK 
lowa on part of the westem frontier. It consists of two 
parts, theproYince of SIavonia,and the Slavonian partoi iko 
Military /rontier. The area of the whole is 6600 sq. milea, 
and the population is 598,800. Tbe province bas an area cf 
3570 square miles, divided into tbe thcee cattuties of Posega, 
Verbez, and SirmiUm, witb 348,000 inhabiUnts. A chain 
of bigh mountains coming from Croatia tra^erses ihe pro- 
vince. Where this chain enters the proviiice the vaUeys are 
narrow, but they gradually become more open towards the 
middle of the province, and form near Posega a wide plain 
bounded by lofty mountains, which is oalled the Pose^a 
Yalley; but at the eastern fruntier of this counly, the 
branches of the mountains again join in one prineipal ohaio. 
which covers all the northera part of tbe oounty of Sir- 
mlum. This ohain is eovered wilh Tast forests. The liigh- 
est points are 2800 feet above the surfaee of the three 
principal rivers. The remaining part of SlavoBia eonsista 
partly of fertile eminences planied with vines andfruit- 
trees. and partly of beautiful and exteMive plains. But a.s 
many tracts of land on the Save and Dcave are very low, 
they are subject to be ffequeDtly ovecllowed, and tbere are 
8everal large and small pieces of stagnanC waAer, and exteii- 
sive marshes. Many of these are presumed to lllive been 
formed tbrough neglect. and some have already beeii 
drained and cullivated. The oouHtty produces corn of all 
kinds, hemp, flax, tobaoco, and great quantities of liquurice. 
There are whole forests of plum-trees: chesmit, elmond, 
and fig-trees are likewise found, and the white mulberry 
abounds. Slavonia is rich in useful domestic animals. The 
horses are of a small race» and sheep are not numerous. 
Of wild animals, the bear» wo]f, &x, pole-cat, and vulture 
are c4>mmon. Swarms of troublesome iusects are bred in 
the marshes, and a long coutinuance of southerly winda 
sometimes brings locusts Irom Turkey. The only mineraU 
of which there are considerable quantiti&sare sulphur, Hnie- 
stone, coal. salt, and iron. It roay be said that ihere ane 
no manufactures in Slavonia. The peasant makes all bta 
farming iroplements^his cart, his plough, &c., and bis wire 
and daughters weave the cloih and knit the stockings Ktr 
the family. The anonymous author of the ' Geograpbical 
and Sta^tistical Descriplion of.Hungary, Croatia, and Sta- 
vonia,' says that wbeat yields 20-fuId and Kometimes 3U-foId, 
and that oud grain of maize yields 20 UO. In so fertile a 
country agriculture and the breedmg of oattle are tbe moat 
proAtable occupations of the inhabitanls. The euUure of 
silk is llourisbii^. The quaiitity of wine produced is very 
large, especially in ihu county of Siimium, where the viue waa 
planted in tlie third oentury by the soidiers of the emperor 
Probus: about 560,000 eimer (the eimer is 10 galiona) aie 
produced in one year in that cuunty. The wines, both red 
and white, are very fiery, but will not keep long> aixl are 
therefore not fit for exportation. The export trade ia 
confined almost entirely to the natural productioos of the 
soil, sucb as corn, swine, and oxen to Austria ; tobacco to 
Italy, France, and Belgium ; spirits, dlstilled from pluma, 
to Hungary, Turkey, and Germany ; silk to Ofen ; honey, 
wax. liquorice, gall-nuts, and raw hides to Austria and Italy ; 
pipe-staves and wooden hoops are sent to Hungary ; some 
salt and oil are also exported ; and Peterwardein has a con- 
siderable trade in fruit. 

Religion and EduoaHon. — ^The inhabitants are Roroan 
Catholics and Non-united Greeks; the latter are Ihe mest 
numerous, in the proportion of about£vetothree. Till 1827, 
the law excluded Protestants from SIavonia, though it made 
an exception in favour of those who were settled in the cwlbt 
try in 1791. There are now two Hourishing Protestant 
communities in Old and New Panza, consisting of about 
3500 persons; and a few Jews, mostly in Peterwardein, and 
abottt 300 in Semlin. There are about 30 Roman Catholio 
schools in tbe provinoe, and as many in the Military Frontier ; 
and two Roman Catholic gymnasia at Essek and Pos^^ 
The Non-united Greeka have an arcbbishop at Carlowitz, 
where there is a Hourisbing lyceum. There is likewise a 
clerical school at Carlowits» and another at Pakrau. In 
the arcbbisboprio there are above 260 national scbools. 

The earliest known inhaoitants of Slavonia were the 
Soordisci ; it was afterwards inbab^te^ by tbe Pannoaiane, 

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wbo vef e Bubduad b^ AugmUis. The eountry wae Bfter* 
«srds part of Pattnonia Inferior, and was called Pannenit 
8avia« The «nperor Probus, who was a natiTe of Sir^ 
■iuai» did mueb to improve the cultivation of the country, 
and dauted tba flnt vine8 to be planted in the year 270. 
Siibsenaeiitly, se^aral portions of Slavonia irere detached 
(nm the Byiantine empire ; but Sirmium oontinued to bo- 
kmg to it, evett wben the whole oountt> was a proy to the 
Avan. When the Avari were overpower jd, in 796, by Pepin, 
the fiitfaer of Charleraagne, the greater part of Pannonia Savia 
was a deserti and Charlemagne aflerwards allowed a 6lavo- 
nian tribe living in Dalmatia to settle in it. The ftrst settlers 
weie soon Ibllowed by others» and the Slavi (or Slavonian8) 
soon beeame a nnmerous people» who in the time of tbe 
cmperor Loots the Pions had their own prince, named 
Lindewit, subjeet ' however €o the Pranks. In 827 the 
Buigdi-ianB invaded tlie oountry, but were repuUed by Ihe 
Pranks. The 8lavonian9 had indeed beeu partially converted 
to Christiawlty on tbeir fii%t settling, but as they feU into 
gnbs ignoranoe for want of instruction, two brothers, Cyrillus 
aad Metbodius, wentin 664 to visit the Slavonian tribes in 
the weet; and to inatruot tbem. In the tenth centnry, the 
llagyars« lMvtng oonqvered all Pannonia, afterwards sub- 
duedStsiv«oniaako; SirmiumfaoweverBtill remained subject 
to ihe Bytf«nt»tte empire, but by ddgreos became inde- 
peDdeiit, and had iu own prlnoes. In 1019 it waa again, 
for asis^ert- tSme» srobjeot to Byaantium, and eontinued for 
many ywors tlie theatre of war between the Bysantines 
and the Hunjgarians; ihe latter nltimately got possession 
of it, till- it^ was itnalW oeded to the Hungarians in 1 165. In 
1471 tbe Turks invaaed Slavonia forthe ilrst time. In 1624 
the whple oountry was oonquered by the Turks, to whom 
the countles of Yalpo, Posega, YerSes, and Sirmium were 
eeded in 1562, and erected by them into a distinct pashalik. 
It was reeoi^red by the emperor Leopold I., and after 
Iianii^ been Ibr a long time the theatre of war, was ceded 
to Aoetria by Ihe treaty of Carlowits in 1699. The country 
hBTiDg beeome almost a desert White under the Turks, 
Bumbers of Illyrians were settled in it. In 1690 and the 
fi>nowiii^ yeart the oountry was plaoed under a military 
admtnistracion ; the inhabilants were exempted Arom taxes, 
DBt were bound to arm themselYes, and be always ready for 
the defenee of tbe oountiy. This military administration 
wis abolished in 1 745, but in later times it has been again 
mCrodoeed under a better form, which is chleAy conAned 
tothe traec along the Turkish frontier. 

TheSIavonianMilitaTy Prontier (including what is called 
tke distrtot of the Czaikist Battalion, between the Danube 
snd the Theia) has an area of 3030 square miles aud 
2S0,0OO inhabitants, and is divided into the three regimen- 
tal dietrieta of Peterwardein, Brod, and Gradiska, and the 
Gaikiet dBtrlot [Essek ; Milivary Prontibr ; Pbtsr- 
wiunsiN; SBiii.iN.} ' 

«kĕierreichischĕ National Encyclopĕdie ; StaiiaHschr 
Omigraphmhe BetchreibtMg des Kbnigreiche Ungam, Cro- 
aHen^ und Slcteortien; Stein ; Hassel; Horschelmann.) 

SLAyOt<IIANS. The Slavonian or Slavio race, which 
oow estends from the Elbe to the Pacittc, and from the 
Doithem ooean to the frontiers of China, Persia, and the 
Mediterranean, comprehends about 70,000,000 inhabitants, 
drrided into 6everal nations, who speak variou8 cognate dia- 
leets, and live within the dominions of Russia, Austria, 
Torkey, Pruseia, and Saxony. The name • Slavonian' is 
dedneed from the word slava, 'glory,' or 8lovo, * word.* The 
sdvoGatee of the flnft etymology support it by referring to 
tbe usual termination of Slavonian names in 9lav^ such as 
Stamtt&v, ^«staWisher of gloiy ;' yiadielae, ' ruler of glory ;• 
aod Var&eld'V, * furions for giory.* Others maintain ihat 
tfaename-of Slavoni«ns, which is often written Slovenie 
instettd o(Sluvenie, is derived from sUwo, ' word,' and that 
the 6iavetiianB being unable to nnderstand the langoage of 
the nations with wbom they came into contact, called them 
N9emetz, Aatis, •mute,' an appellation whicL is given to 
tbe Germans in all the Slavonian dialeets, whilst they 
called themaelves Slovenie, that is, 'men endowed with the 
gi/t of the word.* The Bysantine writers changed the ap* 
pc^tion of Slavonian9 into Sclaben or Sclav (SK\ai9>yvol, 
Procopiasy; and henoe the appellation of Sclavonians, 
sdopted by the western anthors. 

Aocordhig to Jornandes, lhefirst writer who mentions the 
Slavonians, they were formerly ealled Yenedi ; and Pliny 
(ir. 13) enys that they lived abont the banks of the Yistuk. 
PtQ|0«0y plices tbem on tbe eastern shore of the Baltic, which 

he calls tho YaDedian 0«l£ Thte is thĕ oldest alKount Ihat 
we have about the conntry mhabited by tbe Slavonians ; bnt 
wbence and when tbey came to these parts is unknown. Jor» 
nandes gives the following account of them :— « Dacia is se» 
oured by Alps (i.*. Carpathian), on whose left side. which from 
the souroe of tlie Yistula runs to the north through an im- 
mense eartent, the nation of the Winidi have their settle- 
ments. Although their names vary hi vaTious tribes and 
places, they call themseltes Slayonians and Ant».' Jor- 
nandes also says that this nation was conquered, a.d. S76, by 
Hermanarik, king of the Goths ; and he says in another 
place, * These, as we have said, procoed fiom the same 
blood, and have three names, Yenedi, Anlcs, and Sla* 
vonians, who for our sins are now raraging^ everywhere' 
(i,e. in the Roman empire). 

Tbe evidence of Jornandes proves that the Yenedi, 
AntiB, and Solavint or 81avonians were the same race, al- 
though they may have formed separate tribes or nations, aa 
the Bohemians, Poles, and Russians ofour days; and we 
may add that the Slayonians of Lusatia and Saxony are 
even now catled Yendes by the Germans. 

The Slavonians appeared on the borders of the empire 
about AJ>. 527, and having invaded the Greek pro^inces 
committed terrible ravages. Tbe Imperial legions were de- 
ibated by tbem, and the wall ereoted by the cmperor 
Anastasius to arrest the 8avage tribes of the north was 
ft>rced by tbe Slavonians, who devastated ali the country 
from the lonian Sea to the waUs of Constantinople. They 
besieged the capital itself, and nobody dared to encounter 
them. Belisarius at last succeeded, more by presents than 
force, in removing this dangerous enemy from Constan- 
tinople. After that time they settled on the banks of the 
Danube, alternately ravaging the proTtnees of the empire 
or serving in its armies. The Slavonians were conquered 
in the sixth century by the Avari. with the exceptton of 
those who were settled on the Danube, and who» in the year 
581, invaded the empii^. The emperor Tiberius, who waa 
occupied at that time with the Persian war, was unabte to 
repel the Slavonian8, and he indueed the Khan of the Avari 
to attack thero. The power of the Slavonians was destroyed, 
and they were obliged to submit to the Khan. After that 
time they served in the wars of their new master. and the 
Greeks experienced their desperate valour when the Avari 
besieged Constantinople in 629, on which occasion tbe 
SIavonians nearly oarried the town. 

The Slavonians who inhabited the vicinity of the Baltio 
remained free, while their brethren of the sonth were under 
the yoke of the Avari. This yoke was at last broken by the 
Slavonians of Boheroia, who rose against their oppressors, 
and defeated them under the command of a ohief^ain called 
Samo, who was chosen king by his gratefnl conntrymen. 
The emancipation of the Slavoniaqs from the dominion 
of the Avari was followed by an extension of their posses^' 
sions. In the seventh century, having conchided an alH* 
ance with the emperors of Constantinople, they entered 
Illyria, andaiter having espelled the Avari, they fbunded 
new colonies under the name of SIavonia, Croatia, Servia,' 
Bosnia, and Dalmatia. The Greek emperors Aivoured thetr 
settling in the Imperial provinces. In the 6eventh century 
there were Slavonian settlements on the Tiver Strymon in 
Thrace, in the vicinity of Thessalonica, and in Moeeia, or 
the modern Bulgaria. Many of them settled in ihe Pek)- 
ponnesus, and a considerable number passed into Asia and 
settledin Bithynia and other provinces* 

From this time the Slavonisns are no longer biatorioally 
known under that general appellation.^but they continued to 
take a prominent part in political albirs under the various 
denominations by which tbe natious belonging to that 
race are distinguished, as Poles, Russians, Bohemians, &c. 

The customs, relig'ion, and language of the S1avonian 
race are still characterised by a family likeness, whioh ia 
preserved in the numerous nationswhich have sprung from 
the same stock, notwithstanding the modiAcations pr^uoed 
in the respective nations by local circumstances and bis- 
torical events. 

Proeopius (De Bello Goth., iii.) gives the ^ollowing 
acoount of the Slavonians : ' The nations of the Slavoniana 
and AntsD do not obey a single master, but live under a d»- 
mucratical govemment ; therefore the gains and losses are 
common amongst them, and all other things go in the same 

* At th« tane tiine Cluiitluiity taegan lo tipreiid uiiOBg tb^m. Tbe »iilh 
Di 680) «ni • - ..^ 

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way. Tbey acknowledge as god and as the lord of all their 
nation the maker of the ihunder, to whom they ofFer oxen 
and other sacrifice9 of every kind. They do not acknow- 
ledge falet and do not even admit its iniluence on mortal 
men ; and wben they apprehend, in sickness or trouble, a 
speedy death, they tow to God some bluody sacrifice for their 
heallh or safety ; and believe, when they come out of danger, 
that they did so in consequence of their vow, They worship 
also river-nymphs and some other diyinities, to whom they 
oATer sacriAces, making at the same time divinations. They 
live in miserable huts. standing isolated, and they change 
their settlements. In a battle many of them fight on foot, 
armed only with a small target and a lance. They do not 
wear any armour, and they have not even a shirt or a cloak ; 
hut they encounter the enemy only in brseches covering 
the secret parts. They all speak the same very barbarous 
language, and do not differ much in their exterior. Their 
complexioa is not very white, and their hair is neither fair 
nor black^ hut dark. TbeY lead, like the Massagetse, a 
rude and wandering Iife, and they are always dirty. Their 
mind is neither malicious nor fraudulent, and they preserve, 
with the simplicity, the manners of the Huns in many things. 
FormerIy the Slavonians and Antse had the same name ; 
both were called Spori, probably because they Iive in a scat- 
tered manner (sporaden) in isolated huts, and they occupy 
for that reasou a large extent of country. They possesi 
the greatest part of the farther banks of the Danube. Ac- 
cording to some they feed their Aocks wandering about.* 

This description shows that the Slavonians then lived in 
a state of barbarism. They were inured to every kind of 
latigue and privation, and accustomed to all the expedients 
of a savage warfare. These (jualities made them furmidable 
eneraies and invaluable allies to the Greeks. They were 
rapacious, like all savage tribes, but the cruelty with which 
they were taxed roay be partly ascribed to the proYocation 
of tbe Greeks, who frequently treated their vanquished ene- 
mies with great barbarity. But the Slavonian8 exhibited, 
notwithstanding tbeir state of barbarism, yirtues of the 
noblest kind, and a mildness of character unparalleled even 
among the civilised nations of that time. According to 
the emperor Mauritius, they treated their prisoners with 
great huraanity, and instead of keeping them in 8ervitude 
nke other nations, tbey always fixed a limit to it, and gave 
them the choice of paying a ransom and returning to their 
country, or lemaining with them as freemen and ^riends. 
A stranger was welcome among them, and hospitably en- 
tertained. The houseowner was answerable to all his nation 
for the safety of the stranger whom he had received ; and 
he who had not preserv»d his guest from injury drew upon 
himself tbe vengeance of his neighbours. 

The matrimonial fidelity of the Slavonian wives and hus« 
bands is ex(olled by foreign authors. The wives were 
con)pleteslaves,as is g&nerally the case amougst uneivilised 
natioos: the widow was burnt on tbe same pile with her 
deceased husband, as it was dis^raceful to survive hira. It 
is also said that a Slavonian father might destroy a female 
child, when he was already overchargea with a large family, 
but he might nut put a male child to death; and that tbe 
children might put their parents to death, wbeu from oid 
age aud inArmity they were a burihen to them. Their chief 
occupation was agriculture. They seem to have possessed 
some knowledge of ihe arts, and they were exceediugly fond 
of mujiic. The most antient musical instrument of the Sla- 
Yonians isa kind of lyre called guala, which is still preserved 
among some nations of their race. 

Although the Slavonians who appeared on the borders of 
the Greek erapire were rude and uncivilLsed, those who lived 
on the souihern shores of the Baltic had towns and enjoyed 
the advantages of a considerable commerce. Their chief 
cities were Arcona, on the island of Riigen, which con- 
tained the most celebrated faneof their worsbip, and Vineta, 
at the raouth of the river Oder. Adam of Bremen, who 
wioie in 1067, and Hclmold, state that all the SlavonianR 
wert» idolateri», but ihat no naiion was more hospitable and 
hone-t ihan ihey ; that the originnl forni of government was 
democratical. that ihe fathers of farailie8 had great anlhority 
over their wives and children, and that they met togethcr 
occasionally to consult on the afrairs of their community. 
Wilh ihe projjjress of time, and probably also from the neces- 
silies crealed by their coraing into contact with more civilised 
nations, the Slayoniaus introduced permaneut authorities 
and chiefs. Aristocraciea were formed, either by militaiy 
leadetB, or by the more wealthy and S;unning persons, who 

gucceeded in estahlishing an hereditary inAuence. Many 
Slayonian communities came under the rule of hereditary 
cbieis or 8overeigns ; others elected their chiefs for life ; 
whilst many retained their primitive detnocratic form, some- 
what modjned by circumstances. ¥he Slavonian chief8 
were called Kral or Krol, which signifies king. Kniaz or 
Knez, is now employed for prince ; Boyar, a warrior, fi"om 
Boy, fight ; Lekh, or noble ; Voyevoda, x,e, l.eader of war, 
perbaps a more modern translation from the Saxon heretog. 
or German herzog ; Pan, in Polish, lord ; 2upan, the chiei 
of a district, Zupa. All these dignities, whcther hereditary 
or elective, by no means implied absolute authority, and the 
persons holding them were always subject to the popular 
will, which decided on public aSairs in the assemblies^ which 
were held in the open air, and called Viecha or Vieche, pro- 
bably from the SIavonian word vieshchat, * to proclaim.* 

The religibn of the antient Slavonian8 seems to bave been 
diflferent from that of the Teutonic nations. The latest ac- 
count of the Slavonian idols and pagan rites is given by the 
German missionaries, who had an opportunity of observing 
the Slavonians of the ^altic coast, or at least derived in- 
formation on that subject from eye-witnesses, as well as by 
some Scandinavian authors. 

According to the above-mehtioned antliors, the Slaro- 
nians of the Baltic.acknowlectged two principles» one of 
good, and the other of evil. They called ihe former Biel 
Bog, or the ' wbite god,' from whom all that was good ^ro- 
ceeded; and the second Cherni Bog, or 'black god,^whowas 
the cause of all evil. l^his latter was represented in, the 
form of a liou. The most celebrated Slavonian idol, whose * 
temple was at Arcona, was Sviatovid, that is, ' holy sight.' He 
was held in great veneration by the SlavonianSj and even 
the kings of Denmark, who tneh professed Christianity, 
frequently sent him oSerings. This idol represented a mah 
larger than life, dressed in a short garment made of many- 
coloured wood. He had two chests and four hcads. He 
stood with his feet on the ground, held in one hand a bow, 
and in the other a horn, which was Alled once every yaar 
on a solemn occaaion with mead. Near the idol ji*ere 
placed, as belonging to hira, a bridle and saddle, and a 
sword richly ornaniented with sihei*. His festival was cele- 
brated on a certain day after harvest, when the priest brougbt 
out to the assembled multitude the horn wbich the iaol 
held in liis hand, and from the decrease of the liquid 
poured into it the year before the result of tbe next barvest 
was prognosticated. The mead of the last vear was poured 
at the idor& fect, and his horn was replenished, with appro- 
priate ceremonies and prayers. The remaindei" of Ihe day 
was spent in feasting' abstemiousness on that day was 
considered sinful, and the greatest excess in drinking and 
eating was accounted an act of devotion. 

The SIavonians paid a tax to the temple of ihĕ idol, and 
gave him the third part of their bpoty. There were also 
threehundred horsemen belonging to tbfe idol, who deposited 
in his temple all the spoils that they made. Tliese dif- 
ferent donalions were employed to ornament the teniple, 
or deposited in the treasury, which contained a great num- 
ber of chests filled witb coin, rich stuR^s, and other prectous 
things. There was a white horse consecrated to the sanie idol, 
which was led and mounled only by the priest The Sla- 
Tonians believed thal Sviatovid occasionally rode upon ihU 
horse, in order to combat the enemies of their foiith ; and its 
moving with the right or left foot over lances placed on tlus 
ground, decided the most important undertakings. The 
temple of Sviatovid was destroyed in the twelflh century hy 
Waldemar, king of l>enmark. Some GermaU chroniclt?rs 
believe that Sviatovid was the same as St. Vitu8, whora the 
Slavonians had adopted afler having heard of h» gredc 
miracles; but this is evidently an error fbunde^ on the si- 
milarity of uames.* 

There were also several other divinitfe« worshlpped hy thc 
Slavonian idolaiers, such as Porenut, whose idol had faii"r 
faces, and a fifth on his breast, suppo?ed to have becrr tTie 
god of seasons, from the word pcnray * season ;* Poretit, 
repre«ented with flve hands ; Rughevit, supposed to b* the 
god of war, whose idol had seven faces, seven swords sus- 
pended at his sidc, and an eighth in his hand. AU tlics» 
three were in the island of Rngen, the last asylirm of SlA- 
vonian idolatry. 

This account of the Slavon!an dcities !is fbnnded, as a1^<fy 
observed, on the report of writers who had dihersecn Hie 

• Th* Bint d«Uik<l «Mouul oT &vHtov|d uMl \aM «# rihi^ it #«ia^ 

Digitized by 


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idols or derived tbetr inforniation froni hearsay. Tlio only 
genuine monuments of Slavonian idolatry wluch lmve 
reached our timos are the idols dug up about the end of the 
seventeenth century in the village of PriUwitj, on the banks 
of ihe lake Tolleni, in the terrilory of Mecklenburg. This 
Tillage is supposed to occupy the site of the SIavonian town 
of Retra, which was destroyed by the Saxons in the raiddle of 
tbe twelhh century, and was celebrated in its time for its 
temples and idoU. These archsaological treasures remained 
unknown to the leamed world till 1771» when Mr. Masch, 
cbaplain of the duke of Mecklenburg, published a descrip- 
tion of them with engraving8. These antiquitie8 were found 
in two metal ^essels, supnosed to have 8erved for 8acrifices, 
and which were so placed that one formed a cover to the 
other : they had engraved on them several inscriptions, 
but unfQrtunately they were both mclted for the casting of 
a hell l>efore they were examined by any person competent 
to judge of the inscriptions. The contents of these vessels 
were not only idols, but also seveval objecta employed in 
the perfQrmance of sacriSces. They are all of brass, with 
more or less admixture of silver. The greatest part of 
them have inscriptions in Runic characten: one of them 
howe^er, exhibiting the attributes of autumn.has theGreek 
inscription onOPA. The jBrreater part of these idols have 
SlavoDian names, such as Radegast, Cherni Bog, Zibag, &c. 
(Bo^ in S1avonian signiQes God) ; several of them however 
hav0 litbuanian names, and must belong to the Lithuanian 
and Prussian idolaters, who probably sought refuee among 
the Slavouians from their common enemies the Christians. 
Both S!avonian and Lithuanian idols correspond to the de- 
seriptions ^iven of them by the old chroniciers. The Sla- 
vonian divmities usually have more than one head : many 
of them ba^c on some part of their body either a human 
ikee,signifying the good principle, or a lion a head, denoting 
the evil prmciple. Many have also the Agure of a beetle on 
them, which might denote an Egyptian origin. They are 
in jeneral only a few inches long. 

The chief SIavonian divinitie3 represented by these idols 
ire Radescast, having the head of a lion, surmounted by a 
bird; Y^oda, represented as a warrior» perhaps the Scandi- 
namn Odin, &c. 

These monuments of SIavonian idolatry present a wide 
lleld for investigation, and they prove ihat the nation with 
whose religious worship they are connected was not a 
Uranger to the arts. It is ditHcuIt to ascertain whethcr the 
(livinities of Lithuanian and Scandinavian origin, which were 
farei^ to the SIavonians» were adopted by them, or only 
ibund an asylum with their worshippers when expelled from 
their countries by the progress of Christianity. 

Tbe eastern Slavonians worshipped Perun, or the god of 
thunder : VoIos, Ihe god of the tlocks ; Koleda, the god of fes- 
tirals, whose featival was celebrated on the 24th of December, 
and it is remarkable that the common people in many parts of 
Bsbnd and Russia on that account even now call Christ- 
mas. Koleda; Kupala« the god of the fruits of the earth, re- 
ceived sacrifices on the 23rd of June, and in many parts 
of Russia and Poland, St. John, whose festival falU on the 
same day, is called John Kupala. Dittmar, a German 
irriter, pretends that the pagan SlaYonians did not believe 
inthe immortality of the soul; but this statement is suf- 
ScieDtly refuted by 8everal customs and ceremoniea which 
they ohsorved for the repose of the dead. 

la the ninth eentury the Slavonians oeoupkid a large 
part Qf Eastei*n Europe. They extended from the Rlack 
Sea aloDg the Danube and to the westward of that river on 
tha ahore of the Adriatic, occupying the antient Roman 
plOYinoea of Pannonia, Dacia, Illyricum, and Dalmatia. 
The 8Iavofiiau •ettlementa reached from the northern 
part of the Adriatio hordering on the Tyrol and Bavaria to 
tbe iiy^r p^vt of tUe Elbe^ and they occupied the country 
b^twetu ihj^l^ river aod the Saal, as well as a^l the right 
baok 4|f tb^lbe. extending Qver the southern ahore of the 
BaUic Irom Jutland to the moutha of the Yistula. From 
tbA Yist^la (with the exceptioa of the coast of the Baltic 
iob^bUo^ ^y anpther race) the SlaYonians spread over all 
the country between that river and the Danube. Thus 
they pomeMed tbe countries which now constitute tbe 
greater part of tho Austrian dominions, Hungary, the pro- 
viQ0ea bordering on Italy and the Tyrol, Bohcmia and 
HQr^v%a great part ot Saxony, the March of Brandenburg, 
SUeHiBjPomerania, and the island of Riigen, to which must 
WedMI ibe tenritory which oonstituud antienl Puland, and 
a great part of tbe present Rusaiaa empire. 

The Slavonian populalion of Pomernnia, Macklenbur» 
ihe island of Riiicen, tlie March of nrandenburir, and of 
Saxony. on the left bank of the Elbe, was either exterml- 
nated or so completely GeiTnanised, that the languege of 
iheir counlry is oompletely superseded hy the German ; but 
there are traces of this langua^e being used in official doou- 
ments m the country about Leipzig as late aa the beginninn 
of the fourteenlh century. The names of many towns and 
village8 situated in thoae parts of Germeny are evidently of 
Slavonian origin. 

The foIlowing are the Slavonian nations now iu ex- 
istence : — 

1. The Bohemians and Moravian8, who inhahit Bohemia 
and Moravia, and are soattered in some parta of Huneary 
and Silesia. ^ 

2. The Poles, wbo inbabit the territory of antient Poland, 
Silesia, and Prussia. 

3. The Muscovite8 or Great Russians, wbo have a con- 
siderable admixture of Pinnish blood, and have become 
somewhat orientalised by the dominion of the Tartara in 
Russia. They inhabit the north-eastern proYinces of 
Russia in Europe. 

4. The Russians, who are auite distinct fron the Great 
Russians or Muscovites, are divided into Little Russians, 
who inhabit the antient Polisb provinces of the Ukraine. 
Podulia, and Yolhynia, now incorporated with RuRsia, a part 
of the kingdomof Poland, Gallicia or Austrian Poland, and 
8ome porU of Northern Hungary ; and While RussianB, 
who innabit a part of Lithuania, and chieAy the province8 
of Mohilof and Witepak, which were acquired by RusKia at 
the Arst dismemberment of Poland, in 1772, as well as a 
part of the Kovernment uf Smolensk. 

5. The Slo^acks, who inhabit the north of Hungary. 

6. The Croats, who inbabit the south^west of Hungary. 

7. The Illyriana, who inhabit tho Austrian proyincee of 
Carinthia, Camiola, and Dalmatia. 

8. The Servians, who inhahit Senria,' to whom may be 
added the Montenegrins. 

9. The Bulgarians and Bosnians in Turkey, of whom a 
part have embraced Mohammedaniim, while othera profe88 
the Christian religion according to the Eaatern churcn. 

10. The Syrbes or Wends, who inhabit Lusatia, and 
whose settlementa are about 25 milea from Dresden. 

Slaponian Tongue.^lt bas been obseryed that Procopiua, 
who described the Slavonian8 in the flfth century, says that 
they and the Ant» used the same langut^e, and a simihir 
opinion ia expressed about the Slavonian8 of the eightb 
century. hy Eginhard, the historian of Charlemagne. It is 
however impoaaible to admit the perfect universality of the 
same language among a race composed of so many tribes, 
and occupying 8uch a vast extent of country. Tbe evidence 
of the writers above mentioned, who bave not transmitted 
to us any monument of the SIavonian language, and pro- 
bably did not understand it, cannot be admitted as conclu« 
sive, except to prove that all the Slayonians, who were di- 
vided into variou8 tribes or nations, oould easily understand 
each other. The truth of this fact cannot be doubted ; for not- 
withstanding the lapae of ages, during which many Slavonian 
nations have remained completely iaolated from 8everal of 
their kindred popuUtions, and have lived in constant inter- 
course with nations of an entirely foreign race, their re- 
8pective dialects pre8erve a strong similarity. so that a 
8lavonian inhabiting the shorea of the Froxen Sea may fre- 
quently understand the language of tbose who live on the 
coasts of the Adriatic. Thia fact ia moreover corroborated 
by the circumstance that the monuments of the different 
Slayonian languagea, though written 8everal centuries ago, 
exhibit a mucb greater similarity among themselve8 than 
is the case with those languages in our time. We may there- 
fQre conclude that at some unrecorded period all the Siavo- 
nian race had the same tongue, which began to aplit into dif- 
feientdialect8 at the same timewhen the race, inereastng in 
numbers, began to divide into variou8 tribes; and tbat the 
di^erences among those dialects grew iu tbe same proportion 
as tbe surrounding tribes who spoke them became raore 
estranged from each other by pbysical, political, and religi- 
ous causes. The Slavonian tongue is generally eonsidered 
to havo an Indian origin, and this supposition is Toundad on 
the great number oC Sanscrit roots which it contains, as wcll 
as ou some traces of a similar origin exhibited in thc religion 
of the antient Slavoniaus, of which \\^ most striking circum- 
stances are the burning of Widows on tho funeral pile of 

Digitized b'^ 


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tlieir deceased husbands, the idol of Sviatovid, represented 
with four head«, and other resomblances of a like kind. The 
rooat antient written SIavonian language is that into which 
Gyrillus and Meihodius translated the Scriptures in the 
ninth eentury, and which must have been the dialect of the 
S)avonians who inhabited the banks of the Danube, for 
whom this translation was raade from the Septuagint, and 
fof which an alphabet, formed on the model of the Greek 
one, was introduced by the translators. 

Although the above-mentioned alphabet was adopted for 
the translation of the Scriptures, it is impossible to admit 
that the Slayonians were, previouBly to tbeir eonversion to 
Christianity, totally unacquainted with the use of letters, and 
indeed the Bohemian chronicles speak of legislative tables 
(deski pravodatne) in the seventh century. (Palalzky, 
Gesehiahte von Bbhmen, yoI. i., p. 182.) The antientSla- 
Yonian name for a wizard {czatnoknijnik), signifying one 
occupied wiih black books, leads to the supposition that tbe 
antient Slavonian conjurors made use of certain writings 
in performing their incantations. Martinus Gallus Rpeaks 
of Polish chronicies previous to the introduction of Christi- 
anity, which were destroyed by Christian missionaries. 
Dithmar of Merseburg, who wrote in the eleventh century, 
p08itively states that the Slaronian idols had inscriptions on 
them, a statement fully conArmed by the discovery of*the 
monuments of the antient Slayonian worship found at 
Prillwitz. It is true that the above-mentioned insoriptions 
were Runes borrowed fi*om the Scandinavians, and one of 
them was Greek, which may lead to the conclusion that the 
81avonians employed ibreign characters, but they tend to 
show that they were not strangers to the art of writing. 

The conversion of the south-eastern Slavonians by Greek 
missionaries was a circumstance highly favourable to their 
national language, as the Eastern church left to the newly 
converted nations the use of the vemacular tongue in the 
performance of dtvine service, instead of introducing the 
lAtin, as was the case with the Western church. The 
conyersion of the majority of the SIavonians was efifected 
principalW by the exertions of Cyrillus and Methodius. As 
eariy as the aeventh eentury a great number of Slavonians 
has been converted to Christianity, and were followers 
of the Bastern church.- This seems to have been par- 
ticularly the case with those who had settled within the 
conSnes of the Greek empire, whilst those who lived beyond 
its burders remaiiied eilher in a complete state of idolatry 
or exhibited only some individual conversions. Araong 
the Slavonian states of that time, the most important was 
that of Grand Moravia, which must howcver not be con- 
founded wiih the province that now bears this name : it 
extended over part of Hungary and some adjacent countries, 
and it was converted, though it appears rather norainally 
than realty. about the be^inning of the ninth century, by 
the missionaries of the West; for ihe Papal records prove 
that Moravia about 820-830 was under the spiritual au- 
thority of the archbishop of Passau. Nestor, a raonk of 
Kief, one of the oldest S1avonian chroniclers, says that 
the princes of Moravia sent, about 863, a raessage to the 
Gi*eek emperor Michael. stating that their country was bap- 
tised, but that they' had no teachers to instruct the people 
and to translate for thera the sacred books, and accordingly 
they requested him to send thera men capable of performing 
such a task. The emperor complied with their request, 
and sent them the two brothers named Cyrillus and Metho- 
dius, natives of Thessalonica, who were distinguished by their 
learning as well as piety, and possessed a thorough know- 
ledge of the Slavonian tongue. 

The missionaries, having arrived in Moravia, translated 
the Scriptures, or at least a part of them, into the Slavonian 
tongue of the country ; they also invented the letters. which, 
being called the Cyrillic alphabet, are still used, with some 
few variations, by the Slavonians who fo1low the tenets of 
the Eastem churoh, who also employ in the performance of 
divine servioe the same Slavonian idiom into which the 
Scriptures were translated, and which is now become the 
saered Congue of those nations. Cyrillus and Methodius, 
having completed the translation, established the worship in 
the vernaoular language, founded schools, and organised 
everything neoessary for the promotion of the Christian 
religion. Tbey extended their labours beyond the frontiers 
of Moravia, and converted Bohemia, a.d. 873. It is even 
sttpposed that they visited Poland, and there can scarcely 
"bĕ a dottbt that their disciples were active in that country. 

Th« apostoUcBl labours of Cyrillus and Methodius took 

place during the time of those disputes betwecn the patri- 
arch of Constantinople and the pope of Rome whicb led to 
the final separation of the Eastern from the Western cburch. 
Among many causes of dispute, the dominion over the 
newly converted S1avonian nations forraed an iraportant 
subject of contention between Rome and Constantinople. 
Cyrillus and Methodius, although they introduced aroong 
their new converts the rites of the Bastern church, and tbe 
worship in the vernacular tongue, acknowledged the supre- 
macy of ihe pope, and not that of the Greek patriarch, as is 
evident from the approbation of their proceedin|?s, which 
they sought and obtained fVom pope John YIIL, beforo 
whom they were accused of denating f^om the line of con- 
doct followed by Roman missionaries in tbe conversion of 
pagan nations. 

The confirmation granted by pope John Vin. to thc na- 
tional raode of worship introduced by Cyrillus and Metho- 
dius, was rather a concession extorted by ctrcurastancea, and 
particularly by apprehension 'lest the missionaries, in case of 
refusa1, shouM transfer their obedience from Rorae to Con- 
stantinople, than a real approbation of the use of ibe verna- 
cular language in the divine service, a principle cbnsidered 
by the Weslern church as prejudicial to its poiity, tbe object 
of which is not only unity of dogma, but also nnifoi-raity uf 
ritual; and indeed although sorae snccessors of John YIIL 
assented to the Siaronian raode of worsbip, they constantly 
endeavoured to abolish it, or at least to lirait its use. This 
tendency became rauch stronger when Ihe fin^l separation 
between the Eastern andthe Western churches removed 
the reasons which the latter had forconciliatin^the natioiis 
that were wavering between the two churches. Rome 
declared an unrelenting hostility against every ritual which 
deviated frora that which it hacl est&blishĕd, and the couh- 
cil of Salona, held in 1060, proclairaed Cyrillus a heretic, 
and liis alphabet a diabolical inTention. The kingdom <3f 
Grand Moi*avia was destroyed by the pagan Hungarians 
about tbe middle of the tenlh century, and the S1avoniat2 
population either ffed to other countries inhabited by theic 
own race, or leraained under the yoke of their conquerors; 
who, having embraced Christianity from the Westem 
church, promoted the papal views as to the Slavonian wor- 
ship. In Bohemia the same worship struggled for som^ 
time against the Roman ritual, till its last strungbold, the 
convent of Sazava, was abolisbed in 1094, and the Sla- 
vonian books were destroyed by the zealous pronioiers of 
the Roman ritual. In Poland, where Christianity was esta- 
blished in 966 bv Bohemian priests, when the naiiorat 
mode of worship was still prevailing in that couriti-y, and 
where Christianity had partly penetrated, even betbre its 
final triumph, f^om Moravia and Grcece, the same mode of 
worship strugeled for some time against the Roman ritual, 
and seems to have bcen continued in some parls as late as 
the fourteenth century. 

The SIavonian service and the use of the Cyrillic letters, 
which were completely superseded by the Latin worjihip antl 
letters among the SIavonians who followed tbe Western 
church, remained in full vigour among those who belongcd 
to the Eastem church. This was Ihe case with ihe Servians 
and other Slavonians of the Danube, ihe population of Mus- 
covy, and of raany provinces of Lithuania and Poland. And 
it is raoreover used by the Wallachians, who inhabit Moldavia, 
Wallachia, and several parts of Hungary, allhough their 
language is derived from the Latin and has only a slight ad- 
mixture of the Slavonic. Several SIavonian nations, which 
had originally foIlowed the Eastem church, but submitted 
to the supremacy of Rome after the union of Plorence, were 
allowed lo retain the Slavonian liiurgy and the use of the 
Cyrillic letters. The most antient manuscripts written in 
the Cyrillic alphabet are the gospel of Ostrorair, written 
in 1056, which is preserved at St. Petei-sburg. and a Sbor- 
nik, or collection of religious tracts, of the year 1073, now at 
Moscow. An-inscription in the same letters, preserved in a 
church at Kief, is supposed to date from the reign of Yladi- 
mir the Great. The first printed works with the same cha- 
racters are a book of prayers, entitled * Oktoikh,' &c., printed 
at Cracow in 1491, and another work of a similar descrip- 
lion, at Yenice in 1498. 

Besides theCyrillic letters, there is anotheralphabet used 
by some Slavonian populations of Dalmatia and lllyria, 
whieh is called the Glagolite character, and the use of 
which, as well as of the liturgy in the Slavonian languaare, 
has been allowed by the Roman see to these nations, The 
invention of that alphabet has been ascribed to St. Hiero- 

Digitized by 


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nymus. a nativ6 ot Dalmatia, l)ut this origin of the Gla- 
golite tetters, probably inTeoted by their adyocates in order 
to gain the approbation of Rome, cannot stand the test of 
Blstohcal critictsm, as St. Hieronymus lived in the fourUi 
eenturj, 1>eing born a.dl 331, in Dalmatia, while the SIavo- 
niaii9 setUed in that province only in the 8eventh cen- 
tury. Many SlavoniaQ scholars supposed that the Glagolite 
alphabet was comparatLvely a modern invention, and that it 
was nothing raore than the Cyrillic, disguised by some altera- 
tions and the addition of superAuous ornaments. This opinion 
was supported by ihe circumstance that the oldest monument 
orthe above-mentioned characters was a Psalter written in 
the thirteenth century, and their inventiou was considered on 
that acGount to be of no earlier date. The same opinion 
ieemod to be corroborated by the fact that it was only in 1248 
diat Bbpe Innooent IV. permitted the use of the SIavoniaQ 
litiirgy, andof thoseletters which they had from St. Hierony- 
muB, to those nations that had still retained tbem. This 
tbeory about the Glagolite alphabet, which was combated by 
many SlaYonian scholars,has been recently overturned by the 
learned Kopitar, librarian of tbe Imperial JLibrary at Yienna, 
one of the Srst Slavonian scholars of our time. He has 
prored» frDm a manusoript written in the Glagolite characters, 
that.tbe Glagolite character was coeval with the Cyiillic, 
itit was Dot more antient This manuscript, which was 
fo9g cousidered to be an autograph of St. Hieronymus, is of 
a vet^ antieut date, and beloogs to Count Cloz, in the 
▼icimty of Trento. Tlie lovers ot' SIavonian antiquity may 
eon&ult Kopitar, Glagdita Cloizianu9, ^., Yienna, 1836. 

It.^has been said that the liturgy in SIavonian with the 
ttse Qf Ihe Glagolite letters was approved by Pope Innocent 
ly. in 1248. A Slavonian missal was printed in these 
cbaiac&ers, at Yenice, in 1483. In the tenth century, when 
a reviaioD of tbe Roman missal and breviary was made by 
the ordĕr qC the popes, the same measure was e^tended to 
the Slav^)ian missal, and the congregation De Piopaganda 
Fldf intrusted that task to a Pranciscan monk, Kaphael 
Levakqvich, a naUve of Croatia ; but as he was not com- 

gtelj inaster of the sacred Slavonian tongue, he called to 
assi5tanceTerletzki, a Greek bishop of Lutzkn iu Poland, 
wbo, haviDg subscribed the union with Roroe at Brest in 
Uthoania, in 1 576, came to Rome. Terletzki replaced many 
V09ia which he could not understand, by others employed 
in the Slavonian liturgy of the Greek churches in FoIand 
and Russia, by which the original text was spoiled. Tho 
S]av9D\an missal thus revised was printed at Rome, 1631- 
U4B. Another revision was made by Rastricius, a Dalma- 
tian clergyman, who spoiled it still more by substituting 
modern words for tbose which he could not understand. 
It waa printed in 1688- 170G. The third and last revi- 
8ioQof tbe Slavouian missal, published in 1741 1748, was 
made by Mathias Caruman, a clergyman of Dalmatia, who, 
baTing remaii\ed ior some tiroe at St. Petersburg, and 
aequired a thorough knowledge of the Russian language, 
disSgarod tbe mis&al still more hy iutroducing into it many 
RiU6iaa idioms, so that the missal became less intelligi* 
bleto the inhabitants of IUyria and Dalmatia, for whom it 
WBs deaigned, than it had beeu before. 

Bscept the populations of Dalmatiu and IUyria, who, as 
we have just said, have relained the SIavouian liturgy and 
tbe use of tbe Glagolite characters, all the other Slavonian 
DatioDa wbich were converted by the Western church 
adffl>ted the Latin alpbabet. 

Ijie sacred SIavonian tongueb having been originally tlie 
dialect of the Slavonians who inhabited the bauks of the 
Daottbe, cannot be justly regarded aa tbe mother tongue of 
all tbe SlavoQian dialects now extant ; we sball therefore 
give its characteiistica ia speaking of the Slavonian languages 
in geoeraL It continued to be employed for some time 
iu the composition of eacred books, as well as chronicles 
among the $lavonian nations who adhered to the Greek 
ehureh and particularly the Ruasians, but we shall have 
an opportuoity of meutioning it herea£ier in speaking of 
the literature of thoae nations. 

Generai Charactetistica qf the SUwonian Languagee, — 
The Slavonian languages .are distinguished by the ricboess 
of ttieir vocftbulary, whioh consists not ouly in the great 
namber of werds, that is, a great quantity of synonymes, 
bttt also in the number of iDtbxions, both at the beginning 
aad the end of words, which gives a facility of creating from 
ooe iwdie»! w^rd an extraordinary number of derivative8. 
By the simple prefixing of the letters a, z, v, w, the verb 
P. C, No. 1372. 

acquires a different signittcation. The great &cility witji 
which the Slavonian languages receive new forms and ad^i- 
tions is chieAy owing to their manifold declensions and their 
numerous tenses and participles, and they excel in tbat 
respect all the modern languages of Europe. The decle;i- 
sions, of which there is a great variety, are formed by the 
inflexion of the termination, and without any articles. THe 
participles possess a great pliability by uniling in ihem- 
selve8 the advantage of verbs and adjectives, and denoting 
as verbal adjectives at once the quality of the ihing 
and the determination of the time, thus saving the use 
of relatiYes, as who, which, and prepositions, as after, 
sinoe. This circumstance gives them a great conciseness, 
which is increased by Ihe absence of auxiliary YCibs. An- 
other advantage of the Slavonian languages is their great 
facility of corapounding words : it is possible to form from 
native roots all the scientiGc words which the languages of 
Western Europe have derived from the Greek and Latin. 
These languages coutain not only diminulives to expres8 
small objects, and whiuh are also used as terms of endear- 
ment, but likewise augmentatives, to express a thing of a 
larger size than usual. They have Ihe putronyraic which k 
formed by the addition ofwich, answering to theGreek ides. 
There are also frequentative and inceplive verbs. Tbe verb8 
are conjueated without the use of pronouns, which adds 
considerably to the conciseness of these langui^es, aud the 
preterils of the third person singular and plural deidgnate 
the 8ex by a variation in the last syllable. Many prepo- 
sitions and much circumlocution of different kinds are saved 
by thd use of the instrumental case corresponding to the 
ablative. The SIavonian languages have the dual number. 
They have several preterit tenses and many future one% 
&c. It may be easily concluded from what we have said of 
tbe Slavunian languages that they muat possess great e^-* 
pressiveness and energy, and that they are able to ^epresen^ 
every object of imagination and of passion» as well as all tl^e 
higher emotions of the poet and tbe orator, in a manner oot 
inferior to any modern language, and superior to many ; and 
that they are eminently fitfor Uie traniiation of the olasaic». 
We must also add, that the SlavoniaQ languageg possess 
every sound coutained in other languaget, except the £ng< 
hsh th. 

Rusnan Language and Literature.—^The Ruasian lan- 
guage may be divided into three dialects. 1. Tiie dialect of 
Great Russia, or Muscovy, whicb, aince die time of Peter the 
Great, has been formed into the preaentliterar}' language of 
Russia, and i88ubdivided into the minor dialectsof Novgorod, 
Suzdal, and Resan. The dialect of Great Russia is distiu- 
guished from other Slavonian langua^es by the admixture 
of some words and sounds of a Pinnish origin, aa the popu* 
lation whicb speak tbi8 dialect partly came from some Finn4sh 
tribes that were absorbed by the SlavoniaQB. Italso containa 
many Oriental words, whichwere introduced under theTar* 
tar dominion, but these words have generally their SIavoDiaii • 
synonymes. 2. The dialect of Little or Somhern Russia is 
spoken by the nopulation of the Ukraine, the antieut Polisb 
provinces of Yolbynia and Podoiia, aa well as that of Gal- 
licia, or Austrian Poland. It dilTera from the dialect of 
Great Russia not only in roany e^pressions, but aleo in 
many turns and grammatical form8, whieh o^ten rather 
resemble those of the Polish language than the above«men- 
tioned dialect. It is perhaps the 8oftest of all tbe Slavo- 
nian dialects ; it is full of picturesque expres8iou8, and its 
diminutives, used as terms of endearment, have a peculiar 
sweetness. The national songs and ballads of the popula- 
tion who speak this dialect, are distinguished by great 
depth of feeling, and their music, although composed by 
simple peasants, is generally very beautiful. It was cul- 
tivated under the dominion of Poland, which continued for 
many centuries, and it may be regarded as a proviQcial dia- 
lect of that country. 3. The dialect of Wbite Russia i» 
now spoken by the population of the governmenU of MohileS"» 
Witepsk, and Smolensk, as well as some adjacent dibtricla. 
It is less harmonious than the dialect of Ldttle Russia. It 
is considered by philologists as being of high antiquity, and it 
was the official language of Lithuania tiU the latter part of 
the 8eventeenth century ; the oode of that country waa 
originally composed in it. 

The present literary language of Russia participates in all 
the merits of the other Slavonian languages; and it haa 
been enriched by its authors, who have inti-oduced many 
new words, either from the SIavonian sacred tongue or 

voL.xxii.-p e 

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S L A 

forrocd from its own roots. It is more harmonious than 
tnany other Slaronian languages, being richer in Yowela, a 
peculiarity which is ascribed to the inHuence of the Finnish 
ianguage, which ia characterised by an extraordinary so'ft- 

The history of the Rassian language and literature may be 
divided into two great periods,one comprising the timebefore 
the reign of Peter the Great, and the other the period since 
his reign. The Arst period may be subdiyided into three : 
the time from the introduction of the Christian rehgion in 
the tcnth century, to the establishment of the dominion of' 
theTartars in the thirteenlh; 2, the time from the domi- 
nion of the Tartara, or from the middle of the thirteenth to 
the middle of the fifteenth century ; and the 3rd, from that 
time to the reign of Peter the Great, or the end of the 
seventeenth century. The written language of the flrst 
period is the Slavonian sacred tongue, into which the Scrip- 
tures were translated by Cyrillui and Metho<lius. Tne 
mo^t remarkable aulhnr of that period is Nestor, a monk of 
the cavern convent at Kieff,* who was born in 10fl6, and who 
is the ttrst chronicler of Russia and the Ikther of Russian 
history. Ile was evidently a learned man. He knew 
Greek, and was acouainted with the Bvzantine writers,from 
whom he translated and inserted into his chronicles several 
passnges. HccoUccted his information from tradition, and 
possibly from sorae now unknown records. Ho was much 
indebted to the narrative of his fe11ow monk lan, who died 
in nOC, at the nge of ninety-onc. and was consequenlIy born 
one year anerthe dcatli of Yludimir the Great. who died 
in 1015, and raust have known raany persons who wero wit- 
nesses of the great evcnt of the establishraent of the Chris- 
tian religion in Russia by Vladimir in 988-9. Nestor also 
described many evcnts which happened in his own time. 
His stylc is an imitation of ihat of the Bible, and he often 
makes the individunls who are the subjects of his history 
Speak in thc flrst person, as is the case in the htstorical 
books of tho Old Testament. His Chronicle was continued 
af^pr his death in IIIG. by Abbot Sylvester, till 1123. 
Two other monks continued it till 1203. It has gone 
through mnny editions, and it has been often trans- 
laled. Tlie best translation is thc Gcrman, with a va- 
lunble Commentary, by the lcarned historian Schlozer, 
Gotlingun, 1802-4, iu five yolurnes. Afier Nestor'8 Chro- 
nicle, the most reniarkable literary monument of that 
period is the last will, or instructions to his children, of the 
grand-duke Yladirair, who was surnamed Monomachos, 
flf^er his maternal grandfather the emperor Constantine 
Monomachos, and died in 1123. It contains precepts of 
Christian morality andof govornment; and it give8 us an 
insight intothe statc of learningof that period,which seems 
to nave been more advanced amons; the higher classes in 
Russia than in Western Europo. He says, when recom- 
mending hls children to seek ibr information, • My falber 
reraaining at home, that is, not having trave11ed, spoke four 
languages, for which we are praised by foreigners.' These 
last words imply that thc knowledge of foreign languages 
was common at that time in Russia, but it is imposslble to 
know what thosc languages were. We may however sup- 
|)ose that Greek was studied by tho clorgy, who were con- 
tinutlly coming from Constantinople to Russia, and that 
the 8candinavian was cultivated by the higher classes, as the 
Russian princes, being sprung from a Norroan stock, had at 
that time considerable intercourse with Sweden and Nor- 
wiy. Yladimir married, about 1070, Gida, daughter of 
Harold, the last Saxon king of Sngland,who had retired to 
Sweden after the death of her ikther. 

SeTeral theological works of this period still exist The 
raost remarkable are two Epistles of Nicephorus, metropo- 
litan of Kietr. There is also a descriptlon of a Journey to 
Jerusalem a few year» after its conquest by the Arst cru- 
saders, by a Russian abbot named Daniel. The only extant 
poetioal jproduotion of that period is the poem of the • Expe- 
dttion ot Igor.* It is written in poetical prose, and describes 
an unf9rtunate expedition against the nomadio nation of the 
PoloYtsi, or Coraanes, by Igor, a petty prince of Novgorod 
Severrski, in 1 182. It contains much fine poetical imagery, 
and though written at a time when Christianity was com- 
pletely established, the author introdaces into his poem tbe 
gods of the Slaronian mythology. which leads to the suppo- 
sition that the traditions of that.mythology still lived in the 

• TJm^ nrt al Kiefr #xt9nsive cavei flll«d with Iwiliet ©f Min(s,and kuown 
narier lh« nawe of •peclu'r«,' or caNorns, U» wbidi u oouveut is attachcd, 
cmtod afier tlte naine oC the cavefii« 

national poetry. It appears, from the apostrophc to the dif- 
ferent princes of Russia, to have been written immediately 
after the event had taken place which Ibrms the subjcct of 
the poera. This precious monument of antient Russiau 
literature was discovered, in 1796, by Count Moossin Push- 
kin. There have been several translations of it into the 
present Russian, as well as into Bohemian, Polish, and 
German. The code of laws given by the grand-duke 
Yaroslaf to Novgorod belongs to the samo period, during 
which Russia enjoyed comparatively a high degree of civi- 
lization, owing to tbe intluence of Bvzantine literaturc, 
science, and art. Besides Yladimir Monoraachos, manv 
other princes and princesses are menttoned as having cul- 
tivatea and encouraged learning, and libraries are spokcn 
of as containing Greek and Latin manuscripts. 

The progress of this civilization was stopped by thc ia- 
vasion of thoTartars, who established a reign of ignorant 
barbarism in the north-eastern principalitics of Russia, and 
separated them completely IVom the rest of Europe. The 
clergy still continued to maintain some intercourse witb 
Constantinople, but the Greek empire was rapidly declining. 
and the few learned men whom it produred were avcrse to 
Wsit a country which was under the yoke of barbarians. 
The customs of Ihe country were orientalized, as the inha- 
bitants adopted many things from their Tartar masteis. 
The clergy, who were much favoured by the Tartars, did 
not take advantage of their posilion in order to cultivate 
learning or establish schools. They composed however 
seveial spiritual works, and some chronicles in the sacrcd 
Slavonian tongue. There are also extant some storics 
translated from the Greek during that period ; as, for in- 
siance, of Alexander the Great from Arrian, on thc heroes 
of antiquity, the rich Indies, &c. The popular songs on 
historical subjects, particularly on the times of Yladimir the 
Great, are supposed to have been composed during tbe 
same period by the people, who solaced lheraselves during 
their oppression by the traditions of better times. There 
were nowever 8everal authors in thia period. Cyprian, 
metropolitan of Russia, who died in 1406, was anativeof 
Sen'ia, and brought with him to Moscow a great number of 
riavonian manuscripta. He composed and translated se- 
veral spiritualworks, and madeacolleclion of Russian laws. 
Demetrius, probably a monk, translated, towards the end 
of the fourteenth cenlury, from the Greek, the poem of 
George Pisides, metropolitan of Nicomedia (who lived in 
the 8eventh century), entitled the * Creation of the World,' 
This translation was such an uncommon event, that the 
chronicles of the time mention it as such. The Diaconus 
Ignatius, who accompanied the metropoUtan Pimen on hts 
journey to Constantinople in 1389,left adetailed description 
of that journey. Sophronius, a clergyman of Rezan, 
towards the end of the fourteenth century, wrote a poeiipal 
description of the invasion and defeat of theTartars.under 
Mamay, in 1380. A merchant of Tver. called Nikiiin, 
went, about 1470, to the East Indies, and left a diary of his 
titivel8. It neither displays particular talent for observa- 
tion, nor does it contain much information, but it is inter- 
esting, as it sbows the route which was then followed by 
the commerce from Europe to India. 

TkirdPeriod * /rom the Terminaiion o/ihe Tariardnmi- 
nation tu Peter the Great.—Soon after Mu8covy had becn 
liberated from the yoke of the Khans, it begun to have 
some intercourse with the west of Europe. The raarriagc 
of the grand-duke Ivan III. with the Greek princess Sophia 
PalaeologUB, who had resided at Rome, contributed greaily 
to the inorease of that intercourse and Ihe progress of civi- 
liEation in Muscovy. Many Greeks who accompanted the 
princess Sophia brought valuable Greek manutcripts. The 
Yenetian architect Fioravanti Aristoteles built several 
churches, the Kremlin, and some olher palaces at Moscow. 
Eoreign artists cast cannon and bells, and coined money. 
Under Ivan'8 son Vassili the intercourse with Europe in- 
creased, and embassies were sent and received fVora 8everal 
states. Under lvan Vas8ilevich the Terrible (1534-84) n 
civil and an ecclesiastical code were composed, commercial 
intercourse was opened with England, and a printing-press 
was establisbed at Moscow. Boris GodoonotT [GoDOONorp] 
was a great promoter of learning: he designed to esiablish 
at Moscow a university with foreign profes8ors, but this pro- 
jcct was deteatod by tJio opposition of the patriarch, who 
feared ihat such an instilution might be dangcrous to the 
orlhodoxy of his churoh. Boris patroniscd learned ro- 
i-elgners, and paid an immense sum to the tulor of his son. 

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to wbom he was giving a European education. A genoral 
uiap of the Muscovito duminions was also made by his 
ordcrs. The eyents which agittlcd Muscovy after the death 
of GodoonoiT, put a stop for some tirae to all improvement, 
but when tranquillity was restorcd, afler tbe accession of 
MichaeL Federovich (1613-45), the course ot' improvement 
was resumed. Many foreigner8 were takeu into tho iervice 
of the Czar, and Greek and Latin schools were established in 
the house of the Patriarch in 1643. Uuder Alexey Miohae- 
bYich seyeral manufaclureg were introduced, and a regular 
communication with western Europe was opened by tho 
estahlishment of the German post, which carried lotters 
twice a week from Moscow to Riga and Yilna, but there 
was no auch accommodation for the interior. Sevcral 
fi>reign hooks were translated ; of which the most remarkable 
is one on military science, printed at Moscow, in 1644. 
A German newspaper was regularly trauslated fur tho 
Czar, hut his foreign otiice seems not to have profited much 
by the information, fur the credentialsof the embassy which 
was sent by the Czar, in 1662. to Madrid, werc directed to 
Philip IV., who had died two years before. The numbcr of 
fQreign oOicers was increased, and some regular troops were 
formed after the European lashion ; but tuc most remark* 
able event of that reign is the Ulojenie, or code of iaws, 
which was formed by order of the Czar, and printed at 
Moscow iu 1649. The acquisitbn of Kieff, whieh pos^^ossed 
an eccleaiaaical academy, founded under the Polish do- 
miniou [Russian Churcb], favoured the progress of learn- 
ing among the Hussian clergy. Undcr redor AIexeyviL'h 
(1676-88) a Graeco-Latino SIavonian academy was foundc(l 
at Moscow on the model of tbat of Kieir. The great map 
of Russta made under Godoonoff was revised and improvea. 
Durin^ the regency of the princess Sophia (1682-69), Prince 
Galitzin, who was her principal minister, introduced many 
European refinements and luKuries into his house, and his 
eiample was imitated by olher grandees. 

The Slavonian language continuedtobe used iu all eccle- 
siastical oompositions, as well as by the chroniclurs. but the 
cummon dialoct of Mo&cow bcgan to be adopted in all 
official acts of the government At the same time the dia- 
lect of 'White Russia, which was the official language of 
Lithuania, was penetrating to Moscow, and there are 8everal 
diplomatic notes addressed by the grand-dukes to foreign 
princei^ which contain an admixture of that dialect, and 
even many Poiish words. In the sixteenth oentury, and at 
the beginning of the seventeentb> the works of St. Ambro- 
sius, Augustinua, Hieronymus, and Gregory, as well as tho 
*History of theTweIve Cassars,* by Suetonms, were trans- 
lated into SIavonian. Some tales written in a mixture of the 
SIavonian and the common dialect of Moscow belong to that 
period. Joaeph, Hegumenos or abbot of a coQvent at Yoluko- 
kmskCdied ia 1516), became celebrated by his writings and 

Brsoaal esertions against the Jewi&h sect of RaskoTuichi. 
^yssiAN DisssNTSRS.] Part of his works were printed 
in the collection of matcrials for Russian history, entitled 
' Antieut Russian Bibliotheca." Hiscontemporary Genna- 
diot» archbisbop of Novgorod, an equally zealous periie- 
etttorof the above-mentioned sect, wrote Beveral pastoral 
eshortations on the same subject. Macarius, metropolitan 
of Moeoow (died in 1564), is the author of the lives of several 
saints. The annals known uuder the name of ' Stepennaya 
Koiba»* that is, the graduated book, were oomposed under 
his auperintendence, aud indeed tlie authorship has been 
ascribed to him. They aro so called because they ai-e 
divided into chapters, each of which contains the reign of 
one fiovereign, and is called a grade. Maxim, a Greek monk 
of the convent of Mount Athos, aud a man of great lcarn- 
mg, wbo had studied at Parin^ FIorence, and other places in 
West^n Europe, came to Moscow by the desiro of the 
Czar Yawili Ivanovich, in order to re^ise the corrupted text 
ofthe sacred books used in Muscovy [Russian Church], 
and to arrange the Greok manu;»oiipts which were in the 
possesaiou of the Czar. It is said that he was astonishcd at 
the value aqd rarity of somo of those manuscripts. He 
made a complcle c-atalogue of tbem, and presented to 
the Oiar a liat of those sacred works which had not yet 
becn translated iuto the Slavonian tongue. Thc Czar com- 
mtasioued him to translate thecoramentaries on the Psalter, 
and gave him two traublatorsandtwo copyists to assist him. 
Aiter a Iabourorseventeen mouths, Maxim presented to the 
Czar his translalion, which was recGived with much appro- 
bation hy the motropolitan and all the clergy. He wibhcd 
to return to hn convent on Mount Athos, Dut he was per- 

suaded to remain at Moscow, in ordor to revise ihe text of 
tbe sacred books, which had been corrupled by ignorant 
copyists. He devoted nine years to that iraporiant labour. 
but the favour of the Czar and ihe rcputation which hc had 
acquired exoited great jealousy, and creatcd cnemies, who 
accused him of falsely expoundingthe Scripturea. He was 
contlned in a convent in 1525, where he died in 1536, end 
his pupils ahared his fate. He waa engeged till his death 
in the composition of theological, philosopluoal, and etbieal 
works; among others, he wrote in Slavonian a dissertation 
on the utility of grammar, rhetorio, and philoaophy, which 
was an extraordinary performance at that time, 

A monk called George composed a Russian chroniele, 
which reaches to the year 1533. Two merchants, called 
Korobeinikofif and GrekoGT, were sent in 1583 by ihe Czar 
Ivan YassiluTich to distribute alms in diSerent holy places 
of the £ast for the soulof his sou, whom the Czar had mur- 
dered in a fit of passion. They ^isited Constantinople, 
Antioch, Jerusalem, AIexandria, Mount Sinui, and some 
other plaees, and kept a diary of their journey, which haa 
been printcd. Piince Kurbski, de.sceiidcd from a branch 
of tho Ruric, or reigning house of Muscovy, and related to 
tho Czar Ivan Yassile^ich the Terrible, was born in 1 529, 
aud was one of his boyars and principal gcnerals. He distin- 
<<ui;»hed himself at the capture uf Kaban in 1553, and in 
several other campaigns; but iu 1564 he was obliged to 
seek refuge from tho tyranny of his monarch in Poland, 
where he was kindly receiyed by king Sigismund Augus- 
tus. who granted him cstates. In his exile he devoted hira- 
8elf to literature and learnt Latin, He wrote the reij^n of 
the Czar Ivan Vassilevich, and ihe campaigns in which he 
himsolf had taken a part. This woik is one of the most 
vaiuablo contributions to the history of that period. He 
also wro:e 8everal letters to the Muscovite prince, upbraid- 
ing him fur his tyranny, and provingl)y the Scriptures and 
the works of the anlients that his conduct was vei y bad. 
Ivan Vussilevich aubwered all ihese Ictlei-s, endeavuuring to 
convince Kurbski, parlicularly by passages of Scripture, 
that it was he who was in the wrung, and that he had no 
right in any case to rebcl against his bovereign. 

lu the seventeenih cenlury the fuIlowing authors de8erve 
notice: Abrahara Palilzin, abbot of the celebrated convent 
of Troytza or Trinity. disiinguiahed him.-elf by bis patriotibm 
in the year 1612, and lefi a descriptiun of tne ^iegc wbich 
the convent sustained against the Poles. Kubassov wrote 
a chronological universul bibtory, bi>ginning wilh the crea- 
lion of tho world. Epiphanlus SlaYinelski, a native of 
Poland, after having studied at KicCT and oiher acadoraies, 
adopted ihe monasiic lifo in KieS*. He was called to Mos- 
cow in 1649, by a boyar of the naraeof Riishchef, In order to 
translalc thcological works fiom Greck into Slavonian, and 
he translated several of the works uf St. Juhn Chrysostomus, 
Gregory of Nazianzua, Basilius thc Great, and other iathera 
ofthe church, which were prinled at Moscow in 1G64'65. 
He also made a complete Greek-Slavuno-Latin Dictionary 
in two volumes, and a Philolugical Lexicun, or a comparison 
of passages of the Greck ^aihei-s. He \sa3 commissioned 
in 1664 by the Patriarch and the Czar to make a new ver- 
ston of the Scriptures from the Greek into Slavonian, hut 
he was prevented by death from aocomplishing that im~ 
portant work. Simeon of Pulotsk, a native of that city in Po« 
land, studied in hia native country and in some foreign unl- 
versitiea, and having become a monk, be went to Moscow in 
1667, where he was appointed by the Czar Alexey Michaelo- 
vich tutor to his son redor. Ue wrote many poems. which 
were muoh praised at the time, although they are no longer 
readable. Ue was also the Grst who introdueed the practice 
of writing aermons for his congregation, whieh waa already 
usual witn the Greek clergy of roland. It had hitherto 
been the cuatom in Muscovy only to read sermons selected 
from ecclesiastical authors and approved by the patriarch. 
SyWester Medveyeflf, a pupil of Simeonof Polotsk, andabbot 
ofa(U)nvent at Moscow, wrote many polemical works; but 
being suspected of a tendency to Romiah doctrines, he was 
deprived of his clerical dignity, and oonAned in a convent; 
in 1691, being accused of participation in the revolt of tbe 
Strelitz, he was executed. He left 8everal poems. Piincc 
Shakhovski liv6d in the first part of the seventeenth century. 
Having fallen into disgrace with the Czar Michael Fedoro- 
vich, he was conSned in a convent, where he composed 
epistles on religious suhjects, of which the most remarkable 
ia an Epistle ou the orthodox faith to tho highest Shah Ab- 
bas, king of Persia and Media, addreascd in^ie name of the 

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hi^h nrobbisliop and Berratit of Ood, tbe most holy Patri- 
adBh. PhikkTet Nikitch. In this epistle he espresses his 
tbaaka for a relie, h supposed fragment of the garment of 
Jdsus Oiriat, Bent hj the Shah to theCsar, and exhorts him 
to^embrane the Chnstian religion. 

l%e conouest of Siberia brought the court of Moscow in 
coiblBCt witn Chiaa and some states of oentral Asia. An 
amtaassador named BaykotT was sent to Pekin in 1654, and 
retdrned in 1658; he left a very curious description of his 
embasay, which has been translated into several foreign 
languages. A Cossack of Siberia named Petlin explored 
in 1620 ihe courseof the river Oby, and wrote a description 
of his journey. 

Tbe first attempts at dramatic representations appeared 
in Russia about the middle of the 8eventeenth century. 
They were introduced from Poland by the students of the 
eoclesiaatical academy of KieflF, who were used to perform 
plays on Soriptural subjects in Polish, SIavonian, and the 
dialect of Little Russia. They performed these plays dur- 
ing the vacatxon time in 8everal towns of Russia, and they 
were fiiiaUy introdaced at Mosoow by Simeon of Polotsk, 
whom we have mentioned. In 1676 German actors per- 
fQ/med before the Czar Alexey plavs taken from Scriptural 
hittory accompanied with ballets. The Princess Sophia, the 
eldest sister of Peter the Great, was very fond of theatrical 
amasements, and wrote 8everal dramas, which she performed 
with her eourt. 

T/»ĕ Seaond Period of Rmnan Literature .• /rom Peter 
the Great to thepreeent time,-^li is unneocssary to expa- 
tiate OD the oivilization which Peter the Great introduced 
iiito RusBia. He established many primary schools in 
diderentparts of his dominions, and a military and naval 
schdol at St Petersburg. He sent young Ruasians abroad 
to study the various sciences and arts ; he took into his 
seri/ice many fi)reignefs of talent, collected books, cabinets 
of natural history, and got together philosophical instru- 
menta. A new alphabet, simplitted from the old SIavonian, 
formed, as it is said, by himself, was introduced ; but the 
longiiage made no gneat progress from the state in which it 
had>blii8u dnriDg thepreceding reign, and it was inundated 
with many foretgn words introdueed under Peter's reign,who 
sbowed perhaps too much predilection to everything foreign. 
Among the most remarkable authors of his time is Theo- 
phan Prokopovioh, arohbishop of Novgorod, a native of 
Kieif» but ^ncatĕd in Pdand. He wrote many works on 
divinity,politlcs,aad history, as well as sermons, orations,and 
some poed:y. His works display considerable talent, not- 
withstanding their barbarous style. He also wrote in Latin, 
and his style in that language is much better than his Rus- 
sian. Stephen Ja^orski, metropolitan of Rezan, a native of 
LeopcA in Poland, and Demetrius, metropolitan of Rostov, a 
native of the envin)ns of Kieff, who was canonized after bis 
deatb, wi-ote many works on theological subjects. Gabriel 
Boshinski, bishop of Rezan, translated some of the works 
of Puffendorf and other aulhors, relating to history and 
politics. Kopi6vich, a native of Lithuania, studied in 
HoUatkd, and paased fi:om the Greek persuasion to Pro- 
testdhtism, He became pastor at Amsterdam. Peter the 
Great, dtring bis ^isit to that city having been acquainted 
with Kopievich, gave him a commission to compose school 
books and other uBeful works in the Russian language. 
Acoordingly he wrote and translated many books on several 
literaryand seientittc subjects, which were printed at Am- 
sterdam. Prinoe Chilkoff (died in 1718) wrote an abridged 
history of Russia, which was used in schools, but has since 
been supenseded by other works. Great senrice was ren- 
dered to primary instruction by Ernest Gliick, a Lutheran 
clergyman of Livonia, who, being taken by the Russians, was 
employed by Peter the Great in establishing a school at 
Moecow for the children of burghers. He published many 
school - books, and among others, the 'Orbis Pictus' of 

Peter^s successor, Catherinel.. founded the Academy of 
Sciences at St. Peteisburg, which was projected by her pre- 
decessor. Its object was to prepare teachers for public 
schools, to publish useful works, and to collect all kinds of 
information about Russia. The imperial physician BIu- 
mentrost was appoiuted president; and many learned 
foreigBer8, as De Lille de la Croyere, Bemoulli, Bayer, and 
otheiB, were nominated members. The academy established 
a high school for the formation of teachers, caused many 
BcientiAc treatises to bewritten, aud promoted geographical 
disooverie6. De Lille de la Croyere accompanied Behring on 

hi8expedition inthe PaciSc Ocean, and died from tbe hard* 
sbips of the voyage. A great number of classical authors» 
Greek and Latin, were translated and published under the 
superintendenoe of the academy ; but these translations, 
beins made in a language whicb was not yet formec1, and 
published at a time when they could scarcely fin(l any 
readers, did not contribute to the progress of literature, and 
they found few purcbasers. The reign of the emprcsH 
Anna was not &vourable to the national literature. The 
court, which was govemed by Bircn, imitated everthiDg that 
was ibreign, and showed the greategt contempt for all tbat 
was national. Tbese circumatances had a very unfavour* 
able effect on tbe national language and literature, although 
Lomonos8off was preparing a salutary revolution towarda 
the end of that reign. A £ivourable change took place 
under the empress £Uzabeth, who was a great patronesa of 
science and literature. The Acaderay or Sciences was eii- 
larged by the addition of a section of art8, and its income 
increased in 1747, and in 1752 the University of Mosoow 
was established on theproposition of Count Shoovaloff,* a 
distinguished patron or learning; and it was by the exer- 
tions of the same nobleman thut the Academy of Arts for 
painting, eculpture, and architecture was founded. Geo- 
graphical knowledge was also advanced by the discoverie8 
which some Russian adventurer8 made in the Pacific. 

Among ihe principal auihors of this period was Prince 
Antiochus Kantemir, son of the hospodar, or reigning; 
prince of MoIdavia, who removed to Russia with all bia 
iamily during the expedition of Peter the Great into that 
principaiity. He was born at Constantinople in 1708, aod 
was educated at Kharkoff and Moscow, under the superin- 
tendence of a Greek clergyman, and also of his father, wbo 
was himself a learned man. Antiochus made 8uch progreea» 
tbat when he was only ten years old he wrote a Greek pane- 
gyric on St. Demetrius, which was read in a church. Ow- 
mg to his extraordinary talents and high rank he obtained 
rapid preferment. In 1731 he was nominated Russiaa 
minister at London, where he remained till 1738, in which 
year he was translerred in the same capacity to Paris, 
where he remained till his death in 1744. He wrote eight 
satires, which were published at St. Peiersburg in 1762; 
but translated into Frencb during theauthor's lifetime. Hi(f 
language and versiflcation belong to the old schod ; but in 
his satires he displays great power of observation, and such 
genuine wit, that they are still read with pleaBure. Healso left 
a translation of Horace's ' Epistlea,' Fontenelle'8 dialogues 
on the ' Plurality of Worlds,' and a great many other trani»- 
lations from the classics, as well as from French and Italian 
writers. Living in constant intercourse from 1731 to 1744 
with the Arst wits of London and Paris, Prince Kanteroir'8 
works oontain ideas and opinions which belong more to 
those seats of European reSnement than to Russia, and 
consequently he cannot be considered as truly national. 
Lomonosaoff Trediakowski (Basil), bom at Astrakhan in 
1703, studied at the univeraity of Paris under Rollin, and 
travelled in many parts of Europe. In 1733 he was nomi- 
nated 8ecretarv of the academy of St Petersburg ; and in 
1 745 appointed by a ukase professor of eloquenoe : he died 
in 1769. Trediakowski ppssensed considerable learning, but 
more industry than talent. He wrote 8everal works on the 
prinoiples of literary composition, and a great manypoems; 
but bis ver8ification is cumbrous, and bis language so little 
pleasing, that the empress Catherine II. enacted, in the 
humorous code which she made for her own immediate 
society, that the transgressors of certain regulations should 
be condemned to read 8everal pages of Trediakowski^s poem 
'Telemachida/whloh was a^ersitied tran6lationofFenelon'8 
' Telemacbus.' He translated many foreign works, chieliy 
on history : as an instance of hi8 indefatigable industry we 
may mention, that after having completed the trans- 
lation of Rollin'8 *Antient History' in 26 volumes, the 
manuscript was destroyed by fireb upon which he again 
translated the 26 volumes, which were published at St. 
Peter8burg(1744-67). Tatishcheff (Basil), bom of an antient 
family in 1686, was one of those young men who were sent 
in 1 709 for their education by Peter the Great to different 
parts of Europe. He acquired a good deal of 8cieuiific in- 
formation, and became thoroughly conversant wilh the 
Crerroan and Polish languages. On bis return home he was 
employed in many oiRces of great importance. In 1724 he 
was sent on a seoret mission to Sweden ; in 1734 he was in- 

* Count 8haova1ofr is known in French literaturo hj hii ' Epttr« S MiMn/ 
which was ascrlb«d to Voltair« betore Uie real authoi*wa> Known. 

Digitized by 


S L A 


S L A 

re^d with the supreme direction of the mines of Siberia ; 
and in 1 740 he was appointed gorernor of Aatrakhan. It 
was there thatour countryman Junas Hanway, whospeaks 
much of him, made his acquaintance. He died in 1750, 
bolding the rank of a privy councillor. During bis traveU in 
Ruscsia he diltgently coUected all kinda of information 
relating to that country, and acquired a rich store of mate- 
riais for its history and geography. His principal work is a 
bi^itory of Russia, from the most antient times to the year 
I46'i. He spent thirty yeara on this work. which was writ- 
ten amidst his muiufarious official avocations : it is, in fact, 
acompai*ative chronicle ; the author having procured~sevei-al 
eopies of different chronicles, compared them, and made a 
eomnient on them by extract8 from various foreign authors 
which related to the same subject. The manuscript of this 
work was kept ibr sometime in the archive8. The empress 
Catherine Il.ordered its publicalion, which was doneunder 
tbe careof Gerbard Miiller, in 1764-74. It is much to be re- 
gretted that the chronicSes and other materials on which Ta- 
tishcheff founded his work were destroyed by fire. He occu- 
pied himself with the composition of a complete geograpby 
of Russia, and a map of Siberia was made by his exertiuns, 
and published by the Academy of Scienoes, in 1745, in 20 
sbeets. He also wrote an *Historical and Political Lexicon 
of Russia/ which be completedto the letter L, and which was 
publbhed in 1793. 

Stephen Krasbennikoff, professor of botany to the Aca- 
demy of Sciences (171 3*1 755), became known all through 
Sarope by his 'Description ofKamtchatka,'whichwas pub- 
lished at St. Petersburg in 1755. He was sent by the 
academy, with Steller, to examine ihis country, where he 
remained for many years, coHecting the information which 
enabled him to produce a work of considerable merit, and 
vhich was tronslated into severa1 langua^es. 

Tbe creation of a national drama in Russ